FLAC is an audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, is the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation. Digital audio compressed by FLAC's algorithm can be reduced to between 50 and 70 percent of its original size and decompress to an identical copy of the original audio data. FLAC is an open format with royalty-free licensing and a reference implementation, free software. FLAC has support for metadata tagging, album cover art, fast seeking. Development was started in 2000 by Josh Coalson; the bit-stream format was frozen when FLAC entered beta stage with the release of version 0.5 of the reference implementation on 15 January 2001. Version 1.0 was released on 20 July 2001. On 29 January 2003, the Xiph. Org Foundation and the FLAC project announced the incorporation of FLAC under the Xiph.org banner. Xiph.org is behind other free compression formats such as Vorbis, Theora and Opus. Version 1.3.0 was released on 26 May 2013, at which point development was moved to the Xiph.org git repository.
The FLAC project consists of: The stream formats A simple container format for the stream called FLAC libFLAC, a library of reference encoders and decoders, a metadata interface libFLAC++, an object-oriented wrapper around libFLAC flac, a command-line program based on libFLAC to encode and decode FLAC streams metaflac, a command-line metadata editor for.flac files and for applying ReplayGain Input plugins for various music players With Xiph.org incorporation, the Ogg container format, suitable for streaming The specification of the stream format can be implemented by anyone without prior permission, neither the FLAC format nor any of the implemented encoding or decoding methods are covered by any patent. The reference implementation is free software; the source code for libFLAC and libFLAC++ is available under the BSD license, the sources for flac and the plugins are available under the GNU General Public License. In its stated goals, the FLAC project encourages its developers not to implement copy prevention features of any kind.
Audio sources encoded to FLAC are reduced to 50–70% of their original size, similar to other lossless formats, though the final size depends on the density and volume of the music being compressed, with some music, file size can be reduced by as much as 80%. FLAC supports only integer samples, not floating-point, it can handle any PCM bit resolution from 4 to 32 bits per sample, any sampling rate from 1 Hz to 65,535 Hz in 1 Hz increments or from 10 Hz to 655,350 Hz in 10 Hz increments, any number of channels from 1 to 8. Channels can be grouped in some cases, for example stereo and 5.1 channel surround, to take advantage of interchannel correlations to increase compression. CRC checksums are used for identifying corrupted frames; the file includes a complete MD5 hash of the raw PCM audio in its STREAMINFO metadata header. FLAC allows for a Rice parameter between 0 and 16. FLAC uses linear prediction to convert the audio samples. There are the predictor and the error coding; the predictor can be one of four types.
The difference between the predictor and the actual sample data is calculated and is known as the residual. The residual is stored efficiently using Golomb-Rice coding, it uses run-length encoding for blocks of identical samples, such as silent passages. FLAC supports ReplayGain. For tagging, FLAC uses the same system as Vorbis comments; the libFLAC API is organized into streams, seekable streams, files. Most FLAC applications will restrict themselves to encoding/decoding using libFLAC at the file level interface. LibFLAC uses a compression level parameter that varies from 0 to 8; the compressed files are always perfect, lossless representations of the original data. Although the compression process involves a tradeoff between speed and size, the decoding process is always quite fast and not dependent on the level of compression. According to a. WAV benchmark running with an Athlon XP 2400+, using higher rates above default level -5, takes more time to encode without real gains in space savings. FLAC is designed for efficient packing of audio data, unlike general-purpose lossless algorithms such as DEFLATE, used in ZIP and gzip.
While ZIP may reduce the size of a CD-quality audio file by 10–20%, FLAC is able to reduce the size of audio data by 40–50% by taking advantage of the characteristics of audio. The technical strengths of FLAC compared to other lossless formats lie in its ability to be streamed and decoded independent of compression level. Since FLAC is a lossless scheme, it is suitable as an archive format for owners of CDs and other media who wish to preserve their audio collections. If the original media are lost, damaged, or worn out, a FLAC copy of the audio tracks ensures that an exact duplicate of the original data can be recovered at any time. An exact restoration from a lossy copy of the same data is impossible. FLAC being lossless means it is suitable for transcoding e.g. to MP3, without the associated transcoding quality loss between one lossy format and another. A CUE file can optionally be created when ripping a CD. If a CD is read and ripped to FLAC files, the CUE file allows burning of an audio CD, identical in audio data to
Diane Elizabeth Deans is a member of Ottawa City Council, representing Gloucester-Southgate Ward in the city's southeast, representing more than 49,500 residents. A graduate of the University of Guelph she was active in the Canadian Federation of Students before becoming a staffer on Parliament Hill. Deans was first elected to Ottawa city council in 1994. Prior to Ottawa and its surrounding municipalities were amalgamated in 2001, she faced a tough election against George Barrett. In the 2003 Ottawa election, she handily defeated two lesser-known opponents. After victory in the 2006 Ottawa election, Deans began her fifth term as Councillor for Gloucester-Southgate ward. In the 2010 election, Deans was re-elected in her Gloucester-Southgate Ward, she was once again re-elected in 2014 for her seventh consecutive term. Deans considers herself a centrist member of council but traditionally takes a liberal stance on most issues. In the mid-2000s, Deans' main concern had been the creation of a new branch for the Ottawa Public Library in her growing ward, now called the Greenboro Library.
She supported by-laws limiting smoking in the city, while not supporting a lawn pesticide bylaw in 2002 and 2005. She has engaged in public clashes with Mayor Bob Chiarelli while advocating for her ward. Deans is the Chairperson of the City's Community and Protective Services Committee of the City of Ottawa, she sits on the Transportation Committee, the Finance and Economic Development Committee, Member Services Committee, the Ottawa Community Lands Development Corporation. She is co-chair of the Seniors' Roundtable. Deans sought the federal Liberal nomination in the riding of Ottawa South in 2004, she lost to David McGuinty. She was seen as a possible candidate to challenge Chiarelli for the mayoralty in 2006, but chose to run for re-election in Gloucester-Southgate Ward. In March 2007, Diane Deans announced that she had been approached by members of the Ontario Liberal Party urging her to seek the party's nomination for the riding of Ottawa Centre, she received the support of the sitting MPP Richard Patten.
On June 4, 2007, she lost the provincial nomination to Yasir Naqvi. Deans was married to former New Democratic Party Member of Parliament Ian Deans for 22 years. In September 2019, Deans was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Diane Deans website City biography Pesticide Vote
Audrey J. Anderson is an American attorney specializing in education and health law, the Vice Chancellor, General Counsel and University Secretary for Vanderbilt University from 2013 to 2018, she serves as an adjunct professor of law at Vanderbilt University Law School. Anderson grew up in Minnesota, she studied at Northwestern University, where she received a B. A. in economics in 1985. She attended the University of Michigan School of Law, serving as an editor of the Michigan Law Review, graduating Order of the Coif with a J. D. in 1990. After law school, she clerked for Judge Harold H. Greene of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in 1990-1991, for Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court William H. Rehnquist in 1991-1992. Following her clerkships, she practiced law in Washington, D. C. as an associate and partner at Hogan & Hartson, where she worked on constitutional and disability law. In 2006, Anderson represented the Seattle Public Schools in Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1.
In 2006 and 2007, Anderson taught as an adjunct law professor of the American University Washington College of Law. In 2009, Anderson joined the legal staff of the United States Department of Homeland Security, from September 2011 to March 2013 she served as its Deputy General Counsel, reporting to General Counsel Ivan K. Fong. In 2013, she was named General Counsel of Vanderbilt. In that role, she provided university leaders advice on intellectual property, personnel issues, contracts, she managed the university's litigation and gave legal advice to Vanderbilt University Medical Center. In July 2018, she announced her retirement from her academic posts. Anderson is married to Richard M. Rosenthal, her law school classmate, an educator. List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States Anderson, Audrey J.. "Corporate Life after Death: CERCLA Preemption of State Corporate Dissolution Law". Michigan Law Review. University of Michigan Law School. 88: 131–168. Doi:10.2307/1289139. JSTOR 1289139.
Bio, Vanderbilt University