FIFO and LIFO accounting

FIFO and LIFO accounting are methods used in managing inventory and financial matters involving the amount of money a company has to have tied up within inventory of produced goods, raw materials, components, or feedstocks. They are used to manage assumptions of costs related to inventory, stock repurchases, various other accounting purposes. "FIFO" stands for first-in, first-out, meaning that the oldest inventory items are recorded as sold first but do not mean that the exact oldest physical object has been tracked and sold. In other words, the cost associated with the inventory, purchased first is the cost expensed first. With FIFO, the cost of inventory reported on the balance sheet represents the cost of the inventory most purchase. Consider this example: Foo Co. had the following inventory at hand, in order of acquisition in November: If Foo Co. sells 210 units during November, the company would expense the cost associated with the first 100 units at $50 and the remaining 110 units at $55.

Under FIFO, the total cost of sales for November would be $11,050. The ending inventory would be calculated the following way: Thus, the balance sheet would now show the inventory valued at $5250. "LIFO" stands for last-in, first-out, meaning that the most produced items are recorded as sold first. Since the 1970s, some U. S. companies shifted towards the use of LIFO, which reduces their income taxes in times of inflation, but since International Financial Reporting Standards banned LIFO, more companies returned to FIFO. LIFO is used only in the United States, governed by the accepted accounting principles. Section 472 of the Internal Revenue Code directs. In the example above, the company would expense the cost associated with the first 75 units at $59, 125 more units at $55, the remaining 10 units at $50. Under LIFO, the total cost of sales for November would be $11,800; the ending inventory would be calculated the following way: The balance sheet would show $4500 in inventory under LIFO. The difference between the cost of an inventory calculated under the FIFO and LIFO methods is called the LIFO reserve.

This reserve is the amount by which an entity's taxable income has been deferred by using the LIFO method. In most sets of accounting standards, such as the International Financial Reporting Standards, FIFO valuation principles are "in-fine" subordinated to the higher principle of lower of cost or market valuation. In the United States, publicly traded entities which use LIFO for taxation purposes must use LIFO for financial reporting purposes but such companies are likely to report a LIFO reserve to their shareholders. A number of tax reform proposals have argued for the repeal of LIFO tax provision; the "Save LIFO Coalition" argues in favor of the retention of LIFO. Stands for first-expired, first-out - a way of dealing with perishable products, or with a specified expiry date., "Tax Topics: Repeal LIFO" "LIFO/FIFO". University of Illinois

Michael J. Ryan (athlete)

Michael J. "Mike" Ryan was an American track and field athlete and a member of the Irish American Athletic Club. He was a distance runner and competed in the Marathon for the U. S. Olympic team in the 1908 Summer Olympics and 1912 Summer Olympics, but did not finish either race. Ryan competed in the Boston Marathon in 1907, finishing 15th, in 1908 he came in fourth place with a time of 2:28:08, he did not finish the race 1909. He came in fifth place in 1910 with a time of 2:38:24, ninth place in 1911 with a time of 2:36:15. On April 19, 1912, "over an unusually sticky course, Mike Ryan, wearing the colors of the Irish American Athletic Club of New York City won the Boston Athletic Association's sixteenth Marathon race with a time of 2:21:18," cutting the former record by 21.04 seconds. In 1909, he finished third place in the Yonkers Marathon, with a time of 2:49:40. In 1910, Ryan won the 2nd annual Canadian Marathon, held in Hamilton, Ontario, "defeating a field of over thirty of the best Canadian distance runners" with a time of 2:49:19.

"The roads in parts of the course were muddy and rough and Ryan's performance was a remarkable one." He finished seven minutes ahead of Charles Cook. On May 27, 1911, against an array of international athletes, Ryan came in second place in a marathon sponsored by the Polytechnic Harriers in London, England with a time of 2 hours 50 minutes and 45 seconds; the course for this race as nearly identical to the 1908 Olympic marathon. Boston Athletic Association. 2008 Boston Marathon Media Guide. Boston: Boston Athletic Association / John Hancock. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 2009-01-04. Cook, Theodore Andrea; the Fourth Olympiad London 1908 Official Report. London: British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2008-12-29. Mike Ryan at Olympics at Michael Ryan at the International Olympic Committee Irish America Archives - NYU Winged Fist Organization Official website

Tenryƫ Ward

Tenryū-ku is one of the seven wards of the city of Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. It is bordered by Kita-ku and Hamakita-ku in Hamamatsu, the cities of Shimada and Iwata and towns of Mori and Kawanehon in Shizuoka, Shishiro, Tōei and Toyone in Aichi Prefecture and Iida and Tenryū in Nagano Prefecture. Tenryū Ward was established on April 1, 2007, it consists of five former cities and villages, including the former city of Tenryū, towns of Sakuma and Misakubo that had merged into Hamamatsu on July 1, 2005. Tenryū Ward is the largest of Hamamatsu’s seven wards in terms of area, its population density of 28.9 people per km² is low. The ward had a population of 34,936 and an area of 944.00 km² in 2009. It's forested, contributing to forestry, one of the principal industries of Hamamatsu. There are many dams on the upper reaches of the Tenryū River, providing hydroelectric power to the Chubu Electric Power Company grid. Tenryū Ward is served by 13 stations on the Iida Line of the Central Japan Railway Company, 3 stations on the Tenryū Hamanako Railroad Tenryū Hamanako Line and one station on the Enshū Railway Line.