Feline panleukopenia virus is a species of parvovirus that can infect all wild and domestic members of the felid family worldwide. It is a contagious, severe infection that causes gastrointestinal, immune system, nervous system disease, it has been thought to be single variant of Carnivore protoparvovirus, however, it has been confirmed that a feline panleukopenia illness can be caused by CPV 2a, 2b, 2c. FPLV is referred to as: Feline Parvovirus Feline Infectious Enteritis Virus Feline Parvoviral Enteritis It is sometimes confusingly referred to as “cat plague” and “feline distemper."In addition to members of the felid family, it can affect some members of related families. The feline panleukopenia virus is considered ubiquitous, meaning it is in every place, not disinfected; the infection is contagious among unvaccinated cats. Active immune response against FPLV antibodies play an important role in the immune response to the virus. Maternally-derived antibodies efficiently protect kittens from fatal infection.
This passively acquired immunity is replaced by an active immune response obtained by vaccination or as a consequence of a natural infection. In kittens, the period of greatest susceptibility to infection is when maternal antibodies are absent or waning and vaccine-induced immunity has not yet developed. Free-roaming cats are thought to be exposed to the virus during their first year of life; those that develop subclinical infection or survive acute illness mount a robust, long-lasting, protective immune response. An infected cat sheds large amounts of virus in all body secretions including feces, urine and mucus during the acute phase of illness, it can continue to shed the virus for as long as 6 weeks after recovery. Subclinically ill cats can shed the virus in body secretions; the virus can be carried or transferred on an infected object or by other animals and humans.. It persists long after evidence of the original body secretion has faded away, can be transported long distances. Like all parvoviruses, FPLV is resistant to inactivation and can survive for longer than one year in a suitable environment.
Kitten deaths have been reported in households of vaccinated cats because of exposure to large amounts of virus in the environment. Infection occurs when the virus enters the body through the nose. Whether illness results or not depends on the immunity in the victim vs. the number of individual virus particles entering the body. The clinical manifestations of FPLV are variable based on the dose of the virus, the age of the cat, potential breed predispositions, prior immunity from maternal antibodies, previous exposure, or vaccination. Most infections are subclinical, as evidenced by the high seroprevalence of anti-FPV antibodies among unvaccinated, healthy cats; the cats that become clinically ill are <1 yr old, but older cats are at risk. There is high mortality in clinically affected kittens and sudden death can occur. Clinical signs develop in 4–6 days after exposure, but can show in 2–14 days; the virus infects and destroys dividing cells in bone marrow, lymphoid tissues, intestinal epithelium, and—in young animals—in the cerebellum and retina.
The virus attacks the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, causing internal ulceration and total sloughing of the intestinal epithelium. Primary signs include: anorexia vomiting profuse watery to bloody diarrhea lethargyClinical laboratory findings include: leukopenia neutropenia lymphopenia thrombocytopenia electrolyte and total protein concentrations that reflect dehydration and diarrhea. Other signs include: fever, loss of skin elasticity due to dehydration, abdominal pain, sternal recumbency with splayed legs and head droop, nasal discharge and conjunctivitis. Cats may sit at a water bowl, but not drink. Terminal cases are hypothermic and may develop septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Infection in pregnant queens can result in fetal resorption, abortion, or stillbirth of neonates. Fetuses infected in utero that survive and kittens less than a few weeks of age that become infected can have cerebellar hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia, optic neuropathy. A presumptive clinical diagnosis of FPLV can be made for kittens with appropriate signalment, clinical findings and the history of no prior vaccination.
The clinical diagnosis is supported by documenting parvovirus antigen in feces by ELISA and PCR assays. The availability of validated assays are becoming more common. PCR assays are so sensitive that FPV DNA can be amplified from feces of cats vaccinated with modified live strains of the virus. At least one of the ELISA antigen tests for dogs detects FPV in feline feces and has a cut point for a positive test result that excludes most vaccinated cats. Thus, this ELISA is superior to PCR for screening cats for FPV infection and can be performed in the veterinary clinic; some cats will have completed the shedding period by the time the test is run, leading to fa
First-person view (radio control)
First-person view known as remote-person view, or video piloting, is a method used to control a radio-controlled vehicle from the driver or pilot's view point. Most it is used to pilot a radio-controlled aircraft or other type of unmanned aerial vehicle; the vehicle is either driven or piloted remotely from a first-person perspective via an onboard camera, fed wirelessly to video FPV goggles or a video monitor. More sophisticated setups include a pan-and-tilt gimbaled camera controlled by a gyroscope sensor in the pilot's goggles and with dual onboard cameras, enabling a true stereoscopic view. Airborne FPV is a type of remote-control flying, it involves mounting a small video camera and an analogue video transmitter to an RC aircraft and flying by means of a live video down-link displayed on video goggles or a portable monitor. FPV became common throughout the late 2000s and early 2010s, it is one of the fastest growing activities involving RC aircraft, has given rise to a small but growing industry providing products designed for FPV use.
FPV aircraft are used for aerial photography and videography and many videos of FPV flights can be found on popular video sites such as YouTube and Vimeo. For this purpose, many FPV pilots utilize a second, lightweight high-definition on-board camcorder such as a GoPro camera in addition to their standard definition video link; the record for the current total-trip distance record for an FPV aircraft is a GPS verified 93.45 mi, attained by FPV Pilot Mohamed Moussa flying a STRIX Goblin. The current speed record for a FPV aircraft is a GPS verified 265.33 mph, attained by a UK pilot Rupert White flying a modified Vasamodel Fusion powered by a brushless electric motor consuming 6,000 watts of power at 280amps from a 3,000mah 6 cell lithium-ion battery.. The current flight time record for a powered FPV aircraft is an OSD verified 142 minutes, attained by FPV Pilot Chris Chiraphanda flying a STRIX Goblin. Altitudes of up to 33,103 m above ground level have been achieved, with a mix of weather balloon and RC glider equipment used.
There are two primary components of a FPV setup: the ground component. A basic FPV system consists of a camera and an analogue video transmitter on the aircraft with a video receiver and a display on the ground. More advanced setups add in specialized hardware, including on-screen displays with GPS navigation and flight data, stabilization systems, autopilot devices with "return to home" capability—allowing the aircraft to fly back to its starting point autonomously in the event of a signal loss. Another common feature is the addition of tilt capability to the camera, provided by servos. This, when coupled with video goggles and "head tracking" devices creates a immersive, first-person experience, as if the pilot was sitting in the cockpit of the RC aircraft. Receiving equipment—commonly referred to as the "Ground Station"—generally consists of an analog video receiver and a viewing device. More complex Ground Stations include a means to record the received image along with more sophisticated antennas for achieving greater range and clarity.
Any model aircraft can be modified for FPV. The two most common choices are Fixed Wing aircraft and Multirotors, although early adopters have converted model helicopters. Fixed-wing airframes are medium-sized planes with sufficient payload space for the video equipment and large wings capable of supporting the extra weight. By far the most common type of fixed wing aircraft is that with a pusher propeller configuration; this allows for a "prop free" image on either the High Definition recording. Examples of these aircraft include the Multiplex EasyStar, Skyhunter 1800, Skywalker 1680, Hobbyking Bixler and Ritewing Zephyr "flying wing" style aircraft. Flying wing designs are popular for FPV, as many pilots believe they provide the best combination of large wing surface area, speed and gliding ability. Multicopters quadcopters, have fast been gaining popularity as agile camera platforms capable of filming high quality video while hovering and maneuvering in tight spaces; this increase in popularity has come about due to new manufacturing techniques and a reduction in component costs, making this side of the FPV hobby more accessible to a wider audience.
In recent years, FPV Multirotor racing has become a fast growing branch of the RC hobby. The most common frequencies used for RC video transmission are: 900 MHz, 1.2 GHz, 2.4 GHz, 5.8 GHz. Specialized long-range UHF control systems operate at 433 MHz ]]) or 869 MHz and are used to achieve greater control range, while the use of directional, high-gain antennas increases video range. Sophisticated setups are capable of achieving a range of 20–30 miles or more, further with the help of extra technologies such as noise-clearing. In addition to the standard video frequencies, 1.3 GHz and 2.3 GHz have emerged to be used without the inteference of the bands on more common and used frequencies such as 2.4 GHz. 900 MHz offers long range and better object penetration around trees, large plants, buildings. However, with this more powerful frequency requires a larger antenna - so portability is an issue for some setups. In many countries a ra
Scottish Fisheries Protection Agency
The Scottish Fisheries Protection Agency was an Executive Agency of the Scottish Government. On 1 April 2009, the Scottish Fisheries Protection Agency and Fisheries Research Services were merged with the Scottish Government Marine Directorate to form Marine Scotland, part of the core Scottish Government; the SFPA was responsible for both deterring illegal fishing in Scottish waters, as well as monitoring the compliance of the fisheries industry in Scotland with the relevant Scottish and European Union laws on fisheries. The Agency had 18 Fishery Offices, a fleet of 3 Fishery Protection Vessels, 2 aircraft for the purposes of monitoring and enforcement in the waters around Scotland; the letters "SF" that appeared in the Agency's ensign relate to the words "Sea Fisheries" as the agency was part of the UK Sea Fisheries Inspectorate. The UK Parliament has legislated for the protection and control of fisheries in the waters around the United Kingdom since the early 19th century. In the early 19th century the Commissioners of the British White Herring Fishery were appointed, who had the power to detail naval vessels to superintend the herring fisheries.
Experience as a cooper – a maker of barrels – remained a qualification for Fishery Officers until as as 1939. In 1882, the Fishery Board for Scotland was established for the purposes of protecting sea fisheries in the waters around Scotland and land-based inspection of landed catches. By 1909, the Board's fleet included 5 steam vessels; the Board's responsibilities were transferred to the Secretary of State for Scotland in 1939. In April 1991 the Secretary of State for Scotland established the fisheries protection and enforcement services as an executive agency as part of the Government's Next Steps Initiative, which sought to devolve specific activities from central Government to free-standing organisations, headed by Chief Executives accountable to Ministers. Hence, the Scottish Fisheries Protection Agency was established as an executive agency of the Scottish Office with the resources of 230 staff, 20 coastal offices, 6 protection vessels and 2 surveillance aircraft. Following devolution in Scotland, the agency transferred to the control of the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department.
In 2007, the Scottish National Party changed the structure of the Scottish Executive, the SFPA became associated with the Director-General of the Environment. The SFPA was responsible for monitoring compliance and taking enforcement action, where necessary, to deter and detect illegitimate activities in the marine environment; the Headquarters of the SFPA was located in Edinburgh. It housed the supporting arms of the Agency including Finance, Corporate Affairs, Human Resources, Pay and Health & Safety as well as the Prosecution & Enforcement Policy branch and the Marine Monitoring Centre; the Marine Monitoring Centre was responsible for tasking SFPA assets FPVs and surveillance aircraft, to address the key priorities, which were determined using risk-based analysis. The Marine Monitoring Centre acted as part of the UK Fisheries Monitoring Centre and monitoring the VMS satellite tracking system of all fishing vessels in Scottish waters and Scottish fishing vessels globally; the MMC was manned between 0700 -- 2200 Monday to 0800-1100 on weekends.
From 1 June 2005, the UK Fisheries Call Centre, based within the MMC, has been the single point of contact for all notification or reporting requirements from fishing vessels in UK waters, working of behalf of Marine Scotland Compliance, the Marine Fisheries Agency of England and Wales, the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Northern Ireland. The MMC & UKFCC had 13 staff; the SFPA employed 285 staff, in the following areas: Marine Surveillance – 134 Coastal Inspection – 124 Headquarters – 27 Although the SFPA owned two surveillance aircraft, the air crews were provided by a private Company on a contract basis. All staff employed directly by the SFPA were Civil Servants and subject to Civil Service terms and conditions of employment; the Marine staff were responsible for crewing the three Marine Protection Vessels, with each Vessel having two crews who operated on the basis of 3 weeks on duty followed by 3 weeks off duty. Further details of the Vessels and their crewing arrangements can be found in the'Ships' page of this section of the website.
Coastal Inspection The Coastal Inspection staff, who made up the Sea Fisheries Inspectorate, were split into two Areas – North / East and South / West – the split of Fishery Offices in each area is provided below: The main tasks for the Coastal SFI was to ensure the integrity of the Quota Management System and the enforcement of regulations on effort limitation, stock recovery programmes, VMS and the Registration of Buyers and Sellers act. This was accomplished by: Inspections of catches in ports on board vessels, in fish markets and on landing for direct sale. Weighing of whitefish catches as required by EU legislation, with catches sample weighed at the point of landing, on fish markets and at merchants’ premises. Enforcing the timeous submission of logsheets and landing declarations in compliance with the EU and UK legislation and in the submission of salesnotes and buyers notes, in compliance with the legislation on the registration of sellers and buyers of sea fish. Ensuring catches are recorded against quota and that buyers
Ford Performance Vehicles
Ford Performance Vehicles was the Melbourne-based, premium performance arm of automobile manufacturer Ford Australia. The company produced a range of Ford-based models from 2002 to 2014; the roots of FPV can be traced back to 1991, when the English automotive engineering company Tickford began a collaboration with Ford Australia to produce high-performance variants of the Australian Falcon range. The partnership, Tickford Vehicle Engineering, saw the introduction of the Ford Falcon S-XR6 and Ford Falcon S-XR8 models; this was followed in October 1999 by the launch of the Ford Tickford Experience dealer network and the FTE T-Series range based on Ford’s AU Falcon and Fairlane models. In 2002, following the purchase of Tickford by Prodrive, the Ford Performance Vehicles company was formed as a joint venture between Ford Australia and Prodrive; the FPV brand name was created to replace the FTE name and a restructured range was developed based on the Ford BA Falcon, seeing the return of the GT nameplate to a Falcon-based product for the first time since the "30th Anniversary GT", as a regular production model since the XB Falcon GT.
The range was headlined by the FPV GT-P, included a turbo-charged model based on the XR6 Turbo. Over the years, FPV expanded the range to include a High Performance version of the Ford Territory as well as a number of special editions and anniversary models; the purchase from Prodrive saw a factory backed V8 Supercar outfit in Ford Performance Racing. In August 2012, Ford Australia announced its purchase of FPV assets to continue the engineering and marketing of that performance brand in Australia. In preparation for Ford Australia's manufacturing shutdown, the FPV brand and its range were discontinued in 2014, after 12 years of production and marketing. FPV used a number of nameplates for its vehicles; the following are the main series of models offered during the company's run. F6-EReplaced the Force 6 as the luxury orientated 6-cyl offering. F6 Typhoon/TornadoIntroduced in 2004 with the BA MkII, used an improved version of the "Barra" 4.0L turbo. Prior to the release of the FG series F6 in 2008, the sedan and utility models were marketed as the F6 Typhoon and F6 Tornado respectively.
F6-XSUV product based on the Ford Territory Force 6Luxury orientated offering, using the Typhoon engine, but with low-key looks. Force 8Luxury orientated offering, using the GT drive-train, but with low-key looks. Positioned above the GT-P as the flagship model until the GT-E. GSIntended to sit below the GT and provide a lower entry-point to the FPV range. GTServed as the Falcon-based entry level product until the arrival of the GS in 2010. GT-EReplacing the Force 8 as the top-of-the-line FPV offering GT-PHigher specification of the GT, with most options standard. Ford Pursuit XR8 AUii 2002 The 2002 BA range included the GT, GT-P, the Pursuit; the GT was the entry-level vehicle that started with a suggested retail price of A$59,810. The GT-P was the upmarket version of the GT, with a price tag of A$69,850; the Pursuit was a ute version of the GT, featuring the same seats, basic dash/interior package and wheels. A FPV specific body-kit was applied to all cars; the kit had a strong resemblance to the BA Falcon V8 Supercar, highlighting the connection to FPR.
All three were powered by a unique version of Ford's 5.4-litre Modular V8, with DOHC 4-valve cylinder heads from the Mustang Cobra R engine. FPV named this uniquely tuned engine as the Boss 290 because of its power output, it produced 290 kW at 520 N ⋅ m of torque at 4,500 rpm. Featured Models GT GT-P Pursuit The GT, GT-P and Pursuit received a new stripe package with bonnet decals, a six-speed Tremec T56 manual and the GT-P received 19" five-spoke alloy wheels. FPV released the Super Pursuit, a Pursuit ute with GT-P extras. New six cylinder sedan and utility models were added to the F6 Typhoon and F6 Tornado; the F6 was visually separated from the GT range with the use of a different pattern in the front bumper grill mesh, a smaller boot spoiler on the sedan. F6 models were powered by FPV's version of the Ford Barra engine, a 4.0 litre DOHC 24-valve turbocharged inline-six with variable cam timing producing 270 kW at 5,250 rpm and 550 N⋅m at 2,000 - 4,250 rpm. Featured Models F6 Tornado F6 Typhoon GT GT-P Pursuit Super Pursuit This new range was launched in 2005 with engine specifications unchanged.
All models shared the same six-speed manual and were now offered with an optional German made ZF six-speed automatic. The GT received the GT-P's old 19-inch wheels, the GT-P and Super Pursuit received their own specific road wheel styles. Typhoon & Tornado versions had optional 18-inch road wheel design used on the previous model, or a new 19-inch design with black spokes. All models received new body kits, with the F6 Typhoon benefiting from its own unique styling changes; the F6 now had color coded fog lamp surrounds, a lower grill insert emphasizing the intercooler. The rear now had a new bumper with mesh inserts, a deeper diffuser, with the GT models now sporting a dual exit exhaust system cut into the diffuser. Featured Models F6 Tornado F6 Typhoon GT GT-P Pursuit Super Pursuit No mechanical changes were introduced with this update. Subtle styling changes were made, but the most significant news was the introduction of new Force 6 and Force 8 models. Built to rival HSV's Senator Signature, they are mechanically identical to the auto-equipped GT model, but in a more luxury-focused package with more conservative visuals (no rear wing and more