Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in
A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Some games are based on pure strategy. Games have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, most modern board games are still based on defeating opponents in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points. There are many varieties of board games, their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, like checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, like Cluedo. Rules can range from the simple, like Tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, like Dungeons & Dragons – although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, serving to help visualize the game scenario; the time required to learn to play or master a game varies from game to game, but is not correlated with the number or complexity of rules.
Board games have been played in societies throughout history. A number of important historical sites and documents shed light on early board games such as Jiroft civilization gameboards in Iran. Senet, found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC is the oldest board game known to have existed. Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb. From predynastic Egypt is Mehen. Hounds and Jackals another ancient Egyptean board game appeared around 2000 BC; the first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb that dates to the 13th Dynasty. This game was popular in Mesopotamia and the Caucasus. Backgammon originated in ancient Persia over 5,000 years ago. Chess and Chaupar originated in India. Go and Liubo originated in China. Patolli originated in Mesoamerica played by the ancient Aztec and The Royal Game of Ur was found in the Royal Tombs of Ur, dating to Mesopotamia 4,600 years ago; the earliest known games list is the Buddha games list. In 17th and 18th century colonial America, the agrarian life of the country left little time for game playing though draughts and card games were not unknown.
The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game playing and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When the Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day, 1622, he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes. In Thoughts on Lotteries Thomas Jefferson wrote: Almost all these pursuits of chance produce something useful to society, but there are some which produce nothing, endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or of others depending on them. Such are games with cards, billiards, etc, and although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the irresistible bent of some of its members to pursue them, the ruin produced by them to the families depending on these individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as in other cases of insanity, imbecility, etc. and suppress the pursuit altogether, the natural right of following it.
There are some other games of chance, useful on certain occasions, injurious only when carried beyond their useful bounds. Such are insurances, raffles, etc; these they do not take their regulation under their own discretion. The board game Traveller's Tour Through the United States and its sister game Traveller's Tour Through Europe were published by New York City bookseller F. & R. Lockwood in 1822 and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States; as the U. S. shifted from agrarian to urban living in the 19th century, greater leisure time and a rise in income became available to the middle class. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment and education under the supervision of mothers. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction; the earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality. The Mansion of Happiness, for example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness.
The Game of Pope and Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army pitted an image on its board of a Hindu woman committing suttee against missionaries landing on a foreign shore. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of error, and... grief at the daily loss of empire". Commercially produced board games in the mid-19th century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low-paid young factory women. Advances in paper making and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of inexpensive board games; the most significant advance was the development of chromolithography, a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. Games cost as little as US$.25 for a small boxed card game to $3.00 for more elaborate games. American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when the country embraced materialism and c
The Doctor Who Role Playing Game
The Doctor Who Role Playing Game is a Doctor Who roleplaying game published by FASA in 1985. The game allows players to assume similar roles to the Doctor and his companions or as agents of the Celestial Intervention Agency; the game was used it as its primary source material. The main set of three rulebooks was followed by several separately published adventures and supplements for the game, which provided details about the Daleks, the Cybermen and the Master; the supplements contained one for players and another for game masters. The game came out in two printings, one showing painted artwork of the Fourth Doctor and Leela the other a publicity photograph of them. Neither the Fourth Doctor or Leela, at that date, still appeared in the series; the painting printing had interior rulebooks with slick white covers, while the photographic edition featured more textured brown Victorian-styled rulebooks. FASA published two solo play gamebooks: Doctor Who and the Vortex Crystal by William H. Keith, Jr. featuring the Fourth Doctor, Sarah Jane Smith and Harry Sullivan and the Daleks, set on the planet Gathwyr.
Two part module that includes full details about the Daleks' back story, playing guide stats and new scenario. 1985 - FASA 9101 - ISBN 0-931787-93-9 1985 - FASA 9102 - ISBN 0-931787-94-7 Within it is stated that Adric was saved from death by a Time Lady named Lenora and taken to Gallifrey. 1985 - FASA 9103 - ISBN 0-931787-73-4 "Out in the fog-shrouded night of Victorian London, an evil force was lurking, waiting to strike. A senseless murder, over a strange artifact, was only the beginning of the terror of The Iytean Menace. What was the ancient evil, how had it been awakened? Where would it strike next? The Time Lord and his Companions had been sent to the capital of Queen Victoria's realm to learn the source of a strange weapon that should never have been on Earth at all. What they found was a web of mystery and deception that led them, step by step, to a confrontation with The Iytean Menace." 1985 - FASA 9201 - ISBN 0-931787-91-2 "The World-Ship of Ydar was a monster, vast and set on a collision course with the Galaxy of Man.
Giant starship and mobile world, Destiny of Ydar is both refuge and vengeance of a long-dead civilization which must be stopped, or worlds will die. The cooperation of the Ydarans is vital. To bad they're caught up in a civil war just now. Too bad, that they've forgotten the rest of the universe exists..." 1985 - FASA 9202 - ISBN 0-931787-92-0 "The sudden appearance of a dangerous gravity bubble causes the TARDIS to materialize aboard a ship of the Earth Empire on an emergency mission to deliver vital serum to a plague-ridden world. Before the adventure is over, the Time Lord and his Companions must contend not only with the death-dealing gravity bubble, but with the ship’s paranoid computer, space pirates, an attack by androids as well." 1985 - FASA 9203 - ISBN 0-931787-95-5 "Why are the villagers of a sleepy little town like Hartlewick disappearing? Has the archeological excavation of an ancient Druidic mound awakened something, better left undisturbed? And are these strange occurrences related to the presence of a mysterious energy field?
The Time Lord and his Companions are sent to Hartlewick, England to locate the source of this unexplained energy field. But they do not have much time. Forces are at work to unleash something hideous and all-too-powerful upon the residents of 1923 Earth." This scenario was intended for Chaosium's Call of Cthulhu roleplaying game. However, after it was rejected the author reworked it for FASA's Doctor Who roleplaying game.1985 - FASA 9204 - ISBN 0-931787-75-0 "The legions were on the march... but Rome had never faced an enemy like this one. An evil renegade Time Lord has allied himself with British tribesmen to lure a Roman army -- and a Roman Emperor -- into a deviously plotted trap. History will be changed and an army of fanatic conquerors loosed upon the Galaxy if a Time Lord and his Companions cannot stop the renegade's sinister plan; as time runs out, the adventurers race to their final confrontation with the Legions of Death." 1985 - FASA 9205 - ISBN 0-931787-26-2 "Dinosaurs in the twenty-first century?
That was only the first mystery that confronted the Time Lord and his Companions when they set out to investigate a violent revolution in an age of turmoil, stumbled into a plot that could end human history -- and change the universe forever. A lost city and a vanished race from the depths of time and hold the key to the destiny of the Earth, unless the adventurers can penetrate the mysteries of the City of Gold." 1986 - FASA 9206 - ISBN 0-931787-49-1 "Arigato, Doctor Who. A collision in the Vortex with an unknown timeship…a forced materialization on the rocky seaside cliffs of feudal Japan…a power play among the samurai warlords who wield absolute power in an ancient and mysterious realm. For the Time Lord and his Companions, those were only the first steps in a dangerous game, where one man’s ambition could bring the collapse of human history. Stranded, cut off from help or contact with Gallifrey, the time travelers must band together to free themselves from old Japan, history from a madman’s plot, humanity itself from oblivion in a distant but all-too-real future.
To achieve their goals, the adventurers must learn to understand the shifting politics and timeless culture of the Land of the Rising Sun. They must come to understand the samurai and their Bushido…The Warrior’s Code."
Shadowrun is a science fantasy tabletop role-playing game set in a near-future fictional universe in which cybernetics and fantasy creatures co-exist. It combines genres of cyberpunk, urban fantasy and crime, with occasional elements of conspiracy and detective fiction. From its inception in 1989, Shadowrun has remained among the most popular role-playing games, it has spawned a vast franchise that includes a series of novels, a collectible card game, two miniature-based tabletop wargames, multiple video games. The title is taken from the game's main premise – that industrial espionage runs rampant in a near-future setting. A shadowrun – a successful data theft or physical break-in at a rival corporation or organization – is one of the main tools employed by both corporate rivals and underworld figures. Deckers who can tap into an immersive, three-dimensional cyberspace are opposed by rival deckers and lethal brain-destroying artificial intelligences called "Intrusion Countermeasures Electronics" – "ICE" for short –, who are protected by street fighters and/or mercenaries with cyborg implants and other exotic figures, on such missions as they seek access, physical or remote, to the power structures of rival groups.
Magic has returned to the world after a series of dystopian plagues. Shadowrun takes place several decades in the future; the end of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar ushered in the "Sixth World", with once-mythological beings appearing and forms of magic emerging. Large numbers of humans have "Goblinized" into orks and trolls, while many human children are born as elves and more exotic creatures. In North America, indigenous peoples discovered that their traditional ceremonies allow them to command powerful spirits, rituals associated with a new Ghost Dance movement let them take control of much of the western U. S. and Canada, where they formed a federation of Native American Nations. Seattle remains under U. S. control by treaty as a city-state enclave, most game materials are set there and assume campaigns will use it as their setting. In parallel with these magical developments, the setting's 21st century features technological and social developments associated with cyberpunk science fiction.
Megacorporations command their own armies. Technological advances make bioware common; the Computer Crash of 2029 led to the creation of the Matrix, a worldwide computer network that users interact with via direct neural interface. When conflicts arise, governments, organized crime syndicates, wealthy individuals subcontract their dirty work to specialists, who perform "shadowruns" or missions undertaken by deniable assets without identities or those that wish to remain unknown; the most skilled of these specialists, called shadowrunners, have earned a reputation for getting the job done. They have developed a knack for staying alive, prospering, in the world of Shadowrun. Shadowrun was developed and published by FASA from 1989 until early 2001, when FASA closed its doors and the property was transferred to WizKids. Two years before its closure, FASA sold its videogame branch, FASA Interactive to Microsoft corporation, keeping rights to publishing novels and pen and paper RPGs. Since digital rights to Shadowrun IP belong to Microsoft since 1999.
WizKids licensed the RPG rights to Fantasy Productions until they were acquired by Topps in 2003. Catalyst Game Labs licensed the rights from Topps to publish new products. WizKids itself produced an unsuccessful collectible action figure game based on the property, called Shadowrun Duels. Shadowrun Fifth Edition was announced in December 2012, it was released as a PDF in July 2013, with a limited-edition softcover version of the Fifth Edition core rulebook sold at the Origins Game Fair in June 2013. The hardcover version was released in August 2013, it is similar to the system, unveiled in Fourth Edition and modified in the Twentieth Anniversary Edition. Since 2004, Shadowrun Missions has offered fans "living campaigns" that allow for persistent character advancement. SRM is broken down into "seasons" which are made up of up to 24 individual missions that can be played at home, with special missions available to play at conventions; each SRM season develops an overarching plot focused on a specific city from the Shadowrun setting.
Missions settings have included the divided city of Denver, the corporate city-state of Manhattan, the Seattle Metroplex city-state, the walled-off wastelands of Chicago. The Shadowrun role-playing game has spawned several properties, including Shadowrun: The Trading Card Game, eight video games, an action figure game, two magazines, an art book and more than 50 novels, starting with the Secrets of Power series which introduces some of the original characters of Shadowrun and provides an introduction to this fictional universe. In addition to the main rule book there have been over 100 supplemental books published with adventures and expansions to both the rules and the game settings. Catalyst Game Labs announced that 2013 would be "The Year of Shadowrun," and in addition to the rele
Jordan Weisman is an American game designer and serial entrepreneur who has founded five game design companies, each in a different game genre and segment of the industry. Weisman graduated in Chicago, Illinois, he went to the Merchant Marine Academy and attended University of Illinois at Chicago, before leaving school to pursue his business interests. In 1980, Weisman founded role playing game publisher FASA Corporation with partner L. Ross Babcock. Weisman and Babcock printed up a few hundred copies of Weisman's early adventures for the pen and paper role-playing game and sold them to a local Chicago store before sending them to nationwide distributors. Although working out of Weisman's basement, he and Babcock were looking for outside talent and brought William H. Keith, Jr. and his brother J. Andrew Keith into the company from GDW; the company's first professional publication was I. S. P. M. V Tethys, a set of deckplans for a mercenary transport, drawn by Weisman and featuring three scenarios written by Andrew Keith.
In August 1981, FASA came to an agreement to publish the digest-sized magazine High Passage, on which Weisman and Babcock did the layout and editing. Weisman wanted FASA to produce its own science-fiction roleplaying game, so he and Babcock secured the rights to produce their own 1983 Star Trek: The Role Playing Game. FASA introduced a game about battling mechanoids called Combots, by Fawcett. FASA produced the successful BattleTech and Shadowrun franchises. In 1987, Weisman and his father Morton Weisman founded Environmental Simulations Project — renamed Virtual Worlds Entertainment —, the company that produced the BattleTech Centers. Working with Incredible Technologies, VWE created the world's first immersive networked location-based virtual reality gaming centers. VWE was a critical; as Weisman got more involved in VWE, Sam Lewis became FASA's president. In 1995, Weisman founded FASA Interactive with Denny Thorley and Morton Weisman to take over the development and production of the hit MechWarrior PC games.
The franchise is one of the top-selling PC games of all time, with sales of over 9 million units worldwide. On January 7, 1999, Microsoft acquired FASA Interactive. Babcock and Weisman went over to Microsoft, with Weisman becoming the Creative Director of Microsoft games from 1999-2002. While working at Microsoft and his unit created a new genre of interactive entertainment called alternative reality games, developed the alternate reality game "The Beast", to promote the Steven Spielberg film A. I. Weisman had been working on a design for a computer game called Corsairs!, set in an alternate universe United States, he convinced FASA Corporation to develop the board game Crimson Skies to enhance the value of the property. In 2000, he founded WizKids, with his new idea for miniatures games involving the "clix" miniature figure that contained a dial to depict the miniature's stats. WizKids produced the games Mage Knight, HeroClix, Pirates of the Spanish Main. WizKids grew and went from start-up to over $30M in annual sales in just two years.
The company focused on miniature figure games. Weisman sold WizKids to Topps in 2003. In 2003 he founded 42 Entertainment, a design company in the new field of the alternate reality game or ARGs. 42 has created multiple ARGs, including, "I Love Bees", to promote the Xbox game Halo 2, "Year Zero" to promote the Nine Inch Nails album of the same name. In 2006, his Cathy's Book, a novel with interactive elements co-written by Sean Stewart and illustrated by Cathy Brigg appeared from Running Press; the book was a best seller in Germany and sold over 100,000 copies in the USA. In 2007, FASA Studio was dissolved and all of the FASA rights were licensed to Weisman. In 2007 Weisman founded Tinker, it was through Tinker that Weisman was able to relicense his old FASA properties. Smith & Tinker has licensed the electronic entertainment rights to Crimson Skies, MechWarrior and other FASA properties that had belonged to Microsoft; the same year Weisman co-founded the start-up Fyreball with Pete Parsons. The company is now operating under the name Meteor SolutionsOn May 27, 2009 Weisman's Smith & Tinker announced their first game had been released to public beta.
Nanovor is an online battle game targeted to 7 - 12 year olds. In support of the game, Smith & Tinker is releasing episodic cartoons, graphic novels, comic books and more. On June 9, 2009 Weisman and J. C. Hutchins released Personal Effects: Dark Art. On the same day Weisman along with Russ Bullock announced that the MechWarrior franchise would be seeing a relaunch. Jordan is an Adjunct Professor in the Interactive Media Division at the USC School of Cinema-Television. In 2012 he started to raise money, through Kickstarter, for Shadowrun Returns, a new video game adaptation of Shadowrun, his new company is Harebrained Schemes and they released their 3rd game Shadowrun Returns in July 25, 2013. Shortly after, on September 10, 2013, Jordan's company launched a Kickstarter for its first tabletop game, Golem Arcana. After funding, Golem Arcana released the following year on August 13, 2
Intellectual property is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. Intellectual property encompasses two types of rights, it was not until the 19th century that the term "intellectual property" began to be used, not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world. The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a large variety of intellectual goods. To achieve this, the law gives people and businesses property rights to the information and intellectual goods they create – for a limited period of time; this gives economic incentive for their creation, because it allows people to profit from the information and intellectual goods they create. These economic incentives are expected to stimulate innovation and contribute to the technological progress of countries, which depends on the extent of protection granted to innovators; the intangible nature of intellectual property presents difficulties when compared with traditional property like land or goods.
Unlike traditional property, intellectual property is "indivisible" – an unlimited number of people can "consume" an intellectual good without it being depleted. Additionally, investments in intellectual goods suffer from problems of appropriation – a landowner can surround their land with a robust fence and hire armed guards to protect it, but a producer of information or an intellectual good can do little to stop their first buyer from replicating it and selling it at a lower price. Balancing rights so that they are strong enough to encourage the creation of intellectual goods but not so strong that they prevent the goods' wide use is the primary focus of modern intellectual property law; the Statute of Monopolies and the British Statute of Anne are seen as the origins of patent law and copyright firmly establishing the concept of intellectual property. "Literary property" was the term predominantly used in the British legal debates of the 1760s and 1770s over the extent to which authors and publishers of works had rights deriving from the common law of property.
The first known use of the term intellectual property dates to this time, when a piece published in the Monthly Review in 1769 used the phrase. The first clear example of modern usage goes back as early as 1808, when it was used as a heading title in a collection of essays; the German equivalent was used with the founding of the North German Confederation whose constitution granted legislative power over the protection of intellectual property to the confederation. When the administrative secretariats established by the Paris Convention and the Berne Convention merged in 1893, they located in Berne, adopted the term intellectual property in their new combined title, the United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property; the organization subsequently relocated to Geneva in 1960, was succeeded in 1967 with the establishment of the World Intellectual Property Organization by treaty as an agency of the United Nations. According to legal scholar Mark Lemley, it was only at this point that the term began to be used in the United States, it did not enter popular usage there until passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980.
"The history of patents does not begin with inventions, but rather with royal grants by Queen Elizabeth I for monopoly privileges... 200 years after the end of Elizabeth's reign, however, a patent represents a legal right obtained by an inventor providing for exclusive control over the production and sale of his mechanical or scientific invention... the evolution of patents from royal prerogative to common-law doctrine." The term can be found used in an October 1845 Massachusetts Circuit Court ruling in the patent case Davoll et al. v. Brown. In which Justice Charles L. Woodbury wrote that "only in this way can we protect intellectual property, the labors of the mind and interests are as much a man's own...as the wheat he cultivates, or the flocks he rears." The statement that "discoveries are..property" goes back earlier. Section 1 of the French law of 1791 stated, "All new discoveries are the property of the author. In Europe, French author A. Nion mentioned propriété intellectuelle in his Droits civils des auteurs, artistes et inventeurs, published in 1846.
Until the purpose of intellectual property law was to give as little protection as possible in order to encourage innovation. Therefore, they were granted only when they were necessary to encourage invention, limited in time and scope; this is as a result of knowledge being traditionally viewed as a public good, in order to allow its extensive dissemination and improvement thereof. The concept's origins can be traced back further. Jewish law includes several considerations whose effects are similar to those of modern intellectual property laws, though the notion of intellectual creations as property does not seem to exist – notably the principle of Hasagat Ge'vul was used to justify limited-term publisher copyright in the 16th century. In 500 BCE, the government of the Greek state of Sybaris offered one year's patent "to all who should discover any new refinement in luxury". According to Jean-Frédéric Morin, "the global inte
Traveller (role-playing game)
Traveller is a science fiction role-playing game, first published in 1977 by Game Designers' Workshop. Marc W. Miller designed Traveller with help from Frank Chadwick, John Harshman, Loren K. Wiseman. Characters journey between various star systems and engage in activities such as exploration and space battles, interstellar trading. Characters are defined not by the need to increase native skill and ability but by achievements, wealth and political power. Key features derived from literary sources are incorporated into Traveller in all its forms: Human-centric but cosmopolitan: The core rules focus on human characters, but there is ample support for using and playing aliens. Space travel: Interstellar travel is through the use of the faster-than-light jump drive, which moves a ship through "jump space" a few light-years at a time; each jump always takes about one week. Normal-space travel is accomplished through efficient and powerful gravitic drives. Newtonian physics tends to be followed. Limited communication: There is no faster-than-light information transfer – meaning no ansible, subspace radio or hyper-wave.
Communication is limited to the speed of travel. Decisions are made on the local level, rather than by a remote authority. Conflict resolution: Planets fight out internal wars, commerce is a major driving force of civilization. Sociological: Interstellar society is stratified. Affairs are managed by independent nobility, who make use of classic titles such as Baron and Archduke. Diversity within Limits: Career options, ship design, subsector design, decisions made during character generation limit and frame reality; the definitions create a diverse space, within limits. Morals and mortality: People remain people and continue to show courage, wisdom and justice, along with cowardice and criminal behavior. Traveller uses a lifepath-style system for character generation. Characters get their skills and experience in a mini-game, where the player makes career choices that determine the character's life right up to the point before adventuring begins. A character can be human, alien, or of a genetically engineered species.
A character can be civilian, military, or noble, a young cadet or a tried-and-true veteran, each with strengths and weaknesses. Death during character generation is a possibility in some editions, a mechanic that became infamous. Characters are described by six primary characteristics: strength, endurance, intelligence and social standing; these characteristics are generated with a roll of two six-sided dice. Other general characteristics exist, such as psionics and sanity. There are variant characteristics, such as charisma and caste, which replace a primary characteristic, to add nuance to alien characters. Extra-sensory perception, telekinesis and other psychic abilities are organized and standardized into "psionics". Depending on their choice, characters can be psionic; each rule system has its own task mechanic for resolving character actions. Some systems use two or three six-sided dice, while others use multiple six-sided dice or a twenty-sided die. Target numbers are determined by the referee, who takes into account task difficulty, skill level, a characteristic.
Situation and equipment used can provide a penalty to a roll. Depending on the task, a success may require rolling below the target number. Equipment emphasizes wilderness exploration, hazardous environments, combat; as a result, equipment lists are heavy on vehicles, sensor equipment, rations, personal armor, weapons. Low-technology: Since primitive worlds exist near technological worlds, primitive weapons are typically included, such as swords, shields and bows. High-technology: And since high technology is available, cybernetic implants and non-sentient robots also show up in equipment lists, as well as artifacts from ancient, vanished technological civilizations. Hard Sci-fi Flavor: While there are energy weapons, there is a strong presence of slug-throwing weapons such as rifles and pistols; the prevailing theory is. Rules for starship design and combat are like games unto themselves with a complex balance of ship components fitting within certain hull volumes, technology levels, modifiers based upon characters' skills.
It is complex enough to be able to generically represent most starships used in role-playing games, flexible enough to support custom add-ons to the system. Computer programs have been created to predict starship combat using Traveller rules; the most famous case involved Douglas Lenat applying his Eurisko heuristic learning program to the scenario in the Traveller adventure Trillion Credit Squadron, which contained rules for resolving large space battles statistically. Eurisko discovered exploitable features of the starship design system that allowed it to build unusual fleets that won the 1981 and 1982 championships; the sponsor stated that if Lenat entered and won the next year they would stop the sponsorship, so Lenat stopped attending. Worlds represent a wide spectrum of conditions, from barren planetoid moons to large gas giant worlds, from uncolonized territory to planets with tens of billions of people. Most worlds tend to be