Sunil Gulati is the former President of the United States Soccer Federation from 2006 to 2018. In April 19, 2013, he was elected to a four-year term on the FIFA Council. In March 2014, he was unanimously re-elected to a record third four-year term as USSF president. Gulati is a senior lecturer in the economics department of Columbia University, he is the former president of Kraft Soccer for the New England Revolution in Major League Soccer. On December 4, 2017, Gulati announced that he will not seek a fourth term as President of the US Soccer Federation. On February 10, 2018, he was succeeded by his vice-president Carlos Cordeiro. Gulati was born in India, his family moved to Connecticut when he was five years old, he grew up playing soccer. Gulati is an alumnus of Cheshire High School in Connecticut, he graduated magna cum laude from Bucknell University and earned his M. A. and M. Phil. in economics at Columbia University. In 1991, he joined the World Bank through its Young Professionals Program and served as country economist for Moldova.
Gulati has a longstanding involvement in the administration of the United States Soccer Federation, with former USSF president and Major League Soccer founder Alan Rothenberg calling Gulati "the single most important person in the development of soccer in this country". Gulati first became involved with the USSF through his employment as a youth coach and administrator in local Connecticut leagues while attending college. Gulati became a prominent volunteer federation staffer and adviser in the 1980s during the presidency of Werner Fricker, began working in the game full-time upon taking the job of deputy commissioner of Major League Soccer when the league was formed following the 1994 FIFA World Cup hosted by the U. S. which Gulati played a major role in organizing. Gulati was elected USSF President in March 2006. In February 2010, he was re-elected for another four-year term as USSF president. In February 2009, Gulati announced that the USSF would bid for the right to host the World Cup in 2018 or 2022.
He chaired the World Cup U. S. Bid Committee Board of Directors and visited 20 of the 22 member voters on the FIFA Executive Committee; the United States, was not selected to host either World Cup. In 2011, he was recognized and awarded the 2011 Trailblazer Award from the Association of South Asians in Media and Entertainment for his outstanding contributions to the world of U. S. sports. In 2012, Sunil Gulati spearheaded the formation of a new professional women's soccer league in the United States; the previous two attempts to form a women's league by the Women's United Soccer Association and Women's Professional Soccer folded in three years. On October 21, 2012, the USSF, the Canadian Soccer Association, the Mexican Football Federation made a joint announcement on the creation of a new women's soccer league with clubs playing in Boston, Kansas City, New Jersey, western New York, Oregon and Washington, D. C. Gulati advocated a "sustainable economic model", with the new league having a unique feature of the three federations paying the salaries of their national team players who play in this league.
In 2018, after the US failed to qualify for the World Cup, Gulati chose not to run for re-election as president, was succeeded by Carlos Cordeiro. Gulati remains the chairman of the USSF's joint bid with Mexico and Canada to host the 2026 FIFA World Cup; because the United States Soccer Federation has a full-time professional staff handling the federation's day-to-day business, Gulati is able to maintain a parallel, full-time career in academia. Sunil Gulati is a senior lecturer in economics at Columbia University, having previously served on the Columbia economics faculty from 1986 to 1990. At Columbia, Gulati teaches principles of economics, global economics, sports economics; the sports economics class is heavily over-subscribed, with students known to camp out overnight to secure a place. Gulati was elected to the FIFA Executive Committee on April 19, 2013 following a narrow 18-17 vote over Mexican Federation of Association Football President Justino Compeán at the CONCACAF Congress in Panama City, Panama.
Of the four executive committee meetings in 2013, Gulati attended three of them. The fourth meeting was held before Gulati's election. Gulati was one of several executive committee members to call for the publication of the Garcia Report into allegations of corruption surrounding Russia and Qatar's bids for the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cups. Gulati lives in the New York City area with two children. United States Soccer Federation COLUMBIA, ECONOMICS: Sunil Gulati: Senior Lecturer linkedin.com public profile
The South American Football Confederation is the continental governing body of football in South America and it is one of FIFA's six continental confederations. The oldest continental confederation in the world, its headquarters are located in Luque, near Asunción. CONMEBOL is responsible for the organization and governance of South American football's major international tournaments. With 10 member football associations, it has the fewest members of all the confederations in FIFA. CONMEBOL national teams have won nine FIFA World Cups, CONMEBOL clubs have won 22 Intercontinental Cups and four FIFA Club World Cups. Argentina and Uruguay have won two Olympic gold medals each, Brazil has won one Olympic gold medal, it is considered one of the strongest confederations in the world. The World Cup qualifiers of CONMEBOL have been described as the "toughest qualifiers in the world", for their simple round-robin system, entry of some of the top national teams in the world, leveling of the weaker national teams, climate conditions, geographic conditions, strong home stands and passionate supporters.
The Confederation is planning to create the first women's qualification to the FIFA Women's World Cup to replace the Copa América Femenina. Juan Ángel Napout was the president of CONMEBOL until 3 December 2015 when he was arrested in a raid in Switzerland as part of the U. S. Justice Department's bribery case involving FIFA. Wilmar Valdez was interim president until 26 January 2016 when Alejandro Domínguez was elected president; the Vice presidents are Ramón Jesurum, Laureano González, Arturo Salah. In 1916, the first edition of the "Campeonato Sudamericano de Fútbol", now known as the "Copa América", was contested in Argentina to commemorate the centenary of the Argentine Declaration of Independence; the four participating associations of that tournament gathered together in Buenos Aires in order to create a governing body to facilitate the organization of the tournament. Thus, CONMEBOL was founded on 9 July 1916 under the initiative of Uruguayan Héctor Rivadavia Gómez, but approved by the football associations of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.
The first Constitutional Congress on 15 December of that same year, which took place in Montevideo, ratified the decision. Over the years, the other football associations in South America joined, with the last being Venezuela in 1952. Guyana and the French overseas department of French Guiana, while geographically in South America, are not part of CONMEBOL. Consisting of a French territory, a former British territory, a former Dutch territory, they are part of the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football due to historical and sporting reasons. With ten member nations, CONMEBOL is the smallest and the only continental land-based FIFA confederation; the main competition for men's national teams is the Copa América, started in 1916. CONMEBOL runs national competitions at Under-20, Under-17 and Under-15 levels. For women's national teams, CONMEBOL operates the Copa América Femenina for senior national sides, as well as Under-20 and Under-17 championships. In futsal, there is the Copa América de Futsal and Campeonato Sudamericano de Futsal Sub-20.
The Campeonato Sudamericano Femenino de Futsal is the women's equivalent to the man's tournament. CONMEBOL runs the two main club competitions in South America: the Copa Libertadores was first held in 1960 and the Copa Sudamericana was launched by CONMEBOL in 2002 as an indirect successor to the Supercopa Libertadores. A third competition, the Copa CONMEBOL, started in 1992 and was abolished in 1999. In women's football CONMEBOL conducts the Copa Libertadores Femenina for club teams; the competition was first held in 2009. The Recopa Sudamericana pits the past year's winners of the Copa Libertadores against the winners of the Copa Sudamericana, came into being in 1989; the Intercontinental Cup was jointly organised with UEFA between the Copa Libertadores and the UEFA Champions League winners. Legend1st – Champion 2nd – Runner-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place QF – Quarterfinals R16 – Round of 16 R2 – Second round GS – Group stage 1S – First Knockout Stage Q – Qualified for upcoming tournament • – Did not qualify – Did not enter / Withdrew / Banned – Hosts Legend1st – Champions 2nd – Runners-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place GS – Group stage Q – Qualified for upcoming tournament •• – Qualified but withdrew • – Did not qualify × – Did not enter / Withdrew from the Copa América or withdrew from the Confederations Cup / Banned – Hosts Legend1st – Champions 2nd – Runners-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place QF – Quarterfinals R2 – Round 2 R1 — Round 1 Q — Qualified for upcoming tournament – Hosts Legend1st – Champions 2nd – Runners-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place QF – Quarterfinals R1 – Round 1 q – Qualified for upcoming tournament •• – Qualified but withdrew • – Did not qualify – Hosts On 27 May 2015, several CONMEBOL leaders we
David Gill (executive)
David Alan Gill is British football executive chief executive of Manchester United and a vice-chairman of The Football Association. He served as vice-chairman of the G-14 management committee, he sits on the UEFA Executive Committee as of 2013. Gill was elected as a FIFA Vice-President sitting on the FIFA Council in 2015. Born and raised in Reading, Gill studied at the University of Birmingham, becoming a Chartered Accountant with Price Waterhouse in 1981. After a two-year spell in San Francisco, he left the firm in 1986 to join The BOC Group in its corporate finance department, Avis Rent a Car System in 1990. At Avis, he was responsible for the disposal of the European leasing business to GE Capital for US$1 billion in August 1992. Subsequently, he was finance director at Proudfoot PLC, the worldwide management consulting business quoted on the London Stock Exchange, at First Choice Holidays PLC, the third largest UK tour operator, before joining Manchester United F. C. in 1997. Gill joined Manchester United PLC in 1997 as finance director.
In August 2000, he was promoted to deputy chief executive whilst retaining his responsibilities as finance director. In July 2001, Nick Humby was appointed finance director of Manchester United PLC, so Gill was promoted again this time to the title of Group Chief executive officer, allowing him to concentrate on managing the day-to-day operations of the business. In September 2003, after the departure of previous chief executive Peter Kenyon to Chelsea F. C. Gill was promoted to chief executive of Manchester United PLC. In 2005, he was appointed chief executive of the private limited company, Manchester United Ltd, that succeeded Manchester United PLC after the takeover by Malcolm Glazer. Gill was vice-chairman of the management committee of the now defunct G-14, an organisation of leading European football clubs. However, in September 2009, he was elected to a two-year place on the board of the European Club Association, the organisation created to replace the G-14. On 20 February 2013, Manchester United announced that Gill would leave his post as chief executive in the summer of 2013, but that he would remain on the board as a director.
He was replaced by the executive vice-chairman Ed Woodward. On 2 June 2006, Gill was elected onto the board of The Football Association, replacing Arsenal F. C. vice-chairman David Dein. Gill said. One of the first issues he had to deal with was the "club-vs.-country" row over Wayne Rooney's foot at the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Questions were raised by Liverpool manager Rafael Benítez about a potential conflict of interest between Gill's roles with Manchester United and the FA. However, Gill dismissed the Spaniard's concerns, saying that he had been elected by the other Premier League chief executives. In October 2012, David was appointed vice-chairman of the Football Association, replacing Sir Dave Richards. In June 2014, David Gill walked out of a FIFA meeting in Brazil in protest at FIFA President Sepp Blatter, after he had labelled the British media as "racist", following serious corruption revelations published in The Sunday Times newspaper regarding the World Cup bids for Russia in 2018 and Qatar in 2022.
Gill, along with a number of other European football executives, called for Blatter to resign and not to stand for a fifth term in 2015. Gill said Blatter's behavior was "totally unacceptable". In May 2013, David Gill was elected to the UEFA Executive Committee at the 2013 UEFA Congress in London, where 53 member associations voted for candidates to fill eight seats. In March 2015, Gill was elected as Britain's FIFA Vice-President, replacing Northern Ireland's Jim Boyce, sitting on the FIFA Council for a 4-year term. Following the indictments in the United States of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives on charges including racketeering, wire fraud, money laundering in May 2015, Gill threatened to resign his newly elected FIFA role if Sepp Blatter was re-elected as FIFA President or did not stand down. Blatter won re-election for a fifth term, Gill rejected his role as a FIFA Vice-President and a member of the Executive Committee in protest at Blatter's regime. "I do not see how there will be change for the good of world football while Mr Blatter remains in post" Gill stated.
On 2 June, four days after FIFA's 65th FIFA Congress, Blatter abruptly announced he would be resigning, allowing Gill to "reconsider" his position as he had not yet formalised his resignation. Gill has two sons and Oliver, a daughter, Jessica. Oliver signed a professional contract with Manchester United in July 2009
Amos Adamu was Director General of the Nigerian National Sports Commission for ten years before being redeployed in November 2008. Before his appointment as Director General, Adamu was the Director of Sports of the ministry for 10 years. Adamu holds a doctorate degree in health education, he was a university lecturer before joining the National Institute of Sports. He was appointed the Sole Administrator of the Nigeria Football Association in 1992. After success in this position, he was posted to the Federal Ministry of Sports as Director of Sports Development. Adamu was involved in the administration and organization of the 1999 FIFA World Youth Championship in Nigeria and the Nations Cup in 2000. In December 2000 Adamu was named President for the Organising Committee for the 8th All-Africa Games; the games were held in October 2003, in the newly constructed Abuja Stadium. Adamu advised the government to sell this stadium after the games in order to forestall the vandalisation typical of publicly owned buildings.
Subsequently, there was controversy about the conduct of the games organizers. In 2005, Adamu was picked as a member of the organizing committee for the first World Cup Finals in Africa to be hosted in South Africa 2010. In 2006, Adamu led the transformation of the Sports Ministry to the National Sports Commission. Adamu became the Confederation of African Football. In April 2007, Adamu became the President of the West Africa Football Union. In May 2008, the Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Sports and Social Development in Bayelsa State told members of the Senate Committee on Sports that problems with sports in Nigeria included corruption and dominance by a "cabal" led by Adamu. In July 2008, Adamu announced that the Nigeria Sports Commission had initiated an inquiry into allegations of corruption in the local league. On 6 November 2008, President Umaru Yar'Adua ordered the removal of Adamu from the post of Director General of the National Sports Commission. Adamu, the Director General of the National Sports Commission was redeployed to the Ministry of Special Duties after the removal of erstwhile Minister for Sports and Chairman National Sports Commission Abdulrahman Gimba, in a cabinet reshuffle.
No reason was given. As of January 2009, Adamu was a member of FIFA’s 24-man executive committee, he was scheduled to appear in a Nigerian court to press a claim for £2.3 million damages he had laid 15 months earlier against a newspaper that published allegations of corruption. In August 2009, Adamu stated that problems in Nigerian sports since his redeployment had vindicated him. On 17 October 2010, it was reported in the UK Sunday Times that he agreed to receive £500,000 in order to influence the voting procedure with his vote for the 2018 FIFA World Cup bid, he denied any wrongdoing. An investigation by FIFA banned Reynald Temarii from soccer administration. In November 2010 Adamu received a three-year ban and 10,000 Swiss franc fine from FIFA Ethics Committee after being found guilty of breaching bribery rules. In February 2017 the FIFA Ethics Committee banned Adamu for two years
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich; the municipality has 409,000 inhabitants, the urban agglomeration 1.315 million and the Zürich metropolitan area 1.83 million. Zürich is a hub for railways and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport and railway station are the busiest in the country. Permanently settled for over 2,000 years, Zürich was founded by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum. However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6,400 years ago. During the Middle Ages, Zürich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli; the official language of Zürich is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Zürich German. Many museums and art galleries can be found in the city, including the Swiss National Museum and the Kunsthaus.
Schauspielhaus Zürich is one of the most important theatres in the German-speaking world. Zürich is a leading global city and among the world's largest financial centres despite having a small population; the city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking companies. Most of Switzerland's research and development centres are concentrated in Zürich and the low tax rates attract overseas companies to set up their headquarters there. Monocle's 2012 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Zürich first on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within". According to several surveys from 2006 to 2008, Zürich was named the city with the best quality of life in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe in terms of GDP per capita; the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking sees Zürich rank among the top ten most liveable cities in the world. In German, the city name is written Zürich, pronounced in Swiss Standard German. In Zürich German, the local dialect of Swiss German, the name is pronounced without the final consonant, as Züri, although the adjective remains Zürcher.
The city is called Zurich in French, Zurigo in Italian, Turitg in Romansh. In English, the name used to be written without the umlaut. So, standard English practice for German calques is to either preserve the umlaut or replace it with the base letter followed by e, it is pronounced ZEWR-ik, more sometimes with /ts/, as in German. The earliest known form of the city's name is Turicum, attested on a tombstone of the late 2nd century AD in the form STA TURICEN; the name is interpreted as a derivation from a given name Gaulish personal name Tūros, for a reconstructed native form of the toponym of *Turīcon. The Latin stress on the long vowel of the Gaulish name, was lost in German but is preserved in Italian and in Romansh; the first development towards its Germanic form is attested as early as the 6th century with the form Ziurichi. From the 9th century onward, the name is established in an Old High German form Zurih. In the early modern period, the name became associated with the name of the Tigurini, the name Tigurum rather than the historical Turicum is sometimes encountered in Modern Latin contexts.
Settlements of the Neolithic and Bronze Age were found around Lake Zürich. Traces of pre-Roman Celtic, La Tène settlements were discovered near the Lindenhof, a morainic hill dominating the SE - NW waterway constituted by Lake Zurich and the river Limmat. In Roman times, during the conquest of the alpine region in 15 BC, the Romans built a castellum on the Lindenhof. Here was erected Turicum, a tax-collecting point for goods trafficked on the Limmat, which constituted part of the border between Gallia Belgica and Raetia: this customs point developed into a vicus. After Emperor Constantine's reforms in AD 318, the border between Gaul and Italy was located east of Turicum, crossing the river Linth between Lake Walen and Lake Zürich, where a castle and garrison looked over Turicum's safety; the earliest written record of the town dates from the 2nd century, with a tombstone referring to it as to the Statio Turicensis Quadragesima Galliarum, discovered at the Lindenhof. In the 5th century, the Germanic Alemanni tribe settled in the Swiss Plateau.
The Roman castle remained standing until the 7th century. A Carolingian castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne, Louis the German, is mentioned in 835. Louis founded the Fraumünster abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard, he endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich and the Albis forest, granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority. In 1045, King Henry III granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, mint coins, thus made the abbess the ruler of the city. Zürich gained Imperial immediacy in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family and attained a status comparable to statehood. During the 1230s, a city wall was built, enclosing 38 hectares, when the earliest stone houses on the Rennweg were built as well; the Carolingian castle was used as a quarry, as it had st
2018 FIFA World Cup
The 2018 FIFA World Cup was the 21st FIFA World Cup, an international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA once every four years. It took place in Russia from 14 June to 15 July 2018, it was the first World Cup to be held in Eastern Europe, the 11th time that it had been held in Europe. At an estimated cost of over $14.2 billion, it was the most expensive World Cup. It was the first World Cup to use the video assistant referee system; the finals involved 32 teams, of which 31 came through qualifying competitions, while the host nation qualified automatically. Of the 32 teams, 20 had appeared in the previous tournament in 2014, while both Iceland and Panama made their first appearances at a FIFA World Cup. A total of 64 matches were played in 12 venues across 11 cities. Germany were eliminated in the group stage; the final took place on 15 July at the Luzhniki Stadium between France and Croatia. France won the match 4–2 to claim their second World Cup title, marking the fourth consecutive title won by a European team.
The bidding procedure to host the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup tournaments began in January 2009, national associations had until 2 February 2009 to register their interest. Nine countries placed bids for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, but Mexico withdrew from proceedings, Indonesia's bid was rejected by FIFA in February 2010 after the Indonesian government failed to submit a letter to support the bid. During the bidding process, the three remaining non-UEFA nations withdrew from the 2018 bids, the UEFA nations were thus ruled out of the 2022 bid; as such, there were four bids for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, two of which were joint bids: England, Netherlands/Belgium, Portugal/Spain. The 22-member FIFA Executive Committee convened in Zürich on 2 December 2010 to vote to select the hosts of both tournaments. Russia won the right to be the 2018 host in the second round of voting; the Portugal/Spain bid came second, that from Belgium/Netherlands third. England, bidding to host its second tournament, was eliminated in the first round.
The voting results were as follows: The English Football Association and others raised concerns of bribery on the part of the Russian team and corruption from FIFA members. They claimed that four members of the executive committee had requested bribes to vote for England, Sepp Blatter had said that it had been arranged before the vote that Russia would win; the 2014 Garcia Report, an internal investigation led by Michael J. Garcia, was withheld from public release by Hans-Joachim Eckert, FIFA's head of adjudication on ethical matters. Eckert instead released a shorter revised summary, his reluctance to publish the full report caused Garcia to resign in protest; because of the controversy, the FA refused to accept Eckert's absolving of Russia from blame, with Greg Dyke calling for a re-examination of the affair and David Bernstein calling for a boycott of the World Cup. For the first time in the history of the FIFA World Cup, all eligible nations – the 209 FIFA member associations minus automatically qualified hosts Russia – applied to enter the qualifying process.
Zimbabwe and Indonesia were disqualified before playing their first matches, while Gibraltar and Kosovo, who joined FIFA on 13 May 2016 after the qualifying draw but before European qualifying had begun entered the competition. Places in the tournament were allocated to continental confederations, with the allocation unchanged from the 2014 World Cup; the first qualification game, between Timor-Leste and Mongolia, began in Dili on 12 March 2015 as part of the AFC's qualification, the main qualifying draw took place at the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, Saint Petersburg, on 25 July 2015. Of the 32 nations qualified to play at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, 20 countries competed at the previous tournament in 2014. Both Iceland and Panama qualified for the first time, with the former becoming the smallest country in terms of population to reach the World Cup. Other teams returning after absences of at least three tournaments include: Egypt, returning to the finals after their last appearance in 1990.
It is the first time four Arab nations have qualified for the World Cup. Notable countries that failed to qualify include four-time champions Italy, three-time runners-up and third placed in 2014 the Netherlands, four reigning continental champions: 2017 Africa Cup of Nations winners Cameroon, two-time Copa América champions and 2017 Confederations Cup runners-up Chile, 2016 OFC Nations Cup winners New Zealand, 2017 CONCACAF Gold Cup champions United States; the other notable qualifying streaks broken were for Ghana and Ivory Coast, who had both made the previous three tournaments. Note: Numbers in parentheses indicate positions in the FIFA World Rankings at the time of the tournament; the draw was held on 1 December 2017 at 18:00 MSK at the State Kremlin Palace in Moscow. The 32 teams were drawn by selecting one team from each of the 4 ranked pots. For the draw, the teams were allocated to four pots based on the FIFA World Rankings of October 2017. Pot 1 contained the hosts Russia and the best seven teams, pot 2 contained the next best eight teams, so on for pots 3 and 4.
This was different from previous