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FAT filesystem and Linux

Linux has several filesystem drivers for the File Allocation Table filesystem format. These are known by the names used in the mount command to invoke particular drivers in the kernel: msdos and umsdos. All of the Linux filesystem drivers support all three FAT types, namely FAT12, FAT16 and FAT32. Where they differ is in the provision of support for long filenames, beyond the 8.3 filename structure of the original FAT filesystem format, in the provision of Unix file semantics that do not exist as standard in the FAT filesystem format such as file permissions. The filesystem drivers are mutually exclusive. Only one can be used to mount any given disk volume at any given time, thus the choice among them is determined by what long filenames and Unix semantics they support and what use one wants to make of the disk volume. The msdos filesystem driver provides no long filename support. If a FAT disk filesystem is mounted using this driver, only 8.3 filenames will be visible, no long filenames will be accessible, nor will any long filename data structures of any kind on the disk volume be maintained.

The vfat filesystem driver provides long filename support using the same disk data structures that Microsoft Windows uses for VFAT long filename support on FAT format volumes, but it does not support any extra Unix file semantics. The umsdos filesystem driver provides long filename support, extra Unix file semantics. However, it does so using on-disk data structures that are not recognized by any filesystem drivers for any operating systems other than Linux; the key advantage to umsdos out of the three is. Therefore, it can be used in situations where it is desirable to install Linux on and run it from a FAT disk volume, which require such semantics to be available. However, Linux installed on and running from such a disk volume is slower than Linux installed on and running from a disk volume formatted with, for example, the ext2 filesystem format. Further, unless a utility program is run every time that one switches from running Windows to running Linux, certain changes made to files and directories on the disk by Windows will cause error messages about inaccessible files in Linux.

Vfat, whilst lacking full Unix file semantics and lacking the ability to have Linux installed on and running from a FAT disk volume, does not have the aforementioned disadvantages of umsdos when it comes to sharing data on a FAT disk volume between Linux and other operating systems such as Windows. Its data structures are the same as those used by Windows for VFAT long filenames, it does not require running a synchronization utility in order to prevent Windows and Linux data structures from becoming disjointed. For this reason, it is the most appropriate of Linux's FAT filesystem drivers to use in the majority of situations; as mentioned all of the Linux filesystem drivers support all of the three File Allocation Table sizes, 12-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit. Other common features that they all support are various Linux mounting options: uid and gid These two options tell the filesystem driver to set the owner user ID and group ID to be a single, value for all files in the volume. Both IDs are specified as numeric values.

So, for example, to specify to the vfat filesystem driver that all files and directories are to have owner ID 745 and group ID 15, the mount command would be invoked as mount -t vfat -o uid=745,gid=15. Linux filesystem drivers do not at present incorporate support for file/directory passwords on FAT12/FAT16/FAT32 volumes and multi-user world/group/owner access permissions for read/write/delete/execute rights on FAT12/FAT16 volumes as implemented in various operating systems of the Digital Research family, including DR-DOS, PalmDOS, Novell DOS, OpenDOS, FlexOS, Concurrent DOS, Multiuser DOS, System Manager and REAL/32. Umask This option sets the umask to apply globally to all files in the volume. For example, to specify to the vfat filesystem driver that no "group" or "other" access is to be allowed, the mount command would be invoked as mount -t vfat -o umask=077. Conv This option specifies file content conversion semantics, it is possible for the filesystem drivers to convert the newline conventions in files, between LF termination and CRLF termination, on the fly as files are read and written.

By default this conversion is disabled. The filesystem drivers can perform conversion for some files, attempting to auto-detect what files to convert based upon the extension portion of the filename, or globally for all files; these three conversion levels are specified as conv=b, conv=a, conv=t, respectively. The latter two options carry an inherent risk of corrupting non-text file data. No conversion at all is the default; the umsdos FAT filesystem driver stores all of the extra information relating to Unix file semantics in what, to another FAT filesystem driver, appears to be just a normal file in each directory and subdirectory, named --LINUX-.---. In the absence of this file in any given directory, thus by default, the umsdos filesystem driver provides the same semantics as the msdos filesystem driver does for the directory: only 8.3 filenames and no extra Unix file semantics. To enable the umsdos driver's extra abilities, it is necessary to create that file in the directory and synchronize its internal data with the normal FAT data for any existing entries in the directory.

This is done with a tool called umssync. This is the utility program, run, across every directory on the disc volume, every time that one switches from running Windo

The Young OG Project

The Young OG Project is the sixth studio album by American rapper Fabolous. The album features guest appearances from Chris Brown, French Montana, Tish Hyman and more, it includes production from Vinylz, Boi-1da, C-Sick and The Mekanics, among others. The album is supported by the lone single, "Lituation". Fabolous said that the album would be "very'90s-inspired and'90s-themed". "I was introduced to hip-hop in the'80s, but the'90s is when it flourished and you saw different people, different styles and different regions emerge it was a diverse and versatile time and that's another reason why it sticks to me," he told MTV. He said that the whole goal for the album was about his perspective of the'90's, where he came from and where he is today, he said that it could bring back memories of the guys who lived in it and it could influence the people who didn't live in it, they could go in the vibe of it or look up the songs where it came from. The Young OG Project received positive reviews from music critics.

Andrew Gretchko of HipHopDX said, "It’s an album filled with features – Rich Homie Quan, Chris Brown, French Montana and Kevin Hart – and beats that are a mix of the wavy, electronic sounds so prevalent today and the anthemic rhythms of ‘90s-style tracks, each with plenty of bass to back the lyrics. With intros delivered by The Notorious B. I. G. and a sampling of Drake’s “Fancy” flow, The Young OG Project has tracks for fans of the many subgenres of Hip Hop, from ‘90s beats to both commercial and street hooks. And while Fabolous may not excel on all of the album’s bouncier tracks the way he does over the laid back beats, his Christmas present to the world hits the right notes."David Jeffries of AllMusic said, "While 2014 was supposed to see the sequel to Fabolous' 2009 release Losos Way, the album The Young OG Project landed instead, celebrating the rapper's love of'90s hip-hop. As such, old-school act Brand Nubian get a righteous tribute with the opening "Lituation," but it takes until track three for the sound of the decade to power the aptly titled "All Good," while "Bish Bounce" bumps like Das EFX in their prime.

Otherwise, the 1990s influence is less palpable as cloud rap beats and an appearance from comedian Kevin Hart make this an album for the 2014-2015 season, while guest appearances from Rich Homie Quan, Chris Brown, French Montana are as populist as they are contemporary. Still, Fabolous is invigorated by this slight slide into the past, offers up numerous highlights with a strong second line in support; the album debuted at number 12 on the Billboard 200 chart, with first-week sales of 71,000 copies in the United States. In its second week, the album dropped to number 20 on the chart, selling 25,000 copies, bringing its total album sales to 96,000 copies. Sample credits"All Good" contains samples of "Juicy" as performed by The Notorious B. I. G. "Slow Motion" as performed by Juvenile featuring Soulja Slim, "I Think I've Got A Good Chance Pt. 2" by J. J. Barnes. "Gone For The Winter" contains a sample of "Thief of Bagdad" as performed by Lee Erwin. "She Wildin"' contains a sample of "Oochie Wally" as performed by Bravehearts.

Credits adapted from AllMusic

Listen Up! (Haley Reinhart album)

Listen Up! is the debut studio album by American Idol tenth season finalist Haley Reinhart. It was released on May 2012, by Interscope Records; the lead single, "Free", was released on March 20, 2012. The album is released in two different versions: the'Standard Edition' has a total of ten tracks while the'Deluxe/Walmart Exclusive Edition' has four bonus tracks making it a fourteen-song album; the deluxe edition is available on Reinhart's official website and Walmart's Internet site. Haley tweeted that the Walmart Edition and the iTunes Deluxe Edition are the pre-order deluxe version from her website; the album has received critical acclaim upon its release and its songs are featured in several critics' playlists. "Listen Up!" debuted at number 17 on the Billboard 200 chart. The debut single, "Free", reached number four on the US Billboard Bubbling Under Hot 100 chart, number twenty-seven on the US Billboard Adult Pop Songs chart; the album debuted at number 17 on the Billboard 200. In its second week.

It placed number 51 on the Billboard 200. In the third week, it placed at number 96, it left the Billboard 200 after a month in release. The album has sold 77,000 copies in the US as of April 2016; the album received positive reviews from music critics upon release. AllMusic's Matt Collar stated "Definitely an ear-grabber, Listen Up! Ultimately posits Reinhart as a kind of old-school pinup, a mini-Mariah Carey if she'd grown up listening to a mix of Dusty Springfield, Lisa Stansfield, En Vogue.", gave the album a rating of 3.5 stars out of 5. He chose the songs "Oh My!", "Liar" and "Now That You're Here" as highlights. Brian Mansfield from USA Today gave the album a positive review, stating "Listen Up! -- out May 22 -- draws on the neo-soul and girl-group R&B of artists like Adele and Amy Winehouse. But Haley puts her distinctive twists on the genre, fans of the Illinois singer will be thrilled with the way Listen Up! turned out." He picked the songs "Free", "Now That You're Here" and "Oh My!" as highlights.

Rick Florino of Artist Direct gave the album a rating of 4 stars out of 5, said "Start listening now because Haley Reinhart has made one of the best debuts of 2012, she might just help revive a little old soul in the process." Barry Walters from Spin Magazine gave the album a 7/10, stating "Thank Adele for an Idol album with depth. Thank Winehouse for dusty soul. Thank Reinhart for the pipes." Grady Smith of Entertainment Weekly gave the album a "B+" grade, said "With a voice that flips from belt-clear lilt to throaty belt in an instant, Idol's season 10 growler sounds right at home among the blasting horns on her jazzy debut. The disc's retro sound half is a pure funky delight." John Caramanica from The New York Times gave the album a "B" grade, said "It’s convincing and fresh. In a sense, this is what Cowell’s “Idol” had long been advocating — a return to standards and classic pop modes. It’s unfashionable and a bit out of touch, what a smart thing that turns out to be." Reinhart performed the lead single live on the March 2012 episode of American Idol.

She sang. She performed the single for the March 27 episode of 90210, Right after, she performed the song on Fox 5's Good Day New York and appeared on Conan to perform the single on April 24. Credits for Listen Up! Adapted from Allmusic

HMAS Doomba

HMAS Doomba was a Royal Australian Navy warship of World War II. Built for the Royal Navy around the end of World War I as the Hunt-class minesweeper HMS Wexford, the ship only saw two years of service before she was decommissioned in 1921 and sold to the Doomba Shipping Company; the vessel was renamed SS Doomba, converted into a passenger ship, operated in the waters around Brisbane until 1939, when she was requisitioned by the RAN for wartime service. Serving first as an auxiliary minehunter an auxiliary anti-submarine vessel, HMAS Doomba was purchased outright by the RAN in 1940, served until early 1946, when she was sold and converted into a linseed oil lighter. Doomba was scuttled off Dee Why, New South Wales in 1976; the ship was built for the RN as the Hunt-class minesweeper HMS Wexford. She was constructed by William Simons & Co at their shipyard in Renfrew, launched in 1919, commissioned that year; the minehunter was sold to the Doomba Shipping Company. After being converted to a passenger ship and renamed Doomba, she entered mercantile service in 1923, was used to carry tourists between Brisbane and Bribie Island.

In this role, she could carry 1,500 passengers, was used as a flagship for regattas. The RAN requisitioned Doomba won 4 September 1939 and purchased in June 1940. In her service with the RAN, Doomba was first used as an auxiliary mine sweeper and an auxiliary anti-submarine vessel, her service during World War II earned the ship a battle honour: "Pacific 1941–43". She was decommissioned from the RAN on 13 March 1946 and sold on 3 February 1947, she was renamed Meggol. On 9 December 1976, Meggol was scuttled off New South Wales. 33.716083°S 151.347217°E / -33.716083.

Henry Edward Downer

Henry Edward Downer was a South Australian politician. He was a brother of Sir John Downer and George Downer, a noted lawyer and businessman. Henry Edward Downer was born in Portsmouth and emigrated to Australia in 1838 with his parents Henry and Jane, arriving in Adelaide in June 1838, his father ran a grocery store in Hindley Street, in 1848 took on as partner Thomas Graves, who bought him out two years later was landlord of the Blenheim Hotel on the same street. Henry received an education at Francis Haire's academy and was articled to the legal firm of Wigley & Richman, working for a time as law clerk, he was called to the Bar in 1859. He was appointed Commissioner for Insolvency in 1865 and filled that position until 1881 when he resigned in order to contest the South Australian House of Assembly for the seat of Encounter Bay, he entered Parliament in 1881 and held the seat until 1896, for two of those terms in conjunction with Simpson Newland. He was appointed Attorney-General of South Australia in May 1890 in the Cockburn ministry, succeeding F. F. Turner, lost the post with the swearing-in of the Playford government the following year.

His political achievements included: conversion of the Strathalbyn to Victor Harbor horse tramway to steam locomotive. Amendments to Insolvency laws amendments to Rent laws in 1883 to protect tenantsHe was an active Freemason and office-holder of the Anglican Church, he was a keen horseman and twice appointed master of the Adelaide Hunt Club. H. E. Downer married Maria Martin Haggar on 13 August 1859, they had a home "Lyndhurst" on Adelaide. Their children included: Ada Louisa Downer married Otto Heinrich Schomburgk, son of Moritz Richard Schomburgk, on 17 September 1892 Alice Maria Downer married Charles Herbert Warren on 7 February 1891. Jean Warren married the widower Lavington Bonython on 11 December 1912, she was well known as Lady Bonython OBE. They had three children: Warren and Kym, she married again, to the widower Samuel Bruce Rudall, on 6 October 1923. Frank Hagger Downer married Charlotte Mary Murray, youngest daughter of A. B. Murray on 8 August 1900 Charles Downer married Bertha Law Smith on 17 February 1909.

He was manager of Melton station. He died at the home of his son-in-law Otto Schomburgk. Downer family

Valle Vidal

The Valle Vidal is a 101,794 acres mountain basin in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains within the Carson National Forest, northwest of Cimarron, New Mexico. Elevations in the basin range from 7,700 to 12,554 feet. Valle Vidal is noted for its pristine wildlife, it was protected from oil and gas exploitation by an act of Congress in 2006. The Valle Vidal borders on Vermejo Park Ranch, Philmont Scout Ranch, Sandia Pueblo, other private lands. Valle Vidal was part of the Maxwell Land Grant until purchased by William Bartlett in 1902. Part of the Vermejo Park Ranch, Valle Vidal became a hunting and fishing preserve for wealthy people and celebrities. In 1973, the Vermejo Park Ranch was sold to the Vermejo Park Corporation, a subsidiary of the Pennzoil company. In 1982, Pennzoil donated the Valle Vidal portion of the ranch to the American public and it became part of the Carson National Forest. In 2002 the El Paso Corporation petitioned the United States Forest Service for the lease of 40,000 acres in the eastern part of Valle Vidal to develop coalbed methane resources, for extension of the company's coalbed methane production on the Vermejo Park Ranch.

The Forest Service declined to reject El Paso's petition despite widespread public opposition to the project. The Coalition for the Valle Vidal was created to oppose mineral leasing and in 2006 the U. S. Congress adopted legislation to prohibit mineral development in the Valle Vidal. At the heart of Valle Vidal are extensive rolling grass-covered meadows at an elevation of about 9,500 feet; the meadows are surrounded by conifer and quaking aspen forests. The land increases in elevation from east to west, culminating in Little Costilla Mountain which rises above timberline; the headwaters of Ponil Creek and Comanche Creek, are in Valle Vidal. Valle Vidal hosts a herd of about 2,500 elk and other species such black bear, turkey and bison; the bison wander into the valley from Vermejo Park Ranch. Comanche Creek, a tributary of Costilla Creek and the Rio Grande, has a population of rare Rio Grande cutthroat trout; the primary use of Valle Vidal is recreation, hosting outfitters and trekking guides, horseback riders, fly-fishermen.

It contributes $3–5 million every year to local economies supporting dozens of jobs and local industries. New Mexico road 1950 traverses Valle Vidal from east to west. Cimarron campground has been selected by the Great Outdoor Recreation Pages as one of the 10 best campgrounds in the United States. Nearby Shuree ponds offer trout fishing opportunities to children under 12 years of age. Eight miles east of Cimarron is McCrystal Campground. Located in a ponderosa pine forest at the lower elevations of Valle Vidal are several other abandoned homesites. Philmont Scout Ranch operates three temporary staffed camps in Valle Vidal. Three thousand Boy Scouts backpack in Valle Vidal each summer. Valle's Vidal's waters were designated as Outstanding National Resource Waters in December 2005 and McCrystal Creek and North Ponil Creek are eligible for designation as Wild and Scenic Rivers. Most fishing in Valle Vidal is release. Trout in the streams are abundant. Elk hunting permits are issued by lottery. To protect wildlife populations the east side of the Valle Vidal is closed from January 1 to March 31 and the west side is closed from May 1 to June 30.

When there is a closure on either side of the unit, you may drive through the whole unit. You can not hike on the side where the closure is in effect. Carson National Forest: Valle Vidal Valle Vidal at Fourcornersgeotourism.com