Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, 120 km north of Paris and 100 km south-west of Lille. It is the capital of the Somme department in Hauts-de-France; the city had a population of 136,105 according to the 2006 census, one of the biggest university hospitals in France with a capacity of 1,200 beds. Amiens Cathedral, the tallest of the large, Gothic churches of the 13th century and the largest in France of its kind, is a World Heritage Site; the author Jules Verne lived in Amiens from 1871 until his death in 1905, served on the city council for 15 years. The town was fought over during both World Wars, suffering much damage, occupied several times by both sides; the 1918 Battle of Amiens was the opening phase of the Hundred Days Offensive which led directly to the Armistice with Germany. Bombed by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, the city was rebuilt according to Pierre Dufau's plans with wider the streets to ease traffic congestion; these newer structures were built of brick and white stone with slate roofs.
The architect Auguste Perret designed the Gare d'Amiens train station and nearby Tour Perret. Amiens has an important cultural heritage, on which tourism is based. Apart from the cathedral, there is the hortillonnages, Jules Verne House, the Tour Perret, the Musée de Picardie, the zoo, the quarters of Saint-Leu and Saint-Maurice. A total of 53 monuments are listed in the inventory of monuments historiques, 126 places and monuments listed in the general inventory of cultural heritage, 263 objects listed in the inventory of monuments historiques. During December, the town hosts the largest Christmas market in northern France, it is known including "macarons d'Amiens", almond paste biscuits. The first known settlement at this location was Samarobriva, the central settlement of the Ambiani, one of the principal tribes of Gaul; the town was given the name Ambianum by the Romans, meaning settlement of the Ambiani people. Amiens was part of Francia from the 5th century. Normans sacked the city in 859 and again in 882.
In 1113, the city was recognized by King Louis VI of France and joined to the Crown of France in 1185. In 1597, Spanish soldiers held the city during the six-month Siege of Amiens, before Henry IV regained control. During the 18th and 19th century, the textile tradition of Amiens became famous for its velours. In 1789, the provinces of France were dismantled and the territory was organised into departments. Much of Picardy became the newly created department of Somme with Amiens as the departmental capital. During the industrial revolution, the city walls were demolished, opening up space for large boulevards around the town centre; the Henriville neighbourhood in the south of the city was developed around this time. In 1848, the first railway arrived in Amiens. During the 1870 Battle of Amiens when the Somme was invaded by Prussian forces, Amiens was occupied; the town was fought over during both the First and Second World Wars, suffering much damage and being occupied several times by both sides.
The 1918 Battle of Amiens was the opening phase of the Hundred Days Offensive which led directly to the Armistice with Germany that ended the war. It was bombed by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War; the city was rebuilt according to Pierre Dufau's plans with a focus on widening the streets to ease traffic congestion. These newer structures were built of brick and white stone with slate roofs; the architect Auguste Perret designed the Gare d'Amiens train station and nearby Tour Perret. Amiens, the regional prefecture of Picardy, is the prefecture of the Somme, one of the three departments in the region. Located in the Paris Basin, across the country the city benefits from a privileged geographical position. At the crossroads of major European routes of movement, the city is at the heart of a major rail star; as the crow flies, the city is 115 kilometres from Paris, 97 kilometres from Lille, 100 kilometres from Rouen, 162 kilometres from Le Havre and 144 kilometres from Reims. At the regional level, Amiens is located 53 kilometres north of Beauvais, 71 kilometres west of Saint-Quentin, 66 kilometres from Compiègne and 102 kilometres from Laon.
In area, it is the third in the Somme, after Hornoy-le-Bourg. The area of the commune is 4,946 hectares. Amiens is crossed by the main stem of the River Somme and is quiet, except during exceptional floods, several weeks long, it is on its southeastern outskirts, close to Camon and Longueau, the confluence with its main tributary on the left bank, the Avre. The Selle enters from the northwest of Amiens, with two arms passing behind the Unicorn Stadium, the exhibition park, the megacity and horse racing track passing the end of the Promenade de la Hotoie and the zoo of Amiens, to the right of the water treatment plant, in front of the island Sainte-Aragone, opposite the cemetery of La Madeleine in Amiens; the city developed in a natural narrowing of the river at the level of the hortillonnages, due to the advance of the rim of the Picard plateau in Saint-Pierre (ford
Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports
The Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports was the world governing body for roller sports, including skateboarding, rink hockey, inline hockey, speed skating, inline alpine, roller derby, roller freestyle, inline freestyle and artistic roller skating. It was established in April 1924 in Montreux, Switzerland by two Swiss sportsmen, Fred Renkewitz and Otto Myer, who had close connections to the International Olympic Committee; the FIRS gathered more than 100 national federations, including countries from every continent and they are affiliated with the International Skating Union. Park terrain skateboarding will become an Olympic sport in 2020. A proposal to dissolve the federation and merge with the International Skateboarding Federation to form a new body known as World Skate was ratified in September 2017; the FIRS aimed to foster the Roller Sports participation on a global scale. Its areas of responsibility were as follows: Administration and Regulations Organizing international competitions Developing the movement worldwide PromotingThe authority of FIRS was recognized by the following organizations: International Olympic Committee General Association of International Sports Federations International World Games Association Pan American Sports Organization FIRS recognized the following continental confederations: Africa - African Confederation of Sports of Roller Skating Europe - Confédération Européenne de Roller Skating Asia - Confederation of Asia Roller Sports Oceania - Oceania Confederation of Roller Sports The Americas - Confederación Panamericana de Roller Sports Each continental confederation comprises or recognizes, in turn, various national governing bodies and associations.
Skating is considered to be one of the most complete physical exercises that exist and enjoys huge popularity on a world level. According to the latest estimations, there are more than 40 million habitual users of recreational skates throughout the world. Club CompetitionsRink hockey World Club Championship Roller Hockey Intercontinental CupNational Teams CompetitionsFIRS Roller Hockey World Cup FIRS Women's Roller Hockey World Cup FIRS Roller Hockey World Cup U-20 Men's Roller Derby World Cup and Women's Roller Derby World Cup organized by Blood & Thunder magazine, not FIRS. Association of IOC Recognised International Sports Federations FIRS web site
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
A round-robin tournament is a competition in which each contestant meets all other contestants in turn. A round-robin contrasts with an elimination tournament, in which participants are eliminated after a certain number of losses; the term round-robin is derived from the French term ruban, meaning "ribbon". Over a long period of time, the term was idiomized to robin. In a single round-robin schedule, each participant plays every other participant once. If each participant plays all others twice, this is called a double round-robin; the term is used when all participants play one another more than twice, is never used when one participant plays others an unequal number of times. In the United Kingdom, a round-robin tournament is called an American tournament in sports such as tennis or billiards which have knockout tournaments. In Italian it is called girone all'italiana. In Serbian it is called the Berger system, after chess player Johann Berger. A round-robin tournament with four players is sometimes called "quad" or "foursome".
In sports with a large number of competitive matches per season, double round-robins are common. Most association football leagues in the world are organized on a double round-robin basis, in which every team plays all others in its league once at home and once away; this system is used in qualification for major tournaments such as the FIFA World Cup and the continental tournaments. There are round-robin bridge, draughts, go, curling and Scrabble tournaments; the World Chess Championship decided in 2005 and in 2007 on an eight-player double round-robin tournament where each player faces every other player once as white and once as black. Group tournaments rankings go by number of matches won and drawn, with any of a variety of tiebreaker criteria. Pool stages within a wider tournament are conducted on a round-robin basis. Examples with single round-robin scheduling include the FIFA World Cup, UEFA European Football Championship, UEFA Cup in football, Super Rugby in the Southern Hemisphere during its past iterations as Super 12 and Super 14, the Cricket World Cup along Pakistan Super League & Indian Premier League, the two major Twenty-20 Cricket tournaments, ] and many American Football college conferences, such as the Big 12.
The group phases of the UEFA Champions League and Copa Libertadores de América are contested as a double round-robin, as are most basketball leagues outside the United States, including the regular-season and Top 16 phases of the Euroleague. Season ending tennis tournaments use a round robin format prior to the semi on stages The champion, in a round-robin tournament, is the contestant that wins the most games. In the circle of death, it is possible that no champion emerges from a round-robin tournament if there is no draw. In theory, a round-robin tournament is the fairest way to determine the champion from among a known and fixed number of contestants; each contestant, whether player or team, has equal chances against all other opponents because there is no prior seeding of contestants that will preclude a match between any given pair. The element of luck is seen to be reduced as compared to a knockout system since one or two bad performances need not cripple a competitor's chance of ultimate victory.
Final records of participants are more accurate as they represent the results over a longer period against the same opposition. This can be used to determine which teams are the poorest performers and thus subject to relegation if the format is used in a multi-tiered league; this is helpful to determine the final rank of all competitors, from strongest to weakest, for purposes of qualification for another stage or competition as well as for prize money. In team sport the major league champions are regarded as the "best" team in the land, rather than the cup winners. Moreover, in tournaments such as the FIFA or ICC world cups, a first round stage consisting of a number of mini round robins between groups of 4 teams guards against the possibility of a team travelling thousands of miles only to be eliminated after just one poor performance in a straight knockout system; the top one, two, or three teams in these groups proceed to a straight knockout stage for the remainder of the tournament. Round-robins can suffer from being too long compared to other tournament types, with scheduled games not having any substantial meaning.
They may require tiebreaking procedures. Swiss system tournaments attempt to combine elements of the round-robin and elimination formats, to provide a worthy champion using fewer rounds than a round-robin, while allowing draws and losses; the main disadvantage of a round robin tournament is the time needed to complete it. Unlike a knockout tournament where half of the participants are eliminated after each round, a round robin requires one round less than the number of participants if the number of participants is and as many rounds as participants if the number of participants is odd. For instance, a tournament of 16 teams can be completed in just 4 rounds in a knockout format. Other issues
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Thun is a town and a municipality in the administrative district of Thun in the canton of Bern in Switzerland with about 43,783 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2013. It is located. Besides tourism and precision instrument engineering, the largest garrison in the country, the food industry and publishing are of economic importance to Thun; the official language of Thun is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The area of what is now Thun was inhabited since the Neolithic age. During the early Bronze Age there were a number of settlements along the Aare. A site at Renzenbühl had a local chief or nobleman's grave which contained one of the richest collections of early Bronze Age artifacts in Europe. Another site at Wiler contained 1,500 maritime snail shells which were harvested from the Mediterranean and traded over the Alps; the name of the town derives from the Celtic term Dunum, meaning "fortified town". It fell to Rome in 58 BC, when Roman legions conquered all of Switzerland, it soon became one of the main centers of Roman administration in the region.
The Romans were driven out of Thun, out of the rest of Switzerland, by the Burgundians around 400 AD. The Aare became the frontier between the Christian Burgundians and the Pagan, German-speaking Alemanni, who lived north; the region was mentioned for the first time during the 7th century, in the chronicle of Frankish monk Fredgar. The town is first mentioned in 1133 as Tuno; the region of Thun became a part of the Holy Roman Empire in 1033, when Conrad II gained the title of King of Burgundy. The emperors entrusted the Zähringen family, centred in Bern, with subduing the unruly nobles of central Switzerland. Around 1190 Duke Bertold V of Zähringen, built Thun castle and expanded the town. After Bertold's death in 1218, his territories went to Ulrich III von Kyburg. In 1264 Thun received town rights and in 1384 the town was bought by the canton of Bern. Thun was the capital of the Canton of Oberland of the Helvetic Republic, which lasted from 1798 until 1803. In 1819 a Military School was founded in the town, which developed into the main military school in Switzerland.
Thun was connected to the railway network of Switzerland in 1859 and telephone access made available in 1888. The center of Thun is located on the Aare, just downstream of the point where that river flows out of Lake Thun, encompasses both banks of the river and an island between; the town covers an area of 21.6 km2, with the town boundaries reaching up to 4 km from the town centre. The town ranges in altitude between about 560 m, in the town center, 1,170 m, on its eastern boundary. Thun has an area of 21.57 km2. As of the 2004 survey, a total of 6.03 km2 or 27.9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 4.32 km2 or 20.0% is forested. Of rest of the municipality 10.76 km2 or 49.9% is settled, 0.29 km2 or 1.3% is either rivers or lakes and 0.19 km2 or 0.9% is unproductive land. From the same survey, industrial buildings made up 5.7% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 26.8% and transportation infrastructure made up 12.1%. While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 4.4%.
All of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 11.4% is used for growing crops and 15.6% is pasturage. Of the water in the municipality, 0.9 % is in lakes and 0.4 % streams. On 31 December 2009 Amtsbezirk Thun, of which it was the capital, was dissolved. On the following day, 1 January 2010, it became the capital of the larger Verwaltungskreis Thun; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules on a Bend Argent in chief a Mullet of Seven Or. Thun has a population of 43,743; as of 2012, 12.3% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Between the last 2 years the population changed at a rate of 0.3%. Migration accounted for 0.4%, while births and deaths accounted for -0.4%. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Italian is the second most common and Albanian is the third. There are 399 people; as of 2013, the population was 52.5 % female. The population was made up of 2,779 non-Swiss men. There were 2,559 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 12,265 or about 30.4% were born in Thun and lived there in 2000.
There were 15,105 or 37.4% who were born in the same canton, while 5,846 or 14.5% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 5,699 or 14.1% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2012, children and teenagers make up 17.5% of the population, while adults make up 60.7% and seniors make up 21.8%. As of 2000, there were 15,905 people who never married in the municipality. There were 18,969 married individuals, 2,875 widows or widowers and 2,628 individuals who are divorced; as of 2010, there were 7,537 households that consist of only one person and 919 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 18,153 apartments were permanently occupied, while 1,080 apartments were seasonally occupied and 406 apartments were empty; as of 2012, the construction rate of new housing units was 5.5 new units per 1000 residents. As of 2003 the average price to rent an aver