Fredrika Bremer Association
The Fredrika Bremer Association is the oldest women's rights organisation in Sweden. It is a member of the International Alliance of Women, which has general consultative status with the United Nations; the FBF works with forming public opinion in favor of gender equality by information and activities, by handing out money from various funds and scholarships. It collaborates with other organisations with similar goals both nationally and internationally; the FBF had a representative in the governmental council of equality. The organisation was founded in 1884 by a group consisting of the board of the women's magazine Home Review, it consisted of the feminist Sophie Adlersparre, Ellen Anckarsvärd, Fredrika Limnell, Ellen Fries, Hans Hildebrand and G. Sjöberg, it was named in honor of the Swedish novelist Fredrika Bremer, whose novel Hertha was responsible for the legislation emancipating unmarried women from wardship of their male relatives. It led to the foundation of Gothenburg's Women's Association in Sweden's second city of Gothenburg, founded as a local answer to the FBF.
The purpose of the organisation was to support women's rights, to inform women of their rights and to encourage them to use them. At the time of its foundation, for example, the focus was to inform women of their rights to serve in the boards of public institutions, of the rights of women of a certain income to vote in municipal elections and to use those rights. By 1890, the office of the organisation in Stockholm functioned as an employment agency for women of the middle classes, offered juridical and medical information and advice to women, it was noted at that time, that many women came there to be informed of the movement for women suffrage. In 1899, a delegation from the FBF presented a suggestion of woman suffrage to prime minister Erik Gustaf Boström; the delegation was headed by Agda Montelius, accompanied by Gertrud Adelborg, who had written the demand. This was the first time the Swedish women's movement themselves had presented a demand for suffrage. In 1896, the Married Woman Property Association was merged in the association.
The FBF published the women's magazine Dagny, which succeeded Adlersparre's Home Review in 1886. This publication was renamed Hertha in 1914 and was the oldest women's magazine in the world when it was discontinued in the late 1990s. 1884–1903: Hans Hildebrand 1903–1920: Agda Montelius 1920–1937: Lizinka Dyrssen 1937–1949: Hanna Rydh 1949–1958: Elsa Ewerlöf 1958–1959: Elin Lauritzen 1959–1961: Inger Leijonhufvud 1961–1967: Anna-Greta Hybbinette 1967–1970: Astrid Schönberg 1970–1976: Karin Ahrland 1976–1982: Birgitta Wistrand 1982–1985: Monica Påhlsson 1985–1989: Gerd Forssell 1989–1990: Ann Egefalk 1990–1991: Eivor Lilja 1991–1997: Inge Garstedt 1997–2000: Anna-Karin Sjöstrand 2000–2004: Irene Rundberg 2004–2008: Ann Falkinger 2008–2013: Birgitta Wistrand 2013–: Louise Lindfors Stig Hadenius, Torbjörn Nilsson & Gunnar Åselius: Sveriges historia. Vad varje svensk bör veta Official website
A flange-bearing frog abbreviated FBF, is a type of frog in which the flange of the wheel on a railway vehicle supports the weight of the vehicle. In conventional practice, the tread of the wheel rests on the head of the rail and bears the weight of the vehicle, while the flange is used to keep the vehicle in the gauge of the track. Flange-bearing frogs are a recent development, as a means to reduce maintenance costs associated with turnouts and diamonds, where rails must cross one another. Flange-bearing frogs have been used by street railways for more than 200 years as a means of reducing noise pollution in populated urban settings. In 1995, Robert Willow filed a patent in the United States adapting this concept for use in mainline freight and passenger service; the patent describes the technology as, "designed to support a railroad wheel to roll through the frog on its flange rather than requiring its tread to jump across a flangeway gap." Ramps are placed on either side of the frog to transition the wheel load from the tread to the flange and to lift the wheel so that the tread is clear of the rail.
Conventional frogs require a gap of 3 inches in the running surface of the rail to allow adequate clearance for the flange of a railroad wheel. When a wheel in tread-bearing mode encounters this gap at high speed, it generates high dynamic loading on the edge of the rail at the gap; the repeated application of this impact leads to significant metal fatigue and eventual failure of the frog components, which translate directly to increased maintenance costs, train delays to allow for repairs, an overall reduced lifespan for the frog and track structure. Because the flange rides on a continuous surface in a flange-bearing mode, the impact loads generated by the flangeway gap of conventional frogs are eliminated; this reduces maintenance and extends the life of the frog, which leads to an operational cost savings that exceeds the increase in initial costs, when compared to conventional frogs. As mentioned, flange-bearing frogs are quieter than conventional frogs—again, because of the reduced impact loads—which provides a potential benefit when implemented near residential areas.
Several types of flange-bearing frogs have been developed for specific applications on North American railroads. These frogs may be flange-bearing in one or both legs of the frog, may by used either as part of a turnout or as part of a diamond. Lift frogs are used in turnouts where the through route is used, the diverging route is only used on occasion and at low speed; the frog is tread-bearing, with a normal rail surface, on the through route, is flange-bearing on the diverging route. The name is derived from the wheel on the diverging rail being lifted over the through rail. No guard rail is required on the through route, but is critical on the diverging route to keep rail vehicles in gauge. Common applications are set-out tracks or used industry tracks Combination tread- and flange-bearing frogs are used in turnouts and are designed to account for various stages of wheel wear: When the frog is new, all wheels will cross the frog in a flange-bearing mode, with no contact between tread and frog.
As the frog is used, the flangeway will abrade against deepen. In this case, new wheels will make contact between tread and frog, creating a combination tread- and flange-bearing loading on the frog. Meanwhile, worn wheels will continue to impart a flange-bearing loading onto the frog; as the frog continues to be used, the flangeway will deepen further until new wheels will cross the frog in a tread-bearing mode, while worn wheels will cross the frog in a combination tread- and flange-bearing mode. It is worth noting that as the tread-bearing loading environments begin to manifest themselves, the same impact loads which cause trouble with conventional frogs will return, they are exclusively found in rail yards, where rail vehicles operate at or below 10 miles per hour, due to the reduction of guidance keeping the vehicles in the gauge through the turnout. One-way low-speed diamond frogs are used in diamond crossings referred to as OWLS diamonds; these types of frogs are analogous to lift frogs in turnouts: the higher-trafficked line crosses the diamond on a normal rail surface in tread-bearing mode, the lower-trafficked line crosses over the higher-trafficked line in flange-bearing mode.
Because there is no flangeway gap to cross on the higher-trafficked line, vehicles using this line can cross the diamonds at the maximum speed allowed by the track design. Because the lower-trafficked line is in a situation where gauge restraint is reduced and because it has to cross over the flangeway gap for the higher-trafficked line, vehicles using this line are limited to speeds at or below 10 miles per hour. OWLS diamonds are used where a rail line with little traffic operating at low speed crosses a rail line with more traffic operating at higher speeds. Full flange-bearing diamond frogs are used in diamond crossings; these frogs are flange-bearing for both lines through the diamond. Because both lines are flange-bearing, there is no need to elevate the flanges of vehicles using one line, as there is in the case of OWLS diamond frogs, which allows for greater gauge restraint. Vehicles can cross these frogs at the maximum speed allowed by the track de
Fédération Bancaire Française
The Fédération Bancaire Française is the professional body representing over 378 commercial and mutual banks operating in France and includes both French and foreign-based organizations. President of the FBF: Frédéric Oudéa, Chief Executive Officer of Société Générale Chief executive of the FBF: Marie-Anne Barbat-Layani; the FBF represents French banks and foreign banks that have set up subsidiaries or branches in France, whether they are from Europe or elsewhere. Credit institutions that are authorized to operate as banks in France and branches of credit institutions based in the European Economic Area are entitled to become members of the FBF, their professional body. Other ipso facto members include the central bodies of cooperative and mutual banking groups and the French Bankers Association; the French Banking Federation promotes the banking and financial services industries in the French and international markets, sets out the industry's positions and proposals to officials and regulatory authorities in the fields of business and finance.
The FBF issues professional standards, best practices and recommendations, makes its experience available to its members. Its mission includes keeping members among French banks informed of anything that may concern their activities. To fulfil its mandate, the FBF is structured around three departments: Banking and Financial Activities and Research and External Relations and International Affairs; this department offers a full range of banking expertise, oversees the FBF's commissions and committees in areas including retail banking and direct banking, investment banking and capital markets, risk control and capital adequacy requirements, payment systems and instruments, legal and tax issues. It negotiates and works with various French and European government and regulatory authorities; the role of this department is to anticipate changes in the political and social environment, promote the role of the banking sector in society and keep the general public informed. It is responsible for public affairs, including relations with government officials, the media, young people and teachers.
It makes sure that banks are kept informed, organizes the activity of the FBF's regional committees. This department, based in Brussels and in Paris, handles relations with EU institutions and the various bodies representing the banking and financial services industries in Europe, it monitors international issues and relations with global banking associations, deals with issues that concern foreign banks operating in France. Official website Official website The FBF banks in figures A leading role in financial education
Frankfurt Book Fair
The Frankfurter Buchmesse is the world's largest trade fair for books, based both on the number of publishing companies represented, the number of visitors. It is considered to be the most important book fair in the world for international deals and trading; the five-day annual event in mid-October is held at the Frankfurt Trade Fair grounds in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The first three days are restricted to professional visitors. Several thousand exhibitors representing book publishing and technology companies, as well as content providers from all over the world gather in order to negotiate international publishing rights and license fees; the fair is organised by Frankfurter Buchmesse GmbH, a subsidiary of the German Publishers and Booksellers Association. More than 7,300 exhibitors from over 100 countries and more than 286,000 visitors took part in the year 2017; the Frankfurter Buchmesse has a tradition spanning more than 500 years. In 1454, soon after Johannes Gutenberg had developed printing in movable letters in Mainz near Frankfurt, the first book fair was held by local booksellers.
Before the advent of printed books a general trade fair in Frankfurt was the place for selling manuscripts. The beginning of a fair focused on printed books is attributed to Johann Fust and Peter Schöffer, who had taken over Gutenberg's printing operations after a legal dispute; the fair became the primary point for book marketing, but a hub for the diffusion of written texts. During the Reformation, the fair was attended by merchants testing the market for new books and by scholars looking for newly available scholarship; until the end of the 17th century, the Frankfurter Buchmesse was the most important book fair in Europe. It was eclipsed in 1632 by the Leipzig Book Fair during the Enlightenment as a consequence of political and cultural developments. After World War II, the first book fair was held again in 1949 at the St. Paul's Church. Since it has regained its preeminent position; the Frankfurter Buchmesse is the world's largest trade fair for books, based both on the number of publishing companies represented, the number of visitors.
It is considered to be the most important book fair in the world for international deals and trading. It is a critical marketing event for launching books and to facilitate the negotiation of the international sale of rights and licences. Book publishing-, multimedia- and technology companies, as well as content providers from all over the world gather. Publishers, booksellers, academics, service providers, film producers, translators and trade associations, artists, antiquarians and multimedia suppliers all participate in the events. Visitors take the opportunity to obtain information about the publishing market, to network, to do business; the fair is organised by Frankfurter Buchmesse GmbH, a subsidiary of the German Publishers and Booksellers Association. The five-day annual event in mid-October is held at the Frankfurt Trade Fair grounds in Frankfurt am Main, Germany; the first three days are restricted to trade visitors. In 2009, 7,314 exhibitors from some 100 countries presented over 400,000 books.
Some 300,000 visitors attended the fair. In 2016, more than 10,000 journalists from 75 countries reported on the fair, which brought together 7,135 exhibitors from 106 countries, more than 172,296 trade visitors; the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade has been awarded at the fair each year since 1950 during a ceremony in the Frankfurter Paulskirche. The fair awards the Bookseller/Diagram Prize for Oddest Title of the Year, humoring the book with the oddest title. Certain initiatives would not exist without the Frankfurter Buchmesse and are linked to its goals and, up to a point, management structure. On the occasion of the 1980 Fair, Litprom was founded - the Society for the Promotion of African and Latin American Literature; as a non profit association, it monitors literary trends and selects the best examples of creative writing from Africa and Latin America for translation into German. It promotes them in Germany and Austria by encouraging contacts between authors and publishers from the Third World and those in German-speaking countries.
It serves as an information hub and clearing house about literature from Africa and Latin America, establishing a forum of debate about "Third World" literature. In 2006, Litcam, a campaign against illiteracy was founded. In this context, the 2007 Frankfurt Book Fair started a short story project named "Who's on the line? Call for free" by and for people with migration background. Since 1976, a guest of honour, or a focus of interest is named for the fair. A special literary programme is organised for the occasion. A special exhibition hall is set up for the guest country, the major publishing houses are present at the fair; the 2007 fair attracted criticism from both the German media. German news magazine Der Spiegel described it as "closed-minded" for its policy of not including the many Catalans who write in Spanish in its definition of Catalan literature; the decision to exclude any element of "Spanishness", defined as literature done in Spanish, from the fair was made in spite of the fact that the Spanish government contributed more than 6 million euros towards the cost of the fair.
Peace Prize of the German Book Trade German Book Prize Books in Germany Official website
Fine Air was an international cargo airline that operated from 1989 to 2002, when it was renamed Arrow Air following its bankruptcy and acquisition. It operated Douglas DC-8 and Lockheed L-1011 type jets to destinations in Central America, South America and the Caribbean from Miami International Airport. J. Frank Fine founded the predecessor of Fine Air in 1976 as a leasing company which owned two Boeing 707 aircraft. Fine owned farming operations in twelve countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, sought a reliable support system for third-party operators to ship his products to the United States, his company was certified as a Douglas DC-8 repair station in 1986 and received an air carrier operating certificate in November 1992. J. Frank Fine's son Barry Fine became president in 1997, by which point the airline had a fleet of fifteen Douglas DC-8 aircraft; the airline was wholly owned by the two men for most of its existence. Fine Air raised $123.5 million in an initial public offering on August 6, 1997, planned to use the funds to purchase new aircraft and expand its cargo route network to Europe.
It was listed on NASDAQ with the ticker code "BIGF." On August 7, 1997, the day after the IPO, Fine Air Flight 101, a DC-8-61F registration N27UA, crashed shortly after takeoff from Miami International Airport at 12:36 p.m. The aircraft, bound for Santo Domingo, lost control shortly after V1. Upon rotation the cargo shifted aft on the main cargo deck because none of the pallet locks were engaged upright to the cargo pallets on the main deck; the plane was loaded with two empty pallet positions that allowed for a significant shifting of the center of gravity aft toward the empty spaces. Ground crew interviews found that the flight was full of pallets and the locks were engaged in some opinions, it was further stated this was because they were thought to be irrelevant if the pallets could not move. Pallets are held by rails at the sides from moving in an upward direction, but only the retractable end locks can stop forward and aft movement; the over-pitching on rotation at V1 pitched the aircraft nose up to the point that air flow into the engines was reduced and causing the engines to stall.
The plane pitched back nose-down landing on its belly on the ground. In addition the aircraft was 2700 kg overloaded, although given the pallet weighing process this was believed to be more common than thought beforehand; the pilots, departing from former Runway 27R attempted to recover but the stalled aircraft lacked any forward thrust rendering the control surfaces useless. The forward pitching aircraft lost forward momentum and lift with its wings cutting the airflow perpendicular to proper lift orientation; the DC-8 crashed on its belly on a field directly west of the end of the runway traveling in a straight line. The DC-8 missed the auto transport loading facility at the south end of the Miami City Rail Yard just north of the end of the runway, busy cargo operations facilities along the busy NW 25th Street feeder to the airport's cargo area just to the south of the end of the runway; the aircraft missed two factories, a commercial building, the Budweiser Distribution Center in unincorporated Miami, Florida between the populated residential suburbs of Miami Springs and Doral, FL.
It skidded across the open field and onto NW 72nd Ave, a roadway, full of traffic during the lunch hour but was quiet at 12:36p EST when it came down. The plane's wreckage skidded across the roadway and onto the parking lot of a commercial mini-mall across the street from the empty field. At that time the mini-mall was a hub of computer parts distributors specializing in South American commerce; the plane's wreckage fell four feet short of the entrances to three shops. It missed two occupied cars and a truck that were waiting for the traffic signal at the intersection of NW 31st Street and NW 72nd Avenue, less than 30 yards away. Inside one of the cars in the parking lot sat a man who had just arrived back at his shop in the mini-mall after picking up lunch for his wife and himself, he was unable to make it out of the car and was caught up in the fireball that engulfed the multi-lane avenue and parking lot. The Plane ended up at 25.801826, -80.313439. Five people were killed in total: the three aircrew members, a company security guard on the flight, the man in the parking lot.
In the minutes following the crash, police were alerted to a fire at NW 72nd Ave, only to discover it was a plane crash. For nearly 45 minutes, mixed reports claimed the plane was a passenger flight, but within the hour the control tower at MIA confirmed it was Fine Air Cargo Flight 101. FAA Security Special Agents working out of an office on airport property responded to the scene and to the Fine Air Cargo offices where they took possession of the flight documentation; some relevant documentation were recovered from garbage receptacles causing a criminal investigation to be opened and leading to charges including destruction and covering up of evidence. Fine Air and their ground handling agent Aeromar Airlines plead guilty to several of the charges and were fined $5 million. Fine Air cancelled its IPO the day after the crash, returned the full amount of the capital raised to investors, it voluntarily grounded its fleet on September 5 as an alternative to having its license revoked by the FAA, but received gove
Floyd Bennett Field
Floyd Bennett Field is an airfield in the Marine Park neighborhood of southeast Brooklyn in New York City, along the shore of Jamaica Bay. The airport hosted commercial and general aviation traffic before being used as a naval air station. Bennett Field is part of the Gateway National Recreation Area's Jamaica Bay Unit, is managed by the National Park Service. While no longer used as an operational commercial, military, or general aviation airfield, a section is still used as a helicopter base by the New York City Police Department. Floyd Bennett Field was created by connecting Barren Island and several smaller islands to the rest of Brooklyn by filling the channels between them with sand pumped from the bottom of Jamaica Bay; the airport was named after Floyd Bennett, a noted aviator who piloted the first plane to fly over the North Pole and had visualized an airport at Barren Island before dying in 1928. The airport was dedicated on June 26, 1930, opened to commercial flights on May 23, 1931.
Despite the exceptional quality of its facilities, Bennett Field never received much commercial traffic, it was used instead for general aviation. During the interwar period, dozens of aviation records were set by aviators flying to or from Bennett Field. Starting in the 1930s, the United States Coast Guard and United States Navy occupied part of the airport. With the outbreak of World War II, Bennett Field became part of Naval Air Station New York on June 2, 1941. Floyd Bennett Field was a hub for naval activities during World War II. After the war, the airport was used as a Naval Air Reserve station. In 1970, the Navy stopped using Bennett Field, though a reserve center remained until 1983, the Coast Guard remained through 1998. Several plans for the use of Bennett Field were proposed, in 1972, it was decided to integrate the airport into the Gateway National Recreation Area. Floyd Bennett Field reopened as a park in 1974. Many of the earliest surviving original structures are included in a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places, being among the largest collections and best representatives of commercial aviation architecture from the period, due to the significant contributions to general aviation and military aviation made there during the Interwar period.
Bennett Field contains facilities such as a natural area, a campground, grasslands. Floyd Bennett Field was New York City's first municipal airport, built in response to the growth of commercial aviation after World War I. During the 1920s, air travel in Europe was more popular than in the United States because, although Europe had a surplus of airplanes, the United States had a national railroad system, which reduced the need for commercial aircraft. While other localities had municipal airports, New York City had a multitude of private airfields, thus did not see the need for a municipal airport until the late 1920s. By 1925, smaller cities like Atlantic City, New Jersey, Cleveland, had operating municipal airports. By comparison, such an airport for New York City had not yet been agreed upon, let alone approved; the New York City Board of Estimate submitted a recommendation for a New York City municipal airport in 1925, but it was denied. Two years the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey announced a similar recommendation, ignored.
By this time, the city urgently needed an airport. This was underscored by the construction of the Newark Municipal Airport in 1928, as well as several transatlantic flights from the New York area that were piloted by such figures as Charles Lindbergh, Clarence D. Chamberlin, Charles A. Levine. Most of the nation's air traffic around this time was from airmail operations, the United States Postal Service designated Newark Airport as the airmail terminal for the New York City area, since Newark was the region's best-equipped airport for airmail traffic. New York City officials decided that an airport in the city itself was necessary, because placing the airmail terminal in Newark represented a missed opportunity to put New York City on the aviation map. In mid-1927, Herbert Hoover, the United States Secretary of Commerce, approved the creation of a "Fact-Finding Committee on Suitable Airport Facilities for the New York Metropolitan District"; the Hoover committee, composed of representatives from New York and New Jersey, identified six general locations in the metropolitan area where an airport could be built.
The committee recommended Middle Village, as the first location for an airfield. Its second choice was an existing airstrip on Barren Island in southeastern Brooklyn. Another site in the eastern part of the bay, near the present-day JFK Airport, was recommended. At the time, the report listed three "Federal or State Fields", three "Commercial Fields", seventeen "Intermediate Fields" in the New York metropolitan area. Chamberlin was appointed as the city's aeronautical engineer to make the final decision on the airport's location. There was much debate over. U. S. Representative and future New York City mayor Fiorello La Guardia, himself a former military airman, advocated for a commercial airport to be placed in Governors Island, as it was closer to Manhattan and located in the middle of New York Harbor, he left open the possibility that the outer boroughs could build their own local airports. La Guardia, along with Representative William W. Cohen, introduced a motion in the 70th United States Congress to establish the airport on Governors Island, but it was voted down.
Chamberlin chose Barren Island as the site for the new municipal airport. An isolated settlement on the island had been developed in the late 19t