Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Schleswig is a town in the northeastern part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the capital of the Kreis Schleswig-Flensburg, it has a population of about 27,000, the main industries being leather and food processing. It takes its name from the Schlei, an inlet of the Baltic sea at the end of which it sits, vik or vig which means “bay” in Old Norse and Danish. Schleswig or Slesvig therefore means “bay of the Schlei”; the city lies at the western end of the Schlei Förde, which separates the two peninsulas of Angeln and Schwansen, is on the western edge of the Schleswig-Holstein Uplands on the transition to the Geest country. The urban area ranges from 0 to 20 m above sea level. Brautsee is in the town; the nearest major cities are Flensburg and Kiel. Autobahn 7 runs west of the city. Highways 76 and 77 end in Schleswig and B 201 runs to the north of the town. Schleswig station is a stop for InterCity and Intercity-Express trains and is on the Hamburg–Neumünster–Flensburg and Husum–Kiel lines; the climate is oceanic and mild with a slight continental influence.
The annual mean temperature is 8 °C and precipitation averages 925 mm. The Viking settlement of Hedeby, located south of the modern town, was first mentioned in 804, it was a powerful settlement in the Baltic region, dominating the area for more than 200 years. In 1050, following several destructions, the population was moved to the opposite shore of the Schlei, becoming the city of Schleswig. In 1066 Hedeby was destroyed, Schleswig remained as a part of the Danish kingdom. In 1544, Gottorf Castle became the residence of the local rulers; the dukes of Gottorf were vassals of the Danish kings and ruled over much of present-day Schleswig-Holstein. In 1721, when the Great Northern War ended, the dukes of Gottorf lost their power and their land became Danish crown land. After the Second Schleswig War, Schleswig was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia. Schleswig Cathedral, with the tomb of King Frederick I of Denmark Gottorf Castle, former residence of the dukes, with the baroque Neuwerk garden, containing a replica of the Globe of Gottorf Holm: old fishing village at the Schlei shore Hedeby, Viking settlement Christian III of Denmark King of Denmark from 1534 until his death Georg Calixtus Lutheran theologian Johan Ross the Elder Swedish painter Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden King of Sweden from 1751 until his death Friedrich August, Duke of Holstein-Oldenburg was Duke of Oldenburg Asmus Jakob Carstens Danish-German painter, committed to Neoclassicism Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel matriarch of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Carl Andreas August Goos painter working in history painting, genre painting and portrait painting.
Herman Wilhelm Bissen sculptor Friedrich Bernhard Westphal German-Danish genre painter and illustrator Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Jessen botanist Friedrich Krichauff politician in colonial South Australia Casper Petersen was an American schoolteacher, businessman and politician. Ralf Rothmann, novelist Thomas Heberer is a jazz trumpeter, cornetist and composer Ekkehard Wölk pianist and composer Karl Schultz equestrian and Olympic medalist Herbert Blöcker equestrian and 3-time Olympic medalist Jobst Hirscht former athlete who competed in the 100 metres Hole Rößler modern pentathlete, competed for West Germany at the 1972 Summer Olympics Jan-Ingwer Callsen-Bracker, footballer Municipal website "Schleswig". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Schleswig". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. "Schleswig". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921
Air Berlin PLC & Co. Luftverkehrs KG, branded as airberlin or airberlin.com was a major German airline. At its peak, it was Germany's second-largest airline, as well as Europe's tenth-largest airline in terms of passengers carried, it had hubs at Berlin Tegel Airport and Düsseldorf Airport. It was a member of the oneworld airline alliance; the airline was founded in 1978 by an American company. Following German reunification, Air Berlin was sold and became a German company in 1991, it joined the Oneworld alliance in 2012. After years of losses, Air Berlin filed for insolvency on 15 August 2017 and ceased operations on 27 October 2017. Registered as Air Berlin USA, the company was founded in 1978 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Lelco, an American agricultural enterprise headquartered in Oregon, to operate charter flights on behalf of German tour operators from Berlin Tegel Airport to Mediterranean holiday resorts; the co-founders of Air Berlin USA were: Kim Lundgren, a former Berlin-based flight engineer of Pan American World Airways.
Lelco was the agriculture business of Kim Lundgren's family in the United States. As a United States airline, Air Berlin was able to access the West Berlin airline market. During the Cold War, Berlin's special political status meant that the air corridors into and out of Tegel Airport could only be used by airlines registered in France, the United Kingdom or the United States; the airline's headquarters were at Tegel Airport. Leonard Lundgren was the first chairman. After the company was issued an airline licence and acquired two Boeing 707 jet airliners owned by Trans World Airlines, Air Berlin USA commenced revenue services on 28 April 1979 with a flight from Berlin-Tegel to Palma de Mallorca. Plans were made to start long-haul flights on West Berlin-Brussels-Florida routes, in cooperation with Air Florida. In 1980, two Boeing 737-200 were leased from Air Florida. In 1981, Air Berlin USA continued its weekly scheduled Boeing 707 service on the Berlin Tegel Airport - Brussels - Orlando route.
In 1990 and 1991, two Boeing 737-400s were placed into service. German reunification led to significant changes to the European aviation market, in particular in Berlin: German airlines now gained access to the city. In 1991, Air Berlin was restructured as Air Berlin Co.. Luftverkehrs KG, a German-registered company, with several German investors joining Kim Lundgren, the original founder, thereby bringing the ownership in line with German foreign-control requirements. Joachim Hunold, a former sales and marketing director with LTU International, now led the company. Following an order for ten Boeing 737-800, Air Berlin grew and by 1999, the fleet grew to twelve aircraft. In 2001, Air Berlin and Hapag-Lloyd Flug became the first airlines in the world to have their Boeing 737-800s fitted with blended winglets, wingtip devices that are intended to improve fuel efficiency. Air Berlin introduced scheduled flights in 1997 linking a number of secondary German airports to Mallorca. By 2002, 35 percent of Air Berlin's tickets were sold directly.
In the same year, the airline expanded beyond holiday destinations as low-fare flights marketed as "City Shuttle" to London, Barcelona and Vienna started. Besides Berlin-Tegel, these routes were opened at six German airports that until had not been served by one of the rising European low-cost carriers. In what became a hallmark for Air Berlin as a "semi-low cost carrier", the airline offered complimentary meals and seat reservations, in contrast to its competitors Buzz, Hapag-Lloyd Express and Virgin Express. In November 2001, the delivery flight of a Boeing 737-800 fitted with winglets set a record: the aircraft with the registration code D-ABBC flew 8,345 kilometres non-stop from Seattle, USA to Berlin, Germany in 9 hours, 10 minutes. In January 2004, Air Berlin announced it would cooperate with a Vienna-based airline; as part of the deal, Air Berlin took a 24% stake in Niki. In 2005, Air Berlin signed a partnership agreement with Germania; as part of the deal, Air Berlin leased some of Germania's aircraft and crew, Germania became exclusively a charter airline.
Plans were made for Germania to be associated with Air Berlin under a management contract. However, the contract was not signed. At the beginning of March 2008, Germania's joint owners could not reach agreement on the takeover by Air Berlin, so Germania remained an independent airline. A joint Air Berlin/Germania subsidiary dubbed Air Zürich and planned to be based at Zurich Airport was proposed in 2005, but did not materialize. In 2005 the Group reorganised its corporate structure, it established Air Berlin plc into which it reversed Air Berlin Co.. Luftverkehrs KG and subsidiaries, it was suggested
Pärnu Airport is an airport in Estonia. The airport is situated 2.4 nautical miles northwest of Pärnu. In October 1937 Pärnu town council designated an area of 0.28 km2 for the building of an airport. Operations at the new airport began in 1939. During the Soviet occupation, the airfield was operated by the Soviet Air Force, it was an interceptor aircraft base, operated by 366 IAP and the 655 IAP, which flew Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 aircraft from the 1970s until the 1990s. Aeroflot used to operate Tartu-Viljandi-Pärnu-Kingissepa services using Antonov An-2 biplanes. In the summer of 1992, the re-constituted Estonian defence ministry took over the military airport, which had drawn down its operations. On 15 October the same year it was decided to build a civil airport at the site of the old military airport; the old runway was closed on 1 July 1997, regular flights started to use the runway that had belonged to the Soviet air force. The airport is visited by private aircraft from Scandinavia and other European countries.
5,148 people travelled via Pärnu Airport in 2010. At present the condition of the runway makes it unsuitable for larger aircraft flying international flights, in 2016 there were proposals to upgrade the airport; the small airline Air Livonia flew from Pärnu to Kuressaare and Ruhnu until 2006. In the summer of 2010, Estonian Air operated one return flight a week from Stockholm; the airport was used for charter flights from Finland and Sweden until 2014, when the deteriorating condition of the runway meant that it was no longer suitable for larger aircraft. List of the busiest airports in the Baltic states Pärnu Airport
Lower Saxony is a German state situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2, fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining. Lower Saxony borders on the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and North Rhine-Westphalia, the Netherlands. Furthermore, the state of Bremen forms two enclaves within Lower Saxony, one being the city of Bremen, the other, its seaport city of Bremerhaven. In fact, Lower Saxony borders more neighbours than any other single Bundesland; the state's principal cities include the state capital Hanover, Braunschweig, Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, Wolfenbüttel, Göttingen. The northwestern area of Lower Saxony, which lies on the coast of the North Sea, is called East Frisia and the seven East Frisian Islands offshore are popular with tourists.
In the extreme west of Lower Saxony is the Emsland, a traditionally poor and sparsely populated area, once dominated by inaccessible swamps. The northern half of Lower Saxony known as the North German Plains, is invariably flat except for the gentle hills around the Bremen geestland. Towards the south and southwest lie the northern parts of the German Central Uplands: the Weser Uplands and the Harz mountains. Between these two lie the Lower Saxon Hills, a range of low ridges. Thus, Lower Saxony is the only Bundesland that encompasses both mountainous areas. Lower Saxony's major cities and economic centres are situated in its central and southern parts, namely Hanover, Osnabrück, Salzgitter, Göttingen. Oldenburg, near the northwestern coastline, is another economic centre; the region in the northeast is called the Lüneburg Heath, the largest heathland area of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to salt mining and salt trade, as well as to a lesser degree the exploitation of its peat bogs until about the 1960s.
To the north, the Elbe River separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg. The banks just south of the Elbe are known as Altes Land. Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil, it is the state's largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples. Most of the state's territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover, it was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November 1946. Lower Saxony has a natural boundary in the north in the North Sea and the lower and middle reaches of the River Elbe, although parts of the city of Hamburg lie south of the Elbe; the state and city of Bremen is an enclave surrounded by Lower Saxony. The Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region is a cooperative body for the enclave area. To the southeast, the state border runs through the Harz, low mountains that are part of the German Central Uplands; the northeast and west of the state, which form three-quarters of its land area, belong to the North German Plain, while the south is in the Lower Saxon Hills, including the Weser Uplands, Leine Uplands, Schaumburg Land, Brunswick Land, Untereichsfeld and Lappwald.
In northeast, Lower Saxony is Lüneburg Heath. The heath is dominated by the poor, sandy soils of the geest, whilst in the central east and southeast in the loess börde zone, productive soils with high natural fertility occur. Under these conditions—with loam and sand-containing soils—the land is well-developed agriculturally. In the west lie the County of Bentheim, Osnabrück Land, Oldenburg Land, Oldenburg Münsterland, on the coast East Frisia; the state is dominated by several large rivers running northwards through the state: the Ems, Weser and Elbe. The highest mountain in Lower Saxony is the Wurmberg in the Harz. For other significant elevations see: List of hills in Lower Saxony. Most of the mountains and hills are found in the southeastern part of the state; the lowest point in the state, at about 2.5 m below sea level, is a depression near Freepsum in East Frisia. The state's economy and infrastructure are centred on the cities and towns of Hanover, Celle, Wolfsburg and Salzgitter. Together with Göttingen in southern Lower Saxony, they form the core of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region.
Lower Saxony has clear regional divisions that manifest themselves geographically, as well as and culturally. In the regions that used to be independent the heartlands of the former states of Brunswick, Hanover and Schaumburg-Lippe, a marked local regional awareness exists. By contrast, the areas surrounding the Hanseatic cities of Bremen and Hamburg are much more oriented towards those centres. Sometimes and transition areas happen between the various regions of Lower Saxony. Several of the regions listed here are part of other, larger regions, that are included in the list. Just under 20% of the land area of Lower Saxony is designated as nature parks, i.e.: Dümmer, Elbhöhen-Wendland, Elm-Lappwald, Harz, Lüneburger Heide, Münden, Terra.vita, Solling-Vogler, Lake Steinhude, Südheide, Weser Uplands, Wildeshausen Geest, Bourtanger Moor-Bargerveen. L
Luftfahrtgesellschaft Walter mbH abbreviated LGW, is a German regional airline headquartered in Dortmund. It was an independent provider of scheduled and chartered low-volume passenger flights. After years of cooperation with Air Berlin becoming a subsidiary of Air Berlin in 2017. After the collapse of Air Berlin it was purchased by Lufthansa in October 2017 to become an operational unit of the group's low-cost carrier Eurowings; as of April 1, 2019, the Zeitfracht Group has taken over LGW from Lufthansa. Luftfahrtgesellschaft Walter was founded in 1980 by Bernd Walter, the owner of a flying school at Dortmund Airport. LGW offered on-demand charter and air taxi services. During the 1990s, the airline grew a network of scheduled domestic flights. At that time, it had 25 employees and the Dornier Do 228, with its capacity of 19 passengers, was the largest airliner in its fleet. In 2007, LGW entered into a partnership with the second largest German airline. Effective 12 October of that year, LGW flights into Düsseldorf Airport and Berlin Tegel Airport were sold via the Air Berlin booking engine.
In 2008, Air Berlin introduced the Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 into its fleet. The ten aircraft of that type were operated on regional routes. Subsequently, LGW discontinued its independent corporate identity, it no longer offered any chartered services, but operated scheduled flights on behalf of Air Berlin, under Air Berlin flight numbers and branding. The website lgw.de was replaced with a redirect to airberlin.com. On 2 March 2009, Air Berlin notified the Federal Cartel Office that it would become the controlling shareholder of LGW; as staff employed by LGW do not have a collective agreement, salaries were lower than at Air Berlin. To save costs, Air Berlin transferred a large number of its staff to LGW. By the end of 2011, LGW had 110 employees. By early 2013, this number had grown to 480. Since that year, LGW employed jet pilots, as a number of Embraer 190 aircraft were transferred to the airline from Niki, the first of which arrived on 14 March and left the fleet in November 2013. By spring 2015, LGW increased their fleet of Bombardier Dash 8 Q400s from 12 to 17.
In May 2017, Air Berlin announced plans to buy Luftfahrtgesellschaft Walter in which it had a controlling stake since 2009. In the course of the 2017 bankruptcy of Air Berlin, Lufthansa bought LGW. After Air Berlin ceased operations on 27 October 2017, LGW started wetlease operations for Eurowings, taking over parts of the wetlease agreement provided by its parent for the Lufthansa subsidiary. In addition to its existing fleet of Dash 8-Q400 aircraft, it will receive 13 Airbus A320-family aircraft and started hiring crews hereto in November 2017; the acquisition was closed in January 2018 after receiving approval from the European Commission on 21 December 2017. In late 2018, all Airbus A320 family aircraft have been moved from LGW to other companies within the Eurowings network again. In January 2019, it was reported that Lufthansa plans to sell LGW to Zeitfracht, which owns German ACMI and charter airline WDL Aviation; as of April 1, 2019, the Zeitfracht Group has taken over LGW. Following the approval of the relevant supervisory authorities and the fulfillment of customary conditions, the purchase of the previous Eurowings subsidiary had been completed.
The takeover marks the beginning of a longer-term lease agreement between LGW and Eurowings. As of January 2019, LGW operates European routes on behalf of Eurowings with a focus on Düsseldorf Airport, where most aircraft are based; as of January 2019, the Luftfahrtgesellschaft Walter fleet consists of the following aircraft: Previously, LGW operated the following aircraft types under its own brand or on behalf of other airlines: Media related to Luftfahrtgesellschaft Walter at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Kuressaare Airport is an airport in Estonia. The airport is situated 1.5 nautical miles south southeast of Kuressaare on Saaremaa island. The first runway was built in the last half of the 1930s; the airport was opened on 6 March 1945. The air traffic increased during the proceeding years and between 1949 and 1953 there were between 10 and 14 flights every day between Kuressaare and Tallinn. During this period around 400 passengers flew to or from Kuressaare each day; the airport did not get electricity until 1958. The present terminal building was built in 1962; the second runway 05/23 was built in 1976 and in 1999 the main runway was lengthened. The terminal building was modernized in 2007; the airport is owned by AS Tallinna Lennujaam. It owns the Ruhnu Airfield. 19,702 passengers travelled via Kuressaare Airport in 2010. List of the busiest airports in the Baltic states Official website of Kuressaare Airport