First Serbian Uprising
The First Serbian Uprising was an uprising of Serbs in the Sanjak of Smederevo against the Ottoman Empire from 14 February 1804 to 7 October 1813. A local revolt against renegade janissaries who had seized power through a coup, it evolved into a war for independence after more than three centuries of Ottoman rule and short-lasting Austrian occupations; the dahije murdered the Ottoman Vizier in 1801 and occupied the sanjak, ruling it independently from the Ottoman Sultan. Tyranny ensued. In 1804 the janissaries feared that the Sultan would use the Serbs against them, so they murdered many Serbian chiefs. Enraged, an assembly chose Karađorđe as leader of the uprising, the rebel army defeated and took over towns throughout the sanjak, technically fighting for the Sultan; the Sultan, fearing their power, ordered all pashaliks in the region to crush them. The Serbs marched against the Ottomans and, after major victories in 1805–06, established a government and parliament that returned the land to the people, abolished forced labor, reduced taxes.
Military success continued over the years. After the Russo-Turkish War ended and Russian support ceased, the Ottoman Empire exploited these circumstances and reconquered Serbia in 1813. Although the uprising was crushed, it resumed shortly with the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815 In 1788, during the Austro-Turkish War, Koča's frontier rebellion saw eastern Šumadija occupied by Austrian Serbian Free Corps and hajduks, subsequently most of the Sanjak of Smederevo was occupied by the Habsburg Monarchy. From 15 September to 8 October 1789, a Habsburg Austrian force besieged the fortress of Belgrade; the Austrians held the city until 1791, when it handed Belgrade back to the Ottomans according to the terms of the Treaty of Sistova. With the return of the sanjak to the Ottoman Empire the Serbs expected reprisals from the Turks due to their support of the Austrians. Sultan Selim III had given complete command of the Sanjak of Smederevo and Belgrade to battle-hardened Janissaries that had fought Christian forces during the Austro-Turkish War and many other conflicts.
Although Selim III granted authority to the peaceful Hadži Mustafa Pasha, tensions between the Serbs and the Janissary command did not subside. In 1793 and 1796 Selim III proclaimed firmans. Among other things, taxes were to be collected by the obor-knez. Selim III decreed that some unpopular janissaries were to leave the "Belgrade Pashaluk", as he saw them a threat to the central authority of Hadži Mustafa Pasha. Many of those janissaries were employed by or found refuge with Osman Pazvantoğlu, a renegade opponent of Selim III in the Sanjak of Vidin. Fearing the dissolution of the Janissary command in the Sanjak of Smederevo, Osman Pazvantoğlu launched a series of raids against Serbians without the permission of the Sultan, causing much instability and fear in the region. Pazvantoğlu was defeated in 1793 by the Serbs at the Battle of Kolari. In the summer of 1797 the sultan appointed Mustafa Pasha to the position of beglerbeg of Rumelia Eyalet and he left Serbia for Plovdiv to fight against the Vidin rebels of Pazvantoğlu.
During the absence of Mustafa Pasha, the forces of Pazvantoğlu captured Požarevac and besieged the Belgrade fortress. At the end of November 1797 obor-knezes Aleksa Nenadović, Ilija Birčanin and Nikola Grbović from Valjevo brought their forces to Belgrade and forced the besieging janissary forces to retreat to Smederevo. However, on January 30, 1799, Selim III allowed the Janissaries to return, referring to them as local Muslims from the Sanjak of Smederevo; the Janissaries accepted the authority of Hadži Mustafa Pasha, until a Janissary in Šabac, named Bego Novljanin, demanded from a Serb a surcharge and murdered the man when he refused to pay. Fearing the worst, Hadži Mustafa Pasha marched on Šabac with a force of 600 to ensure that the Janissary was brought to justice and order was restored. Not only did the other Janissaries decided to support Bego Novljanin but Osman Pazvantoğlu attacked the Belgrade Pasahaluk in support of the Janissaries. On 15 December 1801 Vizier Hadži Mustafa Pasha of Belgrade was killed by Kučuk-Alija, one of the four leading dahije.
This resulted in the Sanjak of Smederevo being ruled by these renegade janissaries independently from the Ottoman government, in defiance of the Sultan. The janissaries imposed "a system of arbitrary abuse, unmatched by anything similar in the entire history of Ottoman misrule in the Balkans"; the leaders divided the sanjak into pashaluks. They suspended Serbian autonomy and drastically increased taxes, land was seized, forced labor was introduced and many Serbs fled the janissaries in fear; the tyranny endured by the Serbs caused them to send a petition to the Sultan, which the dahije learned of. The dahije were concerned. To forestall this they decided to execute leading Serbs throughout the sanjak, in an event known as the "Slaughter of the Knezes", which took place in late January 1804. According to contemporary sources from Valjevo, the severed heads of the leaders were put on public display in the central square to serve as an example to those who might plot against the rule of the dahije.
Košutnjak is a park-forest and urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is divided between in the municipalities of Rakovica. With the adjoining Topčider, it is colloquially styled "Belgrade's oxygen factory"; the name, košutnjak, is derived from the medieval hunting forests of the Serbian nobility, meaning doe's breeder. as does used to live in the park until the World War I. The name was mentioned for the first time in 1831; the Košutnjak hill is 250 m high and the entire forest complex covers an area of 330 ha. Košutanjak has a few geological natural monuments, they include several Cretaceous maritime ridges of "Burdelj", "Tasin Majdan" and "Baremski", on the location of the assassination of the prince Michael, a geology profile where the mint is located today. Košutnjak is located 6 km southwest from the downtown Belgrade, it is bordered by the neighborhoods of Topčider to the north and west, Kanarevo Brdo to the northwest and Skojevsko Naselje to the south, Žarkovo and Banovo Brdo to the east.
Filmski Grad and Golf Naselje are sub-neighborhoods of Košutnjak. In the 19th century, Košutnjak was a fenced hunting ground and royal excursion place for the members of the Obrenović dynasty; until the World War I, the area was under quality oak forest. A document from 1849 says that there were 48 deers in Košutnjak, 13 bulls and 35 does. In 1884 the first railway in Serbia, which connected Belgrade and Niš, was constructed through the forest. In 1908 Belgian architect Alban Chambon drafted a new general urban plan in 1908 which made Košutnjak a public park. Košutnjak gained a sort of historical notoriety as prince of Serbia, Mihailo Obrenović III and his cousin Anka Konstantinmović were assassinated while walking in the park on 10 June 1869, when Ivan Stambolić, Slobodan Milošević's political opponent was abducted from the park on 25 August 2000 and assassinated and buried at Fruška Gora. There are remnants of the German cemetery and the monuments to the Serbian soldiers erected by their adversaries, German soldiers, in World War I.
Until World War II, the pheasants were abundant too and in this period Košutnjak was a healing destination for many city children. After 1945 city urbanists considered the way Topčider-Košutnjak complex has been handled was wrong the expansion of the railway station into the marshalling yard and construction of Filmski Grad, so the Belgrade's GUP in the 1950s projected the complete removal of the railway objects from the Topčider valley, but, never executed. After World War II, before skiing facilities were built on the mountains further from Belgrade, the slopes of Banovo Brdo, were used by Belgraders for skiing. Košutnjak is home to many animal species, some of which are under strict protection. There are 521 plant species, including lime tree, pedunculate oak, common hornbeam, Turkey oak, Hungarian oak, European yew, sweet chestnut, cherry laurel and Turkish hazel. About 5% of the forest is inhabited by the conifers cedar, black pine and white pine. In 2015, an average age of the trees has been estimated to 60–70 years.
In 2015, about 50 ha of Košutnjak has been re-forested with 4,400 seedlings of the common ash and sycamore. Animals inhabiting the forest are squirrels, hedgehogs and bats. Košutnjak is one of the most popular recreational places in Belgrade. With 40 ha, Sports Center Košutnjak is one of the largest and most diverse in the city, while the park has an auto-camp, modern settlements of Filmski Grad and Pionirski Grad, big studios of the national broadcaster Radio Television of Serbia, many popular restaurants and arranged paths criss-crossing the forest. There are jogging tracks and a ski run. In the lower parts, Košutnjak and Topčider forests grew together, while in the upper parts they are divided by the river Topčiderska reka and a railway passing through the river's valley. Nobelist author Ivo Andrić wrote: "You just hang on to Topčider and Košutnjak... Topčider is my favorite place, where I ate bread and drank wine in the sweetest and calmest manner". Andrić's longtme friend, painter Leposava Bela Pavlović, made two paintings of Košutnjak in 1943.
One, titled "Košutnjak, 1943" just shows the nature and is today exhibited in the Memorial museum of Ivo Andrić. On the another one, "In Košutnjak during the occupation" she painted Andrić, Milica Babić-Jovanović and Nenad Jovanović; this painting is in the National Museum of Serbia. In 2014, city government declared "Košutnjak Forest" as the nature monument. Protected locality covers an area of 265.26 ha. Košutnjak is the natural reserve of common hornbeam and silver lime. In 1922 company "Čavlina and Sladoljev" from Zagreb drafted the project of connecting two banks of the Sava river by the cable car. In 1928, building company "Šumadija" again proposed the construction of the cable car, which they called "air tram" but this project was planned to connect Zemun to Kalemegdan on Belgrade Fortress, via Great War Island; the interval of the cabins was set at 2 minutes and the entire route was supposed to last 5 minutes. The project was never realized. Engineer and CEO of the Yugoslav institute for urbanism and dwelling "Juginus", Mirko Radovanac, revived the idea in the 1990s.
After conducting e
Fudbalski klub Vojvodina known as Vojvodina Novi Sad or Vojvodina and familiarly as Voša, is a Serbian professional football club based in Novi Sad, the second largest city in Serbia, one of the most popular clubs in the country. The club is the major part of the Vojvodina multi-sport club and the third oldest football club in the Serbian SuperLiga and the most successful football club in Serbia next to the rivals Red Star Belgrade and Partizan Belgrade. In its long history, Vojvodina were one of the most successful clubs in the former Yugoslavia, winning two First League titles, in 1966 and 1989, were runners-up in 1957, 1962 and 1975, achieved 3rd place in 1992 and finished 5th in the competition's all-time table. Vojvodina were runners-up in the Yugoslav Cup in 1951, they won the UEFA Intertoto Cup in 1976, the Mitropa Cup in 1977 and were runners-up of the Mitropa Cup in 1957 and the UEFA Intertoto Cup in 1998. From 1993 to 1997, Vojvodina achieved in the national championship 3rd place five times in a row and were runners-up in the domestic cup in 1997.
They were runners-up in the Serbian SuperLiga in 2008–09 Serbian SuperLiga and 3rd place in 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Vojvodina were runners-up of the Serbian Cup in 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2013; the first cup trophy Vojvodina won in 2014. On 6 March 1914, in Sava Šijakov's weaving mill in the Temerinska Street 12, a group of students of the Serbian Orthodox high school established with the help of intellectuals and craftsman a football club in Novi Sad; the club was founded in secrecy, because the former Austro-Hungarian authorities banned larger organized gatherings of juveniles in the Vojvodina region, inhabited by Serbs. The club took the name Vojvodina, in order to emphasize the memory of the political-territorial unit of the Serbs in the "Serbian Vojvodina" in which the Serbs, at least on paper, get the same rights as all other citizens in the Habsburg Empire for which they have fought for years; the name Vojvodina means in Serbian a type of duchy, more a voivodeship. It derives from the word "vojvoda", means "one who leads warriors" or "war leader".
Among the club founders on that day were the future textile industrialist Milenko Šijakov, the future university professor Vladimir Milićević, the future chemists Milenko Hinić, the future lawyers Radenko Rakić and Kamenko Ćirić, Gojko Tosić, Đorđe Živanov, Branko Gospođinački, the future doctor of law Kosta Hadži and others. The new club played its first match in the village of Kovilj against local club FK Šajkaš. Vojvodina played in bright blue colours and white shorts and won by 5–0. Svetozar Jocković, Jovan Ljubojević, Milorad Milićević, Dušan Kovačev, Jovan Jocković, Ozren Stojanović, Sava Ignjačev, Predrag Stojanović Ciga, Živojin Đeremov and Uroš Čakovac entered the record books as the first players in the history of Vojvodina; the players were pupils and students, who came from Prague in the summer holidays and played only that one match, because shortly before World War I broke out. The strict hand of the Austro-Hungarian authorities stopped all Serbian organizations in Novi Sad and Vojvodina was the first time in the situation to be shut down.
After the liberation, Vojvodina resumed the work thanks to the enthusiasm of Serbian students from Prague. The first president of Vojvodina became Milenko Šijakov, son of weaving mill owner Sava Šijak, the first secretary became Dr. Živko Bajazet, the longtime president of the Serbian merchant bank and member of the Sokol organization. The club financed by membership fees and by generous contributions as by Maks Grin, Daka Popović, the Novaković brothers, Ilija Balabušić and the members of Dunđerski family. Part of the Vojvodina players and management who studied in Prague, were members of football club Slavia Prague; the Czech club supported the Vojvodina members during the difficult times before and during World War I and contributed in the development of the club. In 1920, was brought from Prague the first set of red and white jerseys. At the club meeting held on 23 July 1922, it was decided that in honour of Slavia Prague the red and white colors adorn the jerseys of Vojvodina; the coat of arms was partially modeled after Slavia Prague's coat of arms, where the red star of the Czech team was replaced with the blue star, so that Vojvodina's coat of arms had all the colors of the Serbian flag.
The first coach, technical director and chief organizer of Vojvodina was the lawyer Dr. Kosta Hadži, one of the main founder of Vojvodina and the Novi Sad Football Subassociation. Under his leadership, Vojvodina won the Novi Sad Subassociation league in 1926, the first trophy in its history. Vojvodina played with following players: Mihajlović, Živić, Kričkov, Popović, Aleksić, Marjanović, Šević, Petrović, Dudás and Saraz; the club provided the first professional contracts to its players, brought professional players from abroad such as Czech Josef Čapek and Hungarians Sándor Dudás and Abraham Saraz. One of the best and most influential Vojvodina players at that time was Dušan Marković, an effective striker who played for Vojvodina from 1921 to 1935. End of the 1930s, Vojvodina brought many good players into the team, known as the Millionaires team and one of the best was Jožef Velker, which became to a crucial player of the club. In 1932, 1934, 1935, 1937–1940, Vojvodina won the Novi Sad Football Subassociation league.
Since Vojvodina begun having serious pretensions to gain promotion to the Yugoslav First League. The club failed to make an impact, but during the season 1940/41, Vojvodina f
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for Serbo-Croatian, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. In Croatian and Bosnian, only the Latin alphabet is used. Karadžić based his alphabet on the previous "Slavonic-Serbian" script, following the principle of "write as you speak and read as it is written", removing obsolete letters and letters representing iotified vowels, introducing ⟨J⟩ from the Latin alphabet instead, adding several consonant letters for sounds specific to Serbian phonology. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles; as a result of this joint effort and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, Dž counting as single letters. Vuk's Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Serbia in 1868, was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period.
Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Due to the shared cultural area, Gaj's Latin alphabet saw a gradual adoption in Serbia since, both scripts are used to write modern standard Serbian and Bosnian. In Serbia, Cyrillic is seen as being more traditional, has the official status, it is an official script in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, along with Latin. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov and Venko Markovski. Cyrillic is in official use in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although the Bosnian language "officially accept both alphabets", the Latin script is always used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereas Cyrillic is in everyday use in Republika Srpska; the Serbian language in Croatia is recognized as a minority language, the use of Cyrillic in bilingual signs has sparked protests and vandalism. Cyrillic is an important symbol of Serbian identity.
In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic only though, according to a 2014 survey, 47% of the Serbian population write in the Latin alphabet whereas 36% write in Cyrillic. The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, along with the equivalent forms in the Serbian Latin alphabet and the International Phonetic Alphabet value for each letter: According to tradition, Glagolitic was invented by the Byzantine Christian missionaries and brothers Cyril and Methodius in the 860s, amid the Christianization of the Slavs. Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyril's disciples at the Preslav Literary School in the 890s; the earliest form of Cyrillic was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek.
There was no distinction between lowercase letters. The literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki. Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels, St. Sava's Nomocanon, Dušan's Code, Munich Serbian Psalter, others; the first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić fled Serbia during the Serbian Revolution to Vienna. There he met a linguist with interest in slavistics. Kopitar and Sava Mrkalj helped Vuk to reform its orthography, he finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary. Karadžić reformed the Serbian literary language and standardised the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet by following strict phonemic principles on the Johann Christoph Adelung' model and Jan Hus' Czech alphabet. Karadžić's reforms of the Serbian literary language modernised it and distanced it from Serbian and Russian Church Slavonic, instead bringing it closer to common folk speech to the dialect of Eastern Herzegovina which he spoke.
Karadžić was, together with Đuro Daničić, the main Serbian signatory to the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850 which, encouraged by Austrian authorities, laid the foundation for the Serbian language, various forms of which are used by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro and Herzegovina and Croatia today. Karadžić translated the New Testament into Serbian, published in 1868, he wrote several books. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used: Ю, Я, Ы and Ѳ. In his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ; the alphabet was adopted in 1868, four years after his death. From the Old Slavic script Vuk retained these 24 letters: He added one Latin letter: And 5 new ones: He removed: Orders issued on the 3 and 13 October 1914 banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, limiting it for use in religious instruction. A decree was passed on January 3, 1915, that banned Serbian Cyrillic from public use. An imperial order in October 25, 1915, banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, except "within the scope of Serb Orthodox Church
The Serbian Army is the land-based component of the Serbian Armed Forces, responsible for defending the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Serbia from foreign hostiles. Established in 1830, the Serbian army was incorporated into the newly established state of Yugoslavia in 1918; the current Serbian army has been active since 2006. The Serbian Army is the largest component of the Serbian Armed Forces. There are 40,075 active members and additional 50,000 in reserves; the army is composed of professionals and volunteers following the suspension of mandatory military service on 1 January 2011. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th army brigades are tasked with securing the 5 km wide Ground Safety Zone along the administrative line between Central Serbia and the disputed territory of Kosovo; the Ground Safety Zone extends 384 kilometres long and covers a total area of about 1,920 square kilometres. There are over 20 camps and security checkpoints in the zone. There are plans to increase the Serbian army's involvement in humanitarian and peacekeeping operations abroad.
Following the 2006 reorganization, the Serbian Army consists of six primary brigades. The four army brigades are larger than a conventional modern brigade, their size is more akin to a division; each army brigade consists of ten battalions: one command battalion, one armored battalion, two mechanized battalions, two infantry battalions, one self-propelled artillery battalion, one self-propelled multiple rocket launcher artillery Battalion, one air defense battalion, one engineering battalion and one logistic battalion. The only exception is the 1st army brigade. Army Command 3rd Military Police Battalion 5th Military Police Battalion 246th NBC Battalion 21st Signal Battalion 1st Brigade 10th Command Battalion 11th Infantry Battalion 12th Self-Propelled Artillery Battalion 13th Self-Propelled Multiple Rocket Launcher Artillery Battalion 14th Air-defense Artillery Battalion 15th Tank battalion 16th Mechanized Battalion 17th Mechanized Battalion 18th Engineer Battalion 19th Logistic Battalion2nd Brigade 20th Command Battalion 21st Infantry Battalion 22nd Infantry Battalion 23rd Self-Propelled Artillery Battalion 24th Self-Propelled Multiple Rocket Launcher Artillery Battalion 25th Air-defense Artillery Battalion 26th Tank Battalion 27th Mechanized Battalion 28th Mechanized Battalion 29th Logistic Battalion 210th Engineer Battalion3rd Brigade 30th Command Battalion 31st Infantry Battalion 32nd Infantry Battalion 33rd Self-Propelled Howitzer Artillery Battalion 34th Multiple Multiple Rocket Launcher Artillery Battalion 35th Air-defense Artillery Battalion 36th Tank Battalion 37th Mechanized Battalion 38th Mechanized Battalion 39th Logistic Battalion 310th Engineer Battalion4th Brigade 40th Command Battalion 41st Infantry Battalion 42nd Infantry Battalion 43rd Self-Propelled Howitzer Artillery Battalion 44th Self-Propelled Multiple Rocket Launcher Artillery Battalion 45th Air-defense Artillery Battalion 46th Tank Battalion 47th Mechanized Battalion 48th Mechanized Battalion 49th Logistic Battalion 410th Engineer BattalionMixed Artillery Brigade Command Battalion Mixed Multiple Rocket Launcher Artillery Battalion 1st Howitzer-Cannon Artillery Battalion 2nd Howitzer-Cannon Artillery Battalion 3rd Howitzer-Cannon Artillery Battalion 69th Logistics BattalionRiver Flotilla Command Company 1st River Detachment 2nd River Detachment 1st Pontoon Battalion 2nd Pontoon Battalion Logistic CompanySpecial Brigade Command Battalion Logistic Company Hawks — Counter-terrorist Battalion 63rd Parachute Battalion 72nd Reconnaissance-Commando Battalion M-84 main battle tank T-72 main battle tank T-54/T-55 main battle tank, 60 were sold in 2010 to Cambodia, 282 in 2015 and 30 donated to Iraq in 2017.
BVP M-80 infantry fighting vehicle BOV M-86 armoured personnel carrier BTR-50 armoured personnel carrier BRDM-2 light-armoured vehicle Humvee light-armoured vehicle BOV M11 light-armoured vehicle Lazar armored vehicle multi-role military vehicle MT-LBu D-30 howitzer M-46 field gun M84 NORA howitzer 2S1 Gvozdika M-63 Plamen M-77 Oganj M-87 Orkan Nora B-52 LRSVM Morava M79 Osa anti-tank missile launcher M80 Zolja anti-tank missile launcher Malyutka-2T with portable suitcase launcher and 9M14-2T missile anti-tank missile system Polo M-83 with 9M14-2T missile anti-tank missile system 9K111 Fagot anti-tank missile system Zastava M55 20mm towed autocannon Bofors L/70 autocannon, guided with M85 "GIRAFFE" M53/59 Praga BOV-3 9K31 Strela-1 9K35 Strela-10 9K38 Igla Strela 2 Neva M Kub M CZ 99 pistol CZ 999 pistol Zastava M21 assault rifle Zastava M70 assault rifle Zastava M72 light machine gun Zastava M76 sniper rifle Zastava M84 general purpose machine gun Zastava M91 sniper rifle Zastava M93 Black Arrow anti-material rifle BGA grenade launcher M74/M75 mortar Royal Serbian Army Royal Yugoslav Army Official homepage of the Serbian Army Official website of the Serbian Ministry of Defence
The Sokol movement is an all-age gymnastics organization first founded in Prague in the Czech region of Austria-Hungary in 1862 by Miroslav Tyrš and Jindřich Fügner. It was based upon the principle of "a strong mind in a sound body"; the Sokol, through lectures and group outings provided what Tyrš viewed as physical and intellectual training for the nation. This training extended to men of all ages and classes, to women; the movement spread across all the regions populated by Slavic cultures: (Poland, Slovene Lands, Bulgaria, the Russian Empire, the rest of Austria-Hungary. In many of these nations, the organization served as an early precursor to the Scouting movements. Though an institution "above politics", the Sokol played an important part in the development of Czech nationalism, providing a forum for the spread of mass-based nationalist ideologies; the articles published in the Sokol journal, lectures held in the Sokol libraries, theatrical performances at the massive gymnastic festivals called slets helped to craft and disseminate the Czech nationalist mythology and version of history.
The idea for physical training centers was not a new one. The Sokol movement consciously traced its roots in physical education to the athletes and warriors of Ancient Greece. More directly, the nature of the Sokol was influenced by the German Turnverein, mass-based, nationalist-minded gymnastics societies founded by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in 1811. Miroslav Tyrš, the founder of the first Sokol in Prague in 1862, continued as the most influential figure in the movement until his death in 1884. Born Friedrich Emanuel Tirsch into a German-speaking family in 1834, Tyrš grew up under the influence of the Romantic nationalism that gave rise to the uprisings that swept across Europe in 1848, he received a thorough education at the University of Prague. It was not until the early 1860s that he became involved in the Czech nationalist cause, changed his name to the Slavic form. After he failed to find a position in academia, Tyrš combined his experience working as a therapeutic gymnastics trainer with the nationalist ideologies he had been exposed to in Prague: the first Sokol club was formed.
The first Sokol worked to develop new Czech terminology for the training exercises, which centred on marching drills and weightlifting. They designed a uniform, a mélange of Slavic and revolutionary influences: brown Russian trousers, a Polish revolutionary jacket, a Montenegrin cap, a red Garibaldi shirt. A Sokol flag, red with a white falcon, was designed by the writer Karolína Světlá; the Prague Sokol drew its leaders from the ranks of politicians and its members from the petite bourgeoisie and the working classes. The first president was Jindřich Fügner, an ethnic German, a member of the Czech cause. Most founders were members of the Young Czechs party, the most influential including Prince Rudolf von Thurn-Taxis, Josef Barák, Julius and Eduard Grégr; the authorities of Austria-Hungary continually kept a close eye on the movement, but the reputation and prestige of the Sokol continued to grow. Within the first year the Sokols expanded beyond Prague, first into the Moravia and the Slovenian regions of the Hapsburg empire.
The majority of members were students and professionals, but over time there was a trend towards working class members. The Sokol training went through periods of greater militarized training, during the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, when Sokol members were hired as guards for public events; this militaristic side of the Sokol movement continued to resurface throughout its history. The internal issues that were to plague the Sokol movement over the years emerged immediately; these internal arguments reached fruition during the 1870s with the power struggle in leadership between the members of Old Czechs and the Young Czechs parties. Theoretically, the Sokol was a society “above politics.” Always flamboyantly nationalistic, the more conservative members of the Sokol argued that the organization should maintain its distance from politics while the Young Czech members advocated more direct political participation. Theoretically, the Sokol was open to members of all classes; the informal “thou” was used by all members, but there were constant arguments over whether this was necessary or not.
Different leaders believed that the Sokol was a mass-based institution defined by its working class members, while others viewed it more as a middle class apparatus by which to educate and raise the national consciousness of the working classes. In 1882, the first slet was held. Slet came from the Czech word for "a flocking of birds"; the same word can be synthesized from common Slavic roots in other Slavic languages. It meant a mass gymnastics festival that became a grand tradition within the Sokol movement that spread across Central Europe together with other Slavic movements such as the political movement of Pan-Slavism; the first and subsequent slets included an elaborate welcoming ceremony at the train station, mass demonstrations, gymnastics competitions and theatrical events, open to members of all Sokols. In 1887 the Habsburg authorities allowed, after over twenty years worth of proposals, the formation of a union of Sokol clubs – Czech Sokol Community; the union centralized all the Sokols in the Czech lands and sent Sokol trainers to the rest of the Slavic world to found Sokol institutions in K
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would otherwise wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours; this change prevents confusion for officials and spectators. In most sports, it is the visiting or road team that must change – second-choice kits are known as away kits or change kits in British English, road uniforms in American English; some sports leagues mandate that away teams must always wear an alternative kit, while others state that the two teams' colours should not match. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit. In most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice even in a home game. At some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy; some teams have produced third-choice kits, or old-fashioned throwback uniforms.
In North American sports, road teams wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. "Color vs. color" games are a rarity, having been discouraged in the era of black-and-white television. All road uniforms are white in gridiron football and the National Hockey League, while in baseball, visitors wear grey. In the National Basketball Association and NCAA basketball, home uniforms are white or yellow, visiting teams wear the darker colour. Most teams choose to wear their colour jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s. A "white vs. color" game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, "until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, it was the norm." Long after the advent of colour television, the use of white jerseys has remained in every game. The NFL's current rules require that a team's home jerseys must be "either white or official team color" throughout the season, "and visiting clubs must wear the opposite".
If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the NFL Commissioner must judge on whether their uniforms are "of sufficient contrast" with those of their opponents. The road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks' "Wolf Grey" alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for every home game of the 1955 season; the only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, when the Eagles and Giants chose to wear white. In 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Cleveland Browns, Minnesota Vikings and Los Angeles Rams wore white for their home games according to Tim Brulia's research; the St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, as well as the Dallas Cowboys; until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their coloured jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was introduced by general manager Tex Schramm, who wanted fans to see a variety of opponents' jersey colours at home games.
The Cowboys still wear white at home today. White has been worn at home by the Miami Dolphins, Washington Redskins, Philadelphia Eagles, several other NFL teams. Teams in cities with hot climates choose white jerseys at home during the first half of the season, because light colours absorb and retain less heat in sunlight – as such, the Dolphins, who stay white year-round, will use their coloured jerseys for home night games; every current NFL team except the Seattle Seahawks has worn white at home at some time in its history. During the successful Joe Gibbs era, the Washington Redskins chose to wear white at home in the 1980s and 1990s, including the 1982 NFC Championship Game against Dallas. Since 2001 the Redskins have chosen to wear white jerseys and burgundy jerseys equally in their home games, but they still wear white against the Cowboys; when Gibbs returned from 2004 to 2007, they wore white at home exclusively. In 2007, they wore a white throwback jersey; the Dallas Cowboys' blue jersey has been popularly viewed to be "jinxed" because of defeats at Super Bowl V in 1971, in the 1968 divisional playoffs at Cleveland, Don Meredith's final game as a Cowboys player.
Dallas's only victory in a conference championship or Super Bowl wearing the blue jerseys was in the 1978 NFC Championship game at the Los Angeles Rams. Super Bowl rules changed to allow the designated home team to pick their choice of jersey. White was chosen by the Cowboys, the Redskins, the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Denver Broncos, the New England Patriots; the latter three teams wear colours at home, but Pittsburgh had worn white in three road playoff wins, while Denver cited its previous Super Bowl success in white jerseys, while being 0–4 when wearing orange in Super Bowls. Teams playing against Dallas at home wear their white jerseys to try to invoke the "curse", as when the Philadelphia Eagles hosted the Cowboys in the 1980 NFC Championship Game. Teams including the St. Louis Cardinals and New York Giants followed suit in the 1980s, the Carolina Panthers did so from 1995 until 2006, including two playoff games; the Hous