Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building
Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building is the Washington, D. C. headquarters of the United States Department of Justice. The building is located at 950 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, on a trapezoidal lot on the block bounded by Pennsylvania Avenue to the north, Constitution Avenue to the south, 9th Street to the east, 10th Street NW to the west, in the Federal Triangle, it is located west of the National Archives Building, east of the Internal Revenue Service Building, north of the National Mall, south of the J. Edgar Hoover Building; the building is owned by the General Services Administration. It comprises seven floors and 1,200,000 sq ft, it houses Department of Justice offices, including the office of the United States Attorney General. It was Completed in 1935. In 2001, it was renamed after Robert F. Kennedy the 64th Attorney General of the United States; the Office of the Attorney General was created by the 1st United States Congress by the Judiciary Act of 1789. In 1792, the Congress made the Attorney General a Cabinet-level post.
In 1870, President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill creating the Department of Justice. Still, there was not yet a permanent home for either the Attorney General or the Justice Department, each had occupied a succession of temporary spaces in federal government buildings and owned office buildings. While plans to provide the Department with its own building were developed as early as 1910, it was not until the late 1920s that significant progress was made toward this goal. In 1908 and in 1928, Congress authorized the purchase of land in what is now known as the Federal Triangle for departmental offices; the authorization was part of a wave of government construction. Treasury Secretary Andrew W. Mellon and the Board of Architectural Consultants, composed of leading architects and headed by Edward H. Bennett of the Chicago architectural firm of Bennett, Parsons & Frost, developed design guidelines for the site. Under Bennett's direction, each member of the board designed one of the buildings in the Federal Triangle complex to "provide each government agency or bureau with a building that would address its functional needs, while combining the individual buildings into a harmonious, monumental overall design expressive of the dignity and authority of the federal government."
Milton Bennett Medary of the Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie & Medary was selected as the architect for the Department of Justice Building. Zantzinger. In 1930, Congress appropriated $10 million for the construction of a permanent Department of Justice headquarters in the Federal Triangle; the building was constructed from 1931 to 1934. Upon completion in 1935, the building provided a headquarters for the Attorney General and Department of Justice. From 1935 to 1941 68 murals were painted in the building. In 1966, the Department of Justice building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site. In 1974, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, headquartered in the same building, moved into its own headquarters at the J. Edgar Hoover Building across the street on Pennsylvania Avenue. In 1978, the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court was established after the passage of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act; the court of 11 judges appointed by the Chief Justice of the United States meets in secret.
From March 1998 to January 2006, major renovations to the building took place, including work on plumbing, electrical wiring and cooling, elevators. The project included replication of original lighting for the building's corridors and other ornamental spaces. A new $3.1 Million conference center and "data room" were built, the main library and executive suites were restored, a new mechanical and plumbing system was installed. The project's submitting firm and construction manager was the Gilbane Building Company, the architectural firm was Burt Hill Kosar Rittelmann Associates, the structural engineering firm was Delon Hampton Associates, the mechanical/electrical engineer was H. F. Lenz Company. Several difficulties were present: The building had to remain operational during renovations, hazardous materials were involved, with a large-scale asbestos abatement effort, lead paint removal, the handling of mercury-vapor lamps with PCBs; the Gilbane Building Company established a "stop-work" rule to halt construction when hazardous material was discovered.
An additional complication was security concerns, because of sensitive and classified information in the building. According to Building Design & Construction, construction personnel were "classified into three tiers and were permitted access to specific building areas based on these three levels of security clearance." The extensive murals and plaster reliefs in the building were protected with shields during the construction, temperature and dust controls were installed. The cost of the renovations was $142 Million, but the project came in $4.2 Million under budget, in part due to significant conservation efforts. Design consultants decided to renovate courtyard plaza and garage structures instead of demolishing them, using 95 percent of existing materials. Cobblestone blocks in the courtyard were "removed, cleaned and reinstalled," with "the foun
FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division
Not to be confused with the Criminal Justice Information Services of Scotland. The Criminal Justice Information Services Division is a division of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation located in Clarksburg, Harrison County, West Virginia; the CJIS was established in February 1992 and is the largest division in the FBI. The FBI CJIS is a high-tech hub providing state-of-the-art tools and services to law enforcement, national security/intelligence community partners, the general public; the CJIS Division is the largest division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and is located in a half million square foot main facility on a 986-acre tract in Clarksburg, West Virginia. CJIS services located at this site include the National Crime Information Center, Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System, LEO Enterprise Portal, National Instant Criminal Background Check System, Uniform Crime Reporting, the Law Enforcement National Data Exchange; the mission of CJIS is to reduce terrorist and criminal activities by maximizing the ability to provide timely and relevant criminal justice information to the FBI and to qualified law enforcement, criminal justice, academic and licensing agencies concerning individuals, stolen property, criminal organizations/activities, other law enforcement-related data.
Here statisticians compile vast amounts of data from law enforcement into a series of regular reports detailing the state of crime in communities across the country. Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System National Incident Based Reporting System Official website
COINTELPRO was a series of covert, at times illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at surveilling, infiltrating and disrupting domestic political organizations. FBI records show that COINTELPRO resources targeted groups and individuals that the FBI deemed subversive, including the Communist Party USA, anti–Vietnam War organizers, activists of the civil rights movement or Black Power movement and animal rights organizations, feminist organizations, the American Indian Movement, independence movements, a variety of organizations that were part of the broader New Left; the program targeted the Ku Klux Klan. The FBI financed and controlled an extreme right-wing group of former members of the Minutemen anti-communist para-military organization, transforming it into a group called the Secret Army Organization that targeted groups and leaders involved in the Anti-War Movement, using both intimidation and violent acts; the FBI has used covert operations against domestic political groups since its inception.
COINTELPRO tactics are still used to this day, have been alleged to include discrediting targets through psychological warfare. The FBI's stated motivation was "protecting national security, preventing violence, maintaining the existing social and political order."Beginning in 1969, leaders of the Black Panther Party were targeted by the COINTELPRO and "neutralized" by being murdered, imprisoned, publicly humiliated or falsely charged with crimes. Some of the Black Panthers affected included Fred Hampton, Mark Clark, Zayd Shakur, Geronimo Pratt, Mumia Abu-Jamal, Marshall Conway. Common tactics used by COINTELPRO were perjury, witness harassment, witness intimidation, withholding of evidence. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover issued directives governing COINTELPRO, ordering FBI agents to "expose, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise Neutralize" the activities of these movements and their leaders. Under Hoover, the agent in charge of COINTELPRO was William C. Sullivan. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy authorized some of the programs.
Although Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of Martin Luther King's phones "on a trial basis, for a month or so", Hoover extended the clearance so his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of King's life they deemed worthy. Internal documents dated as late as 2017, showed that the FBI had continued to engage in similar programs by surveilling the Black Lives Matter movement. Centralized operations under COINTELPRO began in August 1956 with a program designed to "increase factionalism, cause disruption and win defections" inside the Communist Party USA. Tactics included anonymous phone calls, Internal Revenue Service audits, the creation of documents that would divide the American communist organization internally. An October 1956 memo from Hoover reclassified the FBI's ongoing surveillance of black leaders, including it within COINTELPRO, with the justification that the movement was infiltrated by communists. In 1956, Hoover sent an open letter denouncing Dr. T.
R. M. Howard, a civil rights leader and wealthy entrepreneur in Mississippi who had criticized FBI inaction in solving recent murders of George W. Lee, Emmett Till, other African Americans in the South; when the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an African-American civil rights organization, was founded in 1957, the FBI began to monitor and target the group immediately, focusing on Bayard Rustin, Stanley Levison, Martin Luther King Jr. After the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Hoover singled out King as a major target for COINTELPRO. Under pressure from Hoover to focus on King, Sullivan wrote: In the light of King's powerful demagogic speech.... We must mark him now if we have not done so before, as the most dangerous Negro of the future in this nation from the standpoint of communism, the Negro, national security. Soon after, the FBI was systematically bugging King's home and his hotel rooms, as they were now aware that King was growing in stature daily as the most prominent leader of the civil rights movement.
In the mid-1960s, King began to publicly criticize the Bureau for giving insufficient attention to the use of terrorism by white supremacists. Hoover responded by publicly calling King the most "notorious liar" in the United States. In his 1991 memoir, Washington Post journalist Carl Rowan asserted that the FBI had sent at least one anonymous letter to King encouraging him to commit suicide. Historian Taylor Branch documents an anonymous November 21, 1964 "suicide package" sent by the FBI that contained audio recordings, which were obtained through tapping King's phone and placing bugs throughout various hotel rooms over the past two years was created two days after the announcement of King's impending Nobel Peace Prize; the tape, prepared by FBI audio technician John Matter documented a series of King's sexual indiscretions combined with a letter telling him "There is only one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy, fraudulent self is bared to the nation". King was subsequently informed that the audio would be released to the media if he did not acquies
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol
Northwest (Washington, D.C.)
Northwest is the northwestern quadrant of Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States, is located north of the National Mall and west of North Capitol Street. It is the largest of the four quadrants of the city, it includes the central business district, the Federal Triangle, the museums along the northern side of the National Mall, as well as many of the District's historic neighborhoods. Politically, Northwest is made up of parts of Wards 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, with Wards 1 and 3 being the only wards located within the quadrant. Northwest includes the following 57 neighborhoods: Northwest contains many college campuses, including American University, George Washington University, Georgetown University, Howard University, the University of the District of Columbia; the Capital One Arena, home of the Washington Wizards, the Washington Capitals, the Georgetown Hoyas as well as the venue for many concerts and other events, is located in the District's Chinatown in Northwest. The National Cathedral, the White House, Rock Creek Park, Embassy Row are located in this quadrant.
Northwest is bounded by the Potomac River on the west, Western Avenue and Eastern Avenue to the north, North Capitol Street to the east, the National Mall to the south. Other principal roads include Connecticut Avenue between Chevy Chase and the White House, Wisconsin Avenue between Friendship Heights and Georgetown, Pennsylvania Avenue between Georgetown and the Capitol, K Street, Massachusetts Avenue, 16th Street. Northwest is served by all six lines of the Washington Metro: the Orange, Red, Blue and Green Lines. Many Metrobus lines run through the quadrant, as well as the DC Circulator. SW—Southwest, Washington, D. C. SE—Southeast, Washington, D. C. NE—Northeast, Washington, D. C
Law enforcement agency
A law enforcement agency, in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws. Outside North America, such organizations are called police services. In North America, some of these services are called police, others are known as sheriff's offices/departments, while investigative police services in the United States are called bureaus, for example the Federal Bureau of Investigation. LEAs which have their ability to apply their powers restricted in some way are said to operate within a jurisdiction. LEAs will have some form of geographic restriction on their ability to apply their powers; the LEA might be able to apply its powers within a country, for example the United States of America's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives or its Drug Enforcement Administration, within a division of a country, for example the Australian state Queensland Police, or across a collection of countries, for example international organizations such as Interpol, or the European Union's Europol.
LEAs which operate across a collection of countries tend to assist in law enforcement activities, rather than directly enforcing laws, by facilitating the sharing of information necessary for law enforcement between LEAs within those countries, for example Europol has no executive powers. Sometimes a LEA’s jurisdiction is determined by the complexity or seriousness of the non compliance with a law; some countries determine the jurisdiction in these circumstances by means of policy and resource allocation between agencies, for example in Australia, the Australian Federal Police take on complex serious matters referred to it by an agency and the agency will undertake its own investigations of less serious or complex matters by consensus, while other countries have laws which decide the jurisdiction, for example in the United States of America some matters are required by law to be referred to other agencies if they are of a certain level of seriousness or complexity, for example cross state boundary kidnapping in the United States is escalated to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Differentiation of jurisdiction based on the seriousness and complexity of the non compliance either by law or by policy and consensus can coexist in countries. A LEA which has a wide range of powers but whose ability is restricted geographically to an area, only part of a country, is referred to as local police or territorial police. Other LEAs have a jurisdiction defined by the type of laws they assist in enforcing. For example, Interpol does not work with political, religious, or racial matters. A LEA’s jurisdiction also includes the governing bodies they support, the LEA itself. Jurisdictionally, there can be an important difference between international LEAs and multinational LEAs though both are referred to as "international" in official documents. An international law enforcement agency has jurisdiction and or operates in multiple countries and across State borders, for example Interpol. A multinational law enforcement agency will operate in only one country, or one division of a country, but is made up of personnel from several countries, for example the European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
International LEAs are also multinational, for example Interpol, but multinational LEAs are not international. Within a country, the jurisdiction of law enforcement agencies can be organized and structured in a number of ways to provide law enforcement throughout the country. A law enforcement agency’s jurisdiction can be for the whole country or for a division or sub-division within the country. LEA jurisdiction for a division within a country can be at more than one level, for example at the division level, state, province, or territory level, for example at the sub division level, county, shire, or municipality or metropolitan area level. In Australia for example, each state has its own LEAs. In the United States for example each state and county or city has its own LEAs; as a result, because both Australia and the United States are federations and have federal LEAs, Australia has two levels of law enforcement and the United States has multiple levels of law enforcement, Tribal, County, Town, special Jurisdiction and others.
A LEA’s jurisdiction will be geographically divided into operations areas for administrative and logistical efficiency reasons. An operations area is called a command or an office. While the operations area of a LEA is sometimes referred to as a jurisdiction, any LEA operations area still has legal jurisdiction in all geographic areas the LEA operates, but by policy and consensus the operations area does not operate in other geographical operations areas of the LEA. For example, the United Kingdom’s Metropolitan Police is divided into 32 Borough Operational Command Units, based on the London boroughs, the New York City Police Department is divided into 77 precincts. Sometimes the one legal jurisdiction is covered by more than one LEA, again for administrative and logistical efficiency reasons, or arising from policy, or historical reasons. For example, the area of jurisdiction of English and Welsh law is covered by a number of LEAs called constabularies, each of which has legal jurisdiction over the whole area covered by English and Welsh law, but they do not operate out of their areas without formal liaison between them.
The primary difference between separate agencies and operational areas within the one legal jurisdiction is the degree of flexibility to move resources between versus within agencies. When multiple LEAs cover the one legal jurisdiction, each agency still organizes itself into operations
The FBI Police is the Federal Bureau of Investigation's uniformed security police force tasked with protecting FBI facilities, personnel, users and operations from harm and may enforce certain laws and administrative regulations. Authority for the FBI Police is set out in the U. S. Code, Title 28, Section 940C, "FBI police", they are endowed with full police powers of crime prevention, law enforcement and investigation within the following FBI facilities: The J. Edgar Hoover Building The FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia The FBI Laboratory in Quantico The New York City field office in Lower Manhattan The Washington field office in Washington, D. C; the Criminal Justice Information Services Division in Clarksburg, West Virginia The 240-plus FBI Police officers are classified as professional staff, which includes intelligence analysts, language specialists, information technology specialists, other agency professionals. FBI Police officers are covered under the Federal Employee Retirement System and do not receive enhanced Law Enforcement Retirement.
The FBI Police are among the lowest paid Federal Law Enforcement Officers and have the highest attrition rate at 13.9%. On August 2, 2007, a group of more than 100 FBI Police officers filed a class action complaint in the U. S. Court of Federal Claims for millions of dollars of back and future pay; the complaint alleged that the FBI had not complied with a 2002 statute, part of the FBI Reform Act, that mandated that the FBI police force be paid the same pay and benefits as members of the Uniformed Division of the United States Secret Service. The judge ruled against the FBI Police officers on all issues in February 2017. Federal police List of FBI Field Offices List of protective service agencies List of United States federal law enforcement agencies Federal Protective Service Official website