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In computing, floating point operations per second is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations. For such cases it is a more accurate measure than measuring instructions per second; the similar term FLOP is used for floating-point operation, for example as a unit of counting floating-point operations carried out by an algorithm or computer hardware. Floating-point arithmetic is needed for large or small real numbers, or computations that require a large dynamic range. Floating-point representation is similar to scientific notation, except everything is carried out in base two, rather than base ten; the encoding scheme stores the exponent and the Significand. While several similar formats are in use, the most common is ANSI/IEEE Std. 754-1985. This standard defines the format for 32-bit numbers called single precision, as well as 64-bit numbers called double precision and longer numbers called extended precision. Floating-point representations can support a much wider range of values than fixed-point, with the ability to represent small numbers and large numbers.

The exponentiation inherent in floating-point computation assures a much larger dynamic range – the largest and smallest numbers that can be represented –, important when processing data sets where some of the data may have large range of numerical values or where the range may be unpredictable. As such, floating-point processors are ideally suited for computationally intensive applications. FLOPS and MIPS are units of measure for the numerical computing performance of a computer. Floating-point operations are used in fields such as scientific computational research; the unit MIPS measures integer performance of a computer. Examples of integer operation include value testing. MIPS as a performance benchmark is adequate when a computer is used in database queries, word processing, spreadsheets, or to run multiple virtual operating systems. Frank H. McMahon, of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, invented the terms FLOPS and MFLOPS so that he could compare the supercomputers of the day by the number of floating-point calculations they performed per second.

This was much better than using the prevalent MIPS to compare computers as this statistic had little bearing on the arithmetic capability of the machine. FLOPS on a HPC-system can be calculated using this equation: FLOPS = racks × nodes rack × sockets node × cores socket × cycles second × FLOPs cycle; this can be simplified to the most common case: a computer that has 1 CPU: FLOPS = cores × cycles second × FLOPs cycle. In June 1997, Intel's ASCI Red was the world's first computer to achieve one teraFLOPS and beyond. Sandia director Bill Camp said that ASCI Red had the best reliability of any supercomputer built, "was supercomputing's high-water mark in longevity and performance". NEC's SX-9 supercomputer was the world's first vector processor to exceed 100 gigaFLOPS per single core. For comparison, a handheld calculator performs few FLOPS. A computer response time below 0.1 second in a calculation context is perceived as instantaneous by a human operator, so a simple calculator needs only about 10 FLOPS to be considered functional.

In June 2006, a new computer was announced by Japanese research institute RIKEN, the MDGRAPE-3. The computer's performance tops out at one petaFLOPS two times faster than the Blue Gene/L, but MDGRAPE-3 is not a general purpose computer, why it does not appear in the list. It has special-purpose pipelines for simulating molecular dynamics. By 2007, Intel Corporation unveiled the experimental multi-core POLARIS chip, which achieves 1 teraFLOPS at 3.13 GHz. The 80-core chip can raise this result to 2 teraFLOPS at 6.26 GHz, although the thermal dissipation at this frequency exceeds 190 watts. On June 26, 2007, IBM announced the second generation of its top supercomputer, dubbed Blue Gene/P and designed to continuously operate at speeds exceeding one petaFLOPS; when configured to do so, it can reach speeds in excess of three petaFLOPS. In June 2007, reported the fastest computer in the world to be the IBM Blue Gene/L supercomputer, measuring a peak of 596 teraFLOPS. The Cray XT4 hit second place with 101.7 teraFLOPS.

On October 25, 2007, NEC Corporation of Japan issued a press release announcing its SX series model SX-9, claiming it to be the world's fastest vector supercomputer. The SX-9 features the first CPU capable of a peak vector performance of 102.4 gigaFLOPS per single core. On February 4, 2008, the NSF and the University of Texas at Austin opened full scale research runs on an AMD, Sun supercomputer named Ranger, the most powerful supercomputing system in the world for open science research, which operates at sustained speed of 0.5 petaFLOPS. On May 25, 200

Farrell Publications

Farrell Publications is the name of a series of American comic book publishing companies founded and operated by Robert W. Farrell in the 1940s and 1950s, including Elliot Publishing Company, Farrell Comic Group, Excellent Publications. Farrell is known for its pre-Comics Code horror comics produced by the S. M. Iger Studio. Farrell published romance, adventure and funny animal comics. Farrell acted as editor throughout. In addition to packaging art for Farrell from the beginning, Jerry Iger was the company's art director from 1955–1957. Robert W. Farrell entered the comics field in the late 1930s after a decade spent as an attorney, he wrote for the syndicated newspaper strip Scorchy Smith, wrote comics stories for the packagers Eisner & Iger Farrell wrote many comics throughout the 1940s, though without attribution, as most stories produced during the period didn't contain credits. In 1940, Farrell worked as an editor for Fox Comics. Together and Fox publisher Victor S. Fox developed the Comicscope, a cheaply produced comic strip projector sold in the pages of Fox Comics.

Farrell began Farrell Publications in 1940, operating until 1948. From 1940–1945, he was co-owner of the Elliot Publishing Company; some of Farrell's imprints and brands from this era were American Feature Syndicate, Four Star Publications, Kiddie Kapers Company. The most notable title produced during this period was Captain Flight Comics, published under the Four Star brand. After a short hiatus, Farrell founded the Farrell Comic Group in 1951 with the financial backing of Excellent Publications. Imprints included America's Best, Ajax Publications, Ajax-Farrell, Decker Publications, Red Top Comics, Steinway Comics, World Famous. No matter the imprint, most titles had the words "A Farrell Publication." Contributors to Farrell titles from this period included Ken Battefield, L. B. Cole, Matt Baker, Bruce Hamilton, Steve Ditko. Farrell's horror line consisted of Fantastic Fears, Haunted Thrills, Strange Fantasy, Voodoo. All four books were produced by the Iger Studio and featured a consistent "house style."

Like many horror comics, all four titles fell victim of the Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency and were cancelled by the end of 1954. In 1954 Farrell acquired the rights to the Phantom Lady comic strip series owned by Fox Feature Syndicate and before that, Quality Comics. Farrell published four issues of the short-lived title from January to June 1954; the company published Phantom Lady backup stories in two issues of its comic Wonder Boy. Phantom Lady as well fell under the baleful gaze of anti-comics crusader Fredric Wertham, who objected to the character's titillating costume. Changes were made so that her cleavage was covered and shorts replaced her skirt. After the cancellation of its popular horror titles in early 1955, Farrell received a cash infusion from Dearfield Publishing, which became a key investor; the company switched focus to romance and funny animal comics. In 1957, Farrell and former Iger studio-mate Myron Fass attempted to re-enter the horror/fantasy field with a quartet of Comics Code-approved titles made up of pre-Code material with the goriest panels excised.

This resulted in flat sales. The company continued publishing until 1958, but never with the same success. Farrell went into magazine and newspaper publishing. In 1958, he started the humor magazine Panic. In 1960, he acquired the Brooklyn Eagle's assets in bankruptcy court, publishing five Sunday editions of the paper in 1960. In 1962–1963, under the corporate name Newspaper Consolidated Corporation and his partner Philip Enciso revived the paper as a daily. From 1969–1981, Farrell worked for Myron Fass, as publisher of the schlocky black-and-white horror magazine publisher Eerie Publications. During this time, he revived the defunct New York Daily Mirror, publishing it from 1971–1972. All True Romance — acquired from Comic Media.

Partition Voices

Partition Voices: Untold British Stories is a non-fiction book by Kavita Puri, published in 2019 by Bloomsbury Publishing. The book includes interviews with British people originating from the Indian subcontinent, who witnessed the 1947 partition of India. In 2017, Puri produced a three-part documentary series, Partition Voices, for BBC Radio 4, about witnessed the partition and subsequently migrated to Britain; the series won the Royal Historical Society's Radio and Podcast Award and its overall Public History Prize. The book, Partition Voices: Untold British Stories, is based on the series, it contains interviews with about two dozen British people who witnessed partition, including the author's father. Partitian Voices earned positive critical reviews. In Literary Review, John Keay called it a "heartfelt and beautifully judged book". A review in The Hindu described it as "an important document of those turbulent times — raw and unbiased," while a review from praised it as "an important milestone in the Partition project because it ascribes importance to the British-South Asian dynamic and talks about the shared history of these two nations without villainising or glorifying either side."

Official page of book on site of publication house

Nuremberg Ring Railway

The Nuremberg Ring Railway is the ring railway for freight that runs at a distance of three to four kilometres from the center of Nuremberg in the German state of Bavaria. The first section was opened on 1 October 1898 and joined the lines from Crailsheim, from Augsburg and from Regensburg with the Rangierprovisorium on the site of today's Nuremberg marshalling yard. Just a year on 1 July 1899, the first part of the "northern ring" from Nuremberg East station via Nuremberg Northeast station to Nuremberg North station was put into operation; this was connected to the south ring on 1 May 1900 with the opening of the Dutzendteich–Mögeldorf/Ostbahnhof line. The "closing of the ring" took place in two stages: the extension from Nuremberg North to Nuremberg West was opened on 1 May 1905 and this was followed by the last section from Nuremberg Northwest to Muggenhof junction and from there to Fürth and via Großreuth to the existing southern part of the Ring Railway on 1 October 1910. Thus, the 30 km long ring was completed.

The southern part of the Ring Railway was duplicated in 1903. The section from Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof via Dutzendteich and the marshalling yard to the Nuremberg–Augsburg line was electrified in 1935. For the construction of the Nazi party rally grounds in the area between Luitpoldhain and Langwasser, the connection from the marshalling yard to the Nuremberg–Regensburg line was moved by 1.6 km to the southeast in 1938. The original line ran from the western end of the reception sidings in an arc north to Zollhaus and the area of the swimming stadium and an area used for allotments, where the tracks separate to run towards Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof or the Nuremberg–Regensburg line; the new line connects at the eastern end of the reception sidings turns left and runs straight through today's district of Langwasser and, after crossing Gleiwitzer Straße, branches to connect with the Nuremberg–Regensburg line. Zollhaus station was moved to the new line and a new station was built as Märzfeld, expected to serve arriving and departing crowds for the annual Nazi Party celebrations.

Between 1938 and 1939, the northern Ring Railway was upgraded. A new connection was built from Eichelsberg junction to the Nuremberg–Cheb line with Nürnberg Nordost station through the Sebalder Reichswald north of Erlenstegen so that trains from Hersbruck could run directly on to the northern Ring Railway. Through tracks were built in 1939 between Nürnberg Nordost and Nürnberg Nordwest stations to bypass Nürnberg Nord station. So by the beginning of the Second World War, a simple northern bypass of Nuremberg Hauptbahnhof was possible. In the 1930s, there were plans for passenger traffic on the northern section of the Ring Railway, but these were thwarted by the Second World War. Only the section from Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof via Nuremberg East to Nuremberg Northeast had passenger services, but only in 1911 and 1912. Another service was established in 1904 for staff traffic between Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof and Nürnberg Rbf Ausfahrt station. After the establishment of the Verkehrsverbund Großraum Nürnberg on 27 September 1987, this could be used by normal passengers, but in 1992 it returned to being a staff-only service.

The southern section is now duplicated and electrified. It continues to be used by freight trains from Würzburg, Crailsheim and Regensburg coming to the yard; the northern part from Fürth to Nürnberg Nordost is single non-electrified. Trains only use it if the DMUs used on the Gräfenberg Railway are reassigned or exchanged and special trains and locomotives of the Franconian Museum Railway are transferred from its operations workshop at Nürnberg Nordost; the freight yards on the northern ring were closed in the late 1990s and Nürnberg Nord had been abandoned. The Ring Railway was not spared from rationalisation, which started with the closure of the connection between the south and the north rings at Großmarkt junction with the construction of the Frankenschnellweg in the 1970s, leaving only a connection with the railway to Bamberg from Muggenhof junction, meaning that a complete passage of the Ring Railway required a reversal in Fürth; the connection through the Sebalder Reichswald from Nürnberg Nordost to Eichelsberg junction on the Nuremberg–Cheb line was closed in 1980 and dismantled.

This was followed on 31 May 1992 by the closure of the Nürnberg Ost–Nürnberg Nordost section. On special occasions the Franconian Museum Railway offers special services on the Ring Railway; the section of line between Nürnberg Nord and Muggenhof junction was renovated between April and May 2011. Passenger services on the northern section of the Ring Railway has been planned since the 1930s and is still under discussion. There is an option in the Nuremberg regional transport development plan that includes a connection from the Gräfenberg Railway via the Ring Railway to Furth and from there to the Rangau Railway to Cadolzburg; the planned Kleinreuth–Eltersdorf railway will create a new freight line from the Bamberg direction, which will connect with the Ring Railway at Kleinreuth bei Schweinau. Manfred Bräunlein. 150 Jahre Eisenbahn in Nürnberg. Egglham: Bufe-Fachbuch-Verlag. Herbert Hieke. "Geschichte der Nürnberge

Arkansas County Courthouse-Southern District

The Arkansas County Courthouse for the Southern District is located at Courthouse Square in the center of De Witt, the seat for the southern county of Arkansas County. It is a three-story brick building with Art Deco styling, designed by Little Rock architect H. Ray Burks and built in 1931, it is one of the finest examples of Art Deco architecture in the state. It is built with vault additions made in 1971 the only asymmetrical element, its main entry is a simple double-leaf entry with transom window, topped by a concrete panel with floral design. This is topped by a pair of large windows, with a concrete panel with signage and clock above and a raised parapet at the top; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. National Register of Historic Places listings in Arkansas County, Arkansas

Nalla Thanka

Nalla Thanka is a landmark Malayalam film directed by P. V. Krishna Iyer, produced by Kunchacko and K. V. Koshy, it was the second film produced at the first being Vellinakshatram. The film marked the debut of several artistes, including actors Augustine Joseph, Vaikom Mani, Miss Kumari, Miss Omana and S. P. Pillai, music director V. Dakshinamoorthy, cinematographer P. K. Madhavan Nair, it was one of the first commercially successful Malayalam films. Based on the legend of Nalla Thanka, the film had screenplay and dialogues written by Muthukulam Raghavan Pillai. Miss Kumari played the title role, while singer-stage actors Augustine Joseph and Vaikom Mani played the lead male roles. Nallannan is the King of Madhurapuri, his sister Nalla Thanka is married to the King of neighbouring country Ratnapuri. Alankari, the wicked queen of Madhurapuri becomes jealous of the happy married life of Nalla Thanka. Years pass and one day, drought strikes Ratnapuri. Nalla Thanka and her seven children seeks refuge in Nallannan's palace.

Nallannan promises all help. But Nalla Thanka hides the misdeeds of Alankari from her brother as she does not want their family life to be disturbed. Nalla Thanka is forced to leave her brother's palace, she decides to commit suicide. She throws her children one by one into a well. Before killing herself, she prays to Lord Shiva to forgive her for the decision. Shiva descends and saves her life, brings back all the children. Nallannan comes to know about his wife's misdeeds and he banishes her from the country. Meanwhile, Ratnapuri regains its glory and Nalla Thanka returns to her country to lead a happy life; the film is a remake of the Tamil film Nalla Thangal, released in 1935. Gemini Ganesan as Vijay M. G Ramachandran as Vijay's sis husband Augustine Joseph as Nallannan Vaikom Mani as Somanathan Miss Kumari as Nalla Thanka T. R. Omana as Alankari S. P. Pillai Muthukulam Raghavan Pillai Baby Girija "Nalla Thanka 1950"; the Hindu. Chennai, India. 30 August 2010. Retrieved 7 March 2011. Nalla Thanka on IMDb