A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card is a physical electronic authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is a plastic credit card sized card with an embedded integrated circuit. Many smart cards include a pattern of metal contacts to electrically connect to the internal chip. Others are contactless, some are both. Smart cards can provide personal identification, data storage, application processing. Applications include identification, mobile phones, public transit, computer security and healthcare. Smart cards may provide strong security authentication for single sign-on within organizations. Several nations have deployed smart cards throughout their populations. In 1968 and 1969 Helmut Gröttrup and Jürgen Dethloff jointly filed patents for the automated chip card. Roland Moreno patented the memory card concept in 1974. An important patent for smart cards with a microprocessor and memory as used today was filed by Jürgen Dethloff in 1976 and granted as USP 4105156 in 1978.
In 1977, Michel Ugon from Honeywell Bull invented the first microprocessor smart card with two chips: one microprocessor and one memory, in 1978, he patented the self-programmable one-chip microcomputer that defines the necessary architecture to program the chip. Three years Motorola used this patent in its "CP8". At that time, Bull had 1,200 patents related to smart cards. In 2001, Bull sold its CP8 division together with its patents to Schlumberger, who subsequently combined its own internal smart card department and CP8 to create Axalto. In 2006, Axalto and Gemplus, at the time the world's top two smart-card manufacturers and became Gemalto. In 2008, Dexa Systems spun off from Schlumberger and acquired Enterprise Security Services business, which included the smart-card solutions division responsible for deploying the first large-scale smart-card management systems based on public key infrastructure; the first mass use of the cards was as a telephone card for payment in French payphones, starting in 1983.
After the Télécarte, microchips were integrated into all French Carte Bleue debit cards in 1992. Customers inserted the card into the merchant's point-of-sale terminal typed the personal identification number, before the transaction was accepted. Only limited transactions are processed without a PIN. Smart-card-based "electronic purse" systems store funds on the card, so that readers do not need network connectivity, they entered European service in the mid-1990s. They have been common in Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland, UK, Denmark and Portugal. Private electronic purse systems have been deployed such as the Marines corps at Parris Island allowing small amount payments at the cafeteria. Since the 1990s, smart cards have been the subscriber identity modules used in GSM mobile-phone equipment. Mobile phones are used across the world, so smart cards have become common. Europay MasterCard Visa -compliant cards and equipment are widespread with the deployment led by European countries.
The United States started deploying the EMV technology in 2014, with the deployment still in progress in 2018. A country's national payment association, in coordination with MasterCard International, Visa International, American Express and Japan Credit Bureau, jointly plan and implement EMV systems. In 1993 several international payment companies agreed to develop smart-card specifications for debit and credit cards; the original brands were MasterCard and Europay. The first version of the EMV system was released in 1994. In 1998 the specifications became stable. EMVCo maintains these specifications. EMVco's purpose is to assure the various financial institutions and retailers that the specifications retain backward compatibility with the 1998 version. EMVco upgraded the specifications in 2000 and 2004. EMV compliant cards were first accepted into Malaysia in 2005 and into United States in 2014. MasterCard was the first company, allowed to use the technology in the United States; the United States has felt pushed to use the technology because of the increase in identity theft.
The credit card information stolen from Target in late 2013 was one of the largest indicators that American credit card information is not safe. Target made the decision on April 30, 2014 that it would try to implement the smart chip technology in order to protect itself from future credit card identity theft. Before 2014, the consensus in America was that there were enough security measures to avoid credit card theft and that the smart chip was not necessary; the cost of the smart chip technology was significant, why most of the corporations did not want to pay for it in the United States. The debate came when online credit theft was insecure enough for the United States to invest in the technology; the adaptation of EMV's increased in 2015 when the liability shifts occurred in October by the credit card companies. Contactless smart cards do not require physical contact between a reader, they are becoming more popular for ticketing. Typical uses include mass motorway tolls. Visa and MasterCard implemented a version deployed in 2004–2006 in the U.
S. with Visa's current offering called Visa Contactless. Most contactless fare collection systems are incompatible, though the MIFARE Standard card from NXP Semiconductors has a considerable mark
Common Access Card
The Common Access Card commonly referred to as the CAC or CAC card, is a smart card about the size of a credit card. It is the standard identification for Active Duty United States Defense personnel, to include the Selected Reserve and National Guard, United States Department of Defense civilian employees, United States Coast Guard civilian employees and eligible DoD and USCG contractor personnel, it is the principal card used to enable physical access to buildings and controlled spaces, it provides access to defense computer networks and systems. This card is used by most law enforcement agencies as an official photo identification card for law enforcement officers to carry; these photo identification cards authorize law enforcement officers to carry their handgun off duty. It serves as an identification card under the Geneva Conventions. In combination with a personal identification number, a CAC satisfies the requirement for two-factor authentication: something the user knows combined with something the user has.
The CAC satisfies the requirements for digital signature and data encryption technologies: authentication and non-repudiation. The CAC is a controlled item; as of 2008, DoD has issued over 17 million smart cards. This number includes reissues to accommodate changes in name, rank, or status and to replace lost or stolen cards; as of the same date 3.5 million unterminated or active CACs are in circulation. DoD has deployed an issuance infrastructure at over 1,000 sites in more than 25 countries around the world and is rolling out more than one million card readers and associated middleware; the CAC is issued to Active United States Armed Forces in the Department of Defense and the U. S. Coast Guard. S. Armed Forces Reserve members of the U. S. Armed Forces National Guard members of the U. S. Armed Forces National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration United States Public Health Service Emergency-Essential Employees Contingency Contractor Employees Contracted college & university ROTC Cadets and Midshipmen Deployed Overseas Civilians Non-Combatant Personnel DoD/Uniformed Service Civilians residing on military installations in CONUS, Alaska, Puerto Rico, or Guam DoD/Uniformed Service Civilians or Contracted Civilian residing in a foreign country for at least 365 days Presidential Appointees approved by the United States Senate DoD Civilian employees, United States Military veterans with a Veterans Affairs Disability rating of 100% P&T Eligible DoD and USCG Contractor Employees Non-DoD/other government and state employees of the National GuardFuture plans include the ability to store additional information through the incorporation of RFID chips or other contactless technology to allow seamless access to DoD facilities.
The program, used to issue CAC IDs is called the Real-Time Automated Personnel Identification System. RAPIDS interfaces with the Joint Personnel Adjudication System, uses this system to verify that the candidate has passed a background investigation and FBI fingerprint check. Applying for a CAC requires DoD form 1172-2 to be filled out and filed with RAPIDS; the system monitored by the DoD at all times. Different RAPIDS sites have been set up throughout military installations in and out of combat theater to issue new cards. On the front of the card, the background shows the phrase "U. S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE" repeated across the card. A color photo of the owner is placed on the top left corner. Below the photo is the name of the owner; the top right corner displays the expiration date. Other information on the front include the owner's pay grade and federal identifier. A PDF417 stacked two-dimensional barcode is displayed on the bottom left corner. And, an integrated circuit chip is placed near the bottom-middle of the card.
There are three color code schemes used on the front of the CAC. A blue bar across the owner's name shows that the owner is a non-U. S. Citizen. A green bar shows. No bar is for all other personnel -- among others; the back of the card has a ghost image of the owner. And if applicable, the card contains the date of birth, blood type, DoD benefits number, Geneva Convention category, DoD Identification Number; the DoD number is known as the Electronic Data Interchange Personal Identifier. A Code 39 linear barcode, as well as a magnetic strip is placed on the bottom of the card; the DoD ID/EDIPI number stays with the owner throughout his or her career with the DoD or USCG when he or she changes armed services or other departments within the DoD or the USCG. For retired U. S. military personnel who subsequently become DoD or USCG civilians or DoD or USCG contractors, the DoD ID/EDIPI Number on their CAC will be the same as on their DD Form 2 Retired ID Card. For non-military spouses, unremarried former spouses, widows/widowers of active, Reserve or Retired U.
S. military personnel who themselves become DoD or USCG civilians or DoD or USCG contractors, the DoD ID/EDIPI Number on their CAC will be the same as on their DD 1173 Uniformed Services Privilege and Identification Card. The front of the CAC is
National Institute of Standards and Technology
The National Institute of Standards and Technology is a physical sciences laboratory, a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce. Its mission is to promote industrial competitiveness. NIST's activities are organized into laboratory programs that include nanoscale science and technology, information technology, neutron research, material measurement, physical measurement; the American AI initiative has called NIST to lead the development of appropriate technical standards for reliable, trustworthy, secure and interoperable AI systems. The Articles of Confederation, ratified by the colonies in 1781, contained the clause, "The United States in Congress assembled shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states—fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States". Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution of the United States, transferred this power to Congress.
To coin money, regulate the value thereof, of foreign coin, fix the standard of weights and measures". In January 1790, President George Washington, in his first annual message to Congress stated that, "Uniformity in the currency and measures of the United States is an object of great importance, will, I am persuaded, be duly attended to", ordered Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson to prepare a plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage and Measures of the United States, afterwards referred to as the Jefferson report. On October 25, 1791, Washington appealed a third time to Congress, "A uniformity of the weights and measures of the country is among the important objects submitted to you by the Constitution and if it can be derived from a standard at once invariable and universal, must be no less honorable to the public council than conducive to the public convenience", but it was not until 1838, that a uniform set of standards was worked out. In 1821, John Quincy Adams had declared "Weights and measures may be ranked among the necessities of life to every individual of human society".
From 1830 until 1901, the role of overseeing weights and measures was carried out by the Office of Standard Weights and Measures, part of the United States Department of the Treasury. In 1901, in response to a bill proposed by Congressman James H. Southard, the National Bureau of Standards was founded with the mandate to provide standard weights and measures, to serve as the national physical laboratory for the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt appointed Samuel W. Stratton as the first director; the budget for the first year of operation was $40,000. The Bureau took custody of the copies of the kilogram and meter bars that were the standards for US measures, set up a program to provide metrology services for United States scientific and commercial users. A laboratory site was constructed in Washington, DC, instruments were acquired from the national physical laboratories of Europe. In addition to weights and measures, the Bureau developed instruments for electrical units and for measurement of light.
In 1905 a meeting was called that would be the first "National Conference on Weights and Measures". Conceived as purely a metrology agency, the Bureau of Standards was directed by Herbert Hoover to set up divisions to develop commercial standards for materials and products.page 133 Some of these standards were for products intended for government use, but product standards affected private-sector consumption. Quality standards were developed for products including some types of clothing, automobile brake systems and headlamps and electrical safety. During World War I, the Bureau worked on multiple problems related to war production operating its own facility to produce optical glass when European supplies were cut off. Between the wars, Harry Diamond of the Bureau developed a blind approach radio aircraft landing system. During World War II, military research and development was carried out, including development of radio propagation forecast methods, the proximity fuze and the standardized airframe used for Project Pigeon, shortly afterwards the autonomously radar-guided Bat anti-ship guided bomb and the Kingfisher family of torpedo-carrying missiles.
In 1948, financed by the United States Air Force, the Bureau began design and construction of SEAC, the Standards Eastern Automatic Computer. The computer went into operation in May 1950 using a combination of vacuum tubes and solid-state diode logic. About the same time the Standards Western Automatic Computer, was built at the Los Angeles office of the NBS by Harry Huskey and used for research there. A mobile version, DYSEAC, was built for the Signal Corps in 1954. Due to a changing mission, the "National Bureau of Standards" became the "National Institute of Standards and Technology" in 1988. Following September 11, 2001, NIST conducted the official investigation into the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings. NIST, known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards, is a measurement standards laboratory known as a National Metrological Institute, a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce; the institute's official mission is to: Promote U. S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life.
NIST had an operating budget for fiscal year 2007 of about $843.3 million. NIST's 2009 budget was $992 million
United States Department of Homeland Security
The United States Department of Homeland Security is a cabinet department of the U. S. federal government with responsibilities in public security comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries. Its stated missions involve anti-terrorism, border security and customs, cyber security, disaster prevention and management, it was created in response to the September 11 attacks and is the youngest U. S. cabinet department. In fiscal year 2017, it was allocated a net discretionary budget of $40.6 billion. With more than 240,000 employees, DHS is the third largest Cabinet department, after the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs. Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council. Other agencies with significant homeland security responsibilities include the Departments of Health and Human Services and Energy. Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen resigned on April 7, 2019, effective April 10. By law, Undersecretary for Management Claire Grady was to become the acting Secretary of Homeland Security.
On April 7, President Donald J. Trump designated the current U. S. Customs and Border Protection Commissioner Kevin McAleenan as acting Secretary. McAleenan named David Pekoske, who also serves as the TSA Administrator, as the acting Deputy Secretary. Whereas the Department of Defense is charged with military actions abroad, the Department of Homeland Security works in the civilian sphere to protect the United States within, at, outside its borders, its stated goal is to prepare for and respond to domestic emergencies terrorism. On March 1, 2003, DHS absorbed the U. S. assumed its duties. In doing so, it divided the enforcement and services functions into two separate and new agencies: Immigration and Customs Enforcement and Citizenship and Immigration Services; the investigative divisions and intelligence gathering units of the INS and Customs Service were merged forming Homeland Security Investigations, the primary investigative arm of DHS. Additionally, the border enforcement functions of the INS, including the U.
S. Border Patrol, the U. S. Customs Service, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service were consolidated into a new agency under DHS: U. S. Customs and Border Protection; the Federal Protective Service falls under the National Programs Directorate. The Department of Homeland Security is headed by the Secretary of Homeland Security with the assistance of the Deputy Secretary; the department contains the components listed below. AgenciesUnited States Citizenship and Immigration Services: Processes and examines citizenship and asylum requests from aliens. U. S. Customs and Border Protection: Law enforcement agency that enforces U. S. laws along its international borders including its enforcement of U. S. immigration and agriculture laws while at and patrolling between all U. S. ports-of-entry. U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement: Law enforcement agency divided into two bureaus:Homeland Security Investigations investigates violations of more than 400 U. S. laws and gathers intelligence on national and international criminal activities that threaten the security of the homeland.
Transportation Security Administration: Responsible for aviation security, as well as land and water transportation security United States Coast Guard: Military service responsible for law enforcement, maritime security, national defense, maritime mobility, protection of natural resources. United States Secret Service: Law enforcement agency tasked with two distinct and critical national security missions:Investigative Mission – The investigative mission of the USSS is to safeguard the payment and financial systems of the United States from a wide range of financial and electronic-based crimes. Protective Mission – The protective mission of the USSS is to ensure the safety of the President of the United States, the Vice President of the United States, their immediate families, foreign heads of state. Federal Emergency Management Agency: agency that oversees the federal government's response to natural disasters like earthquakes, tornadoes, forest fires. Passports for U. S. citizens are issued by the U.
S. Department of State, not the Department of Homeland Security. Advisory groups: Homeland Security Advisory Council: State and local government, first responders, private sector, academics National Infrastructure Advisory Council: Advises on security of public and private information systems Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee: Advise the Under Secretary for Science and Technology. Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council: Coordinate infrastructure protection with private sector and other levels of government Interagency Coordinating Council on Emergency Preparedness and Individuals with Disabilities Task Force on New Americans: "An inter-agency effort to help immigrants learn English, embrace the common core of American civic culture, become American."Other components: Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Office: Counter attempts by terrorists or other threat actors to carry out an attack against the United States or its interests using a weapon of mass destruction.
Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen established the CWMD Office in December 2017 by consolidating the Domes
United States Secretary of Commerce
The United States Secretary of Commerce is the head of the United States Department of Commerce. The Secretary is appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate and serves in the President's Cabinet; the Secretary is concerned with promoting American industries. Until 1913 there was one Secretary of Commerce and Labor, uniting this department with the Department of Labor, now headed by a separate Secretary of Labor; the current Commerce Secretary is Wilbur Ross, nominated by President Donald Trump and approved by the Senate on February 28, 2017. Parties No party Democratic Republican Status Source: Department of Commerce: Secretaries As of April 2019, there are ten living former Secretaries of Commerce, the oldest being Frederick B. Dent; the most recent Secretary of Commerce to die was Peter Peterson, on March 20, 2018. The most serving Secretary to die was Ron Brown, who died in office on April 3, 1996; the line of succession for the Secretary of Commerce is as follows: Deputy Secretary of Commerce General Counsel of the Department of Commerce Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade Under Secretary of Commerce for Economic Affairs Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Under Secretary of Commerce for Export Administration Chief Financial Officer of the Department of Commerce and Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Administration Boulder Laboratories Site Manager, National Institute of Standards and Technology Official website
General Services Administration
The General Services Administration, an independent agency of the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U. S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of $20.9 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually, it contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U. S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,700 owned and leased buildings and a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D. C. – the largest U. S. federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center. GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service and the Public Buildings Service, as well as several Staff Offices including the Office of Government-wide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization, the Office of Mission Assurance.
As part of FAS, GSA's Technology Transformation Services helps federal agencies improve delivery of information and services to the public. Key initiatives include FedRAMP, Cloud.gov, the USAGov platform, Data.gov, Performance.gov, Challenge.gov. GSA is a member of the Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public procurement. In 1947 President Harry Truman asked former President Herbert Hoover to lead what became known as the Hoover Commission to make recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of an "Office of the General Services." This proposed office would combine the responsibilities of the following organizations: U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply U. S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement National Archives Establishment All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration War Assets AdministrationGSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act.
General Jess Larson, Administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named GSA's first Administrator. The first job awaiting Administrator Larson and the newly formed GSA was a complete renovation of the White House; the structure had fallen into such a state of disrepair by 1949 that one inspector of the time said the historic structure was standing "purely from habit." Larson explained the nature of the total renovation in depth by saying, "In order to make the White House structurally sound, it was necessary to dismantle, I mean dismantle, everything from the White House except the four walls, which were constructed of stone. Everything, except the four walls without a roof, was stripped down, that's where the work started." GSA worked with President Truman and First Lady Bess Truman to ensure that the new agency's first major project would be a success. GSA completed the renovation in 1952. In 1986 GSA headquarters, U. S. General Services Administration Building, located at Eighteenth and F Streets, NW, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, at the time serving as Interior Department offices.
In 1960 GSA created the Federal Telecommunications System, a government-wide intercity telephone system. In 1962 the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space created a new building program to address obsolete office buildings in Washington, D. C. resulting in the construction of many of the offices that now line Independence Avenue. In 1970 the Nixon administration created the Consumer Product Information Coordinating Center, now part of USAGov. In 1974 the Federal Buildings Fund was initiated, allowing GSA to issue rent bills to federal agencies. In 1972 GSA established the Automated Data and Telecommunications Service, which became the Office of Information Resources Management. In 1973 GSA created the Office of Federal Management Policy. GSA's Office of Acquisition Policy centralized procurement policy in 1978. GSA was responsible for emergency preparedness and stockpiling strategic materials to be used in wartime until these functions were transferred to the newly-created Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979.
In 1984 GSA introduced the federal government to the use of charge cards, known as the GMA SmartPay system. The National Archives and Records Administration was spun off into an independent agency in 1985; the same year, GSA began to provide governmentwide policy oversight and guidance for federal real property management as a result of an Executive Order signed by President Ronald Reagan. In 2003 the Federal Protective Service was moved to the Department of Homeland Security. In 2005 GSA reorganized to merge the Federal Supply Service and Federal Technology Service business lines into the Federal Acquisition Service. On April 3, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Martha N. Johnson to serve as GSA Administrator. After a nine-month delay, the United States Senate confirmed her nomination on February 4, 2010. On April 2, 2012, Johnson resigned in the wake of a management-deficiency report that detailed improper payments for a 2010 "Western Regions" training conference put on by the Public Buildings Service in Las Vegas.
In July 1991 GSA contractors began the excavation of what is now the Ted Weiss Federal Building in New York City. The planning for that buildin