Faisalabad known as Lyallpur, is the third-most-populous city in Pakistan, the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab. One of the first planned cities within British India, it has long since developed into a cosmopolitan metropolis. Faisalabad was restructured into city district status; the total area of Faisalabad District is 5,856 km2 while the area controlled by the Faisalabad Development Authority is 1,280 km2. Faisalabad has grown to become a major industrial and distribution centre because of its central location in the region and connecting roads and air transportation, it has been referred to as the "Manchester of Pakistan". Faisalabad contributes over 20 percent of Punjab's GDP, has an average annual GDP of $20.5 billion. Agriculture and industry remain its hallmark; the surrounding countryside, irrigated by the lower Chenab River, produces cotton, sugarcane, maize and fruits. The city is an industrial centre with major railway repair yards, engineering works, mills that process sugar and oil seed.
Faisalabad is a major producer of superphosphates and silk textiles, dyes, industrial chemicals, clothing and paper, agricultural equipment, ghee. The Faisalabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry monitors industrial activity in the city and reports their findings to the Federation of Pakistan Chamber of Commerce and Industry and provincial government; the city has international airport. Faisalabad is home to the University of Agriculture, Government College University as well as the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Beaconhouse School System, Divisional Public School Faisalabad and National Textile University; the city has its own cricket team, Faisalabad Wolves, based at the Iqbal Stadium. There are several other sports teams that compete internationally, including hockey and snooker as well as other sporting events. Faisalabad district began as Lyallpur district in 1904 and prior to that, was a tehsil of Jhang district. During the British Raj, the city Lyallpur was named in honour of the Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab, Sir James Broadwood Lyall, for his services in the colonisation of the lower Chenab Valley.
His surname Lyall was joined with "pur". In 1979, the Government of Pakistan changed the name of the city from Lyallpur to Faisalabad, in honour of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, who made several financial contributions to Pakistan. According to the University of Faisalabad, the city of Faisalabad traces its origins to the 18th century when the land was inhabited by a number of forest-dwelling tribes, it is believed these early settlements belonged to the ancient districts of Jhang and Sandalbar, which included the area between Shahdara to Shorekot and Sangla Hill to Toba Tek Singh. By the mid-18th century, the economic and administrative collapse of provinces within the Mughal Empire, from Punjab to Bengal, led to its dissolution. Internal unrest resulted in multiple battles for independence and further deterioration of the region, which led to formal colonialisation as established by the Government of India Act 1858, with direct control under the British Raj from 1858 to 1947. In 1880, Poham Young CIE, a British colonial officer, proposed construction of a new strategic town within the area.
His proposal was supported by Sir James Broadwood Lyall and the city of Lyall was developed. Faisalabad, became one of the first planned cities within British India. Young designed the city centre to replicate the design in the Union Jack with eight roads extending from a large clock tower at its epicentre; the eight roads developed into eight separate bazaars leading to different regions of the Punjab. In 1892, the newly constructed town with its growing agricultural surplus was added to the British rail network. Construction of the rail link between Wazirabad and Lyallpur was completed in 1895. In 1896, Gujranwala and Sahiwal comprising the Tehsils of Lyallpur were under the administrative control of the Jhang District. In 1904, the new district of Lyallpur was formed to include the tehsils of Samundri and Toba Tek Singh with a sub-tehsil at Jaranwala, which became a full tehsil in itself; the University of Agriculture the Punjab Agricultural College and Research Institute, was established in 1906.
The Town Committee was upgraded to a Municipal Committee in 1909. Lyallpur grew into an established agricultural grain centre; the 1930s brought industrial growth and market expansion to the textile industry as well as to food processing, grain crushing and chemicals. In August 1947, following three decades of nationalist struggles and Pakistan achieved independence; the British agreed to partition colonial India into two sovereign states – Pakistan with a Muslim majority, India with a Hindu majority. The partitioning led to a mass migration of an estimated 10 million people which made it the largest mass migration in human history. India's Bengal province was divided into East Pakistan and West Bengal, the Punjab Province was divided into Punjab and Punjab, India. There were respective divisions of the British Indian Army, the Indian Civil Service, various administrative services, the central treasury, the railways
Hong Kong Fire Services Department
Hong Kong Fire Services Department of the Hong Kong Government is an emergency service responsible for fire-fighting and rescue on land and sea. It provides an emergency ambulance service for the sick and the injured, gives fire protection advice to the public; the Hong Kong Fire Services Department is under the Secretary for Security who heads the Security Bureau. Headquarters is located at Fire Services Headquarters Building, 1 Hong Chong Road, Tsim Sha Tsui East, Kowloon West; the history of the Hong Kong Fire Service began in the Government Gazette dated May 9, 1868. Charles May became the first Superintendent of the Fire Brigade. At the time, the Fire Department was part of the Hong Kong Police Force in 1846, it had a total strength of 62 with a supplement of 100 Chinese volunteers. The fire department expanded to 140 members during the 1920s. During the Japanese Occupation during the World War II, the Service disbanded; the two fire engines were exported to Tokyo to become part of the Imperial Palace Fire Unit.
It was only returned after the War. Unlike Canada, UK and some countries, Hong Kong's ambulance service is tied directly with the Fire Department. At that time all emergency ambulance service was provided by the Fire Service while non-emergency was handled by the Medical Corps. In 1950 the Auxiliary Fire Service Unit was created to establish the Hong Kong Auxiliary Fire Brigade to provide additional manpower to regular fire brigade members under the Essential Services Corps Regulations. In 1953, this policy was changed and all Medical Corps vehicles and crew were transferred to the Fire Service. Thus, leading to the creation to the present Ambulance Command. Over the past 50 years it has grown to accommodate 30 ambulance depots, 240 ambulances, 35 motorcycles and 2,350 uniformed staff; the department has 9,351 members. It is organised into seven commands － three operational commands, a Licensing and Certification Command, a Fire Safety Command, an Ambulance Command and a Headquarters Command, they are supported by an Administration Division.
Commanding the department is the Director of Fire Services. Fire-fighting and other emergency services are undertaken by the three operational commands － Hong Kong and the New Territories. There are 81 fire stations across Hong Kong's 3 operational commands. In 2004, they responded to 20,059 special service calls. Careless handling or disposal of cigarette ends and candles remained the major causes of fires, followed by incidents involving the preparation of food and electrical faults. Fires claimed nine lives and 451 injuries in 2004. Of the injured, 46 were Fire Services personnel. Special service calls cover a wide range of incidents, including traffic and industrial accidents, gas leakages, flooding, house collapses, attempts by people to jump from a height and malfunctioning lifts. In 2004, 717 people died and 1,995 others were injured in such incidents. One of the dead and 16 of the injured were Fire Services personnel; the department has 835 operational appliances and vehicles fitted with up-to-date fire-fighting and rescue equipment.
The first-line appliances comprising major pumps, hydraulic platforms, light rescue units and turntable ladders/snorkels, are supported where necessary by other special appliances/equipment. A fleet of eight fireboats, including two command boats, one diving support vessel and two diving support speedboats provide fire protection and rescue services within Hong Kong The Ambulance Command operates from 38 depots with 2,350 uniformed staff; the services fleet consists of 268 ambulances, four village ambulances, four mobile casualty treatment centres and 35 paramedic motorcycles. All motorcycles and ambulances are equipped with paramedic facilities to provide paramedic care. In 2004, the Command responded to 574,901 calls, conveying a total of 521,127 patients or casualties to hospitals/clinics, or an average of 1 575 calls a day. There were 106 cases of ambulance personnel sustaining injury whilst on active duty in 2004. Front-line firemen are trained as first-responders to provide basic life support to casualties and patients before the arrival of an ambulance crew.
So far, first-responders are available in 81 fire stations. The Fire Services Communication Centre is equipped with a computerised mobilising system for the efficient and effective mobilising of fire-fighting and ambulance resources for fires and emergencies, it is linked to all fire stations, ambulance depots and fireboat stations for dispatch of resources. The FSCC, manned round the clock caters for receipt of complaints and enquiries of fire hazards and dangerous goods. During major incidents, it acts as a co-ordinator for public utilities; the FSCC has five Mobile Command Units which serve as on-scene command and control centres in major incidents. The Third Generation Mobilising System came into operation in phases starting in the first quarter of 2005; the system's objective is to further enhance the capability and efficiency in mobilisation and communications to meet anticipated growth of emergency calls over the next decade. The Licensing and Certification Command enforces fire safety regulations and policies, processes the registration of fire service installation contractors.
The Policy Division deals with the formulation of guidelines on fire protection matters, prosecutions and approval of portable fire-fighting equipment and gas cylinders. The Dangerous Goods Division is responsible for the licensing of dangerous goods stores and vehicles, timber stores; the Fire Service Installations Division and Ventilation Division are responsible for insp
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resource use continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development can be classified as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations. While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth century environmental concerns; as the concept developed, it has shifted to focus more on economic development, social development and environmental protection for future generations. It has been suggested that "the term'sustainability' should be viewed as humanity's target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium, while'sustainable development' refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability".
Modern economies are endeavouring to reconcile ambitious economic development and obligations of preserving natural resources and ecosystems, as the two are seen as of conflicting nature. Instead of holding climate change commitments and other sustainability measures as a drug to economic development and leveraging them into market opportunities will do greater good; the economic development brought by such organized principles and practices in an economy is called Managed Sustainable Development. The concept of sustainable development has been—and still is—subject to criticism, including the question of what is to be sustained in sustainable development, it has been argued that there is no such thing as a sustainable use of a non-renewable resource, since any positive rate of exploitation will lead to the exhaustion of earth's finite stock. It has been argued that the meaning of the concept has opportunistically been stretched from'conservation management' to'economic development', that the Brundtland Report promoted nothing but a business as usual strategy for world development, with an ambiguous and insubstantial concept attached as a public relations slogan.
Sustainability can be defined as the practice of maintaining processes of productivity indefinitely—natural or human made—by replacing resources used with resources of equal or greater value without degrading or endangering natural biotic systems. Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social and economic challenges faced by humanity. Sustainability science is the study of the concepts of sustainable development and environmental science. There is an additional focus on the present generations' responsibility to regenerate and improve planetary resources for use by future generations. Sustainable development has its roots in ideas about sustainable forest management which were developed in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. In response to a growing awareness of the depletion of timber resources in England, John Evelyn argued that "sowing and planting of trees had to be regarded as a national duty of every landowner, in order to stop the destructive over-exploitation of natural resources" in his 1662 essay Sylva.
In 1713 Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a senior mining administrator in the service of Elector Frederick Augustus I of Saxony published Sylvicultura oeconomica, a 400-page work on forestry. Building upon the ideas of Evelyn and French minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, von Carlowitz developed the concept of managing forests for sustained yield, his work influenced others, including Alexander von Humboldt and Georg Ludwig Hartig leading to the development of a science of forestry. This in turn influenced people like Gifford Pinchot, first head of the US Forest Service, whose approach to forest management was driven by the idea of wise use of resources, Aldo Leopold whose land ethic was influential in the development of the environmental movement in the 1960s. Following the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring in 1962, the developing environmental movement drew attention to the relationship between economic growth and development and environmental degradation. Kenneth E. Boulding in his influential 1966 essay The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth identified the need for the economic system to fit itself to the ecological system with its limited pools of resources.
One of the first uses of the term sustainable in the contemporary sense was by the Club of Rome in 1972 in its classic report on the Limits to Growth, written by a group of scientists led by Dennis and Donella Meadows of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Describing the desirable "state of global equilibrium", the authors wrote: "We are searching for a model output that represents a world system, sustainable without sudden and uncontrolled collapse and capable of satisfying the basic material requirements of all of its people."Following the Club of Rome report, an MIT research group prepared ten days of hearings on "Growth and Its Implication for the Future" for the US Congress, the first hearings held on sustainable development. William Flynn Martin, David Dodson Gray, Elizabeth Gray prepared the hearings under the Chairmanship of Congressman John Dingell. In 1980 the International Union for the Conservation of Nature published a world conservation strategy that included one of the first references to sustainable development as a global priority and introduced the
Florida State University
Florida State University is a public space-grant and sea-grant research university in Tallahassee, Florida. It is a senior member of the State University System of Florida. Founded in 1851, it is located on the oldest continuous site of higher education in the state of Florida; the university is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The university comprises 16 separate colleges and more than 110 centers, facilities and institutes that offer more than 360 programs of study, including professional school programs; the university has an annual budget of over $1.7 billion and an annual economic impact of over $10 billion. Florida State is home to Florida's only National Laboratory, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, is the birthplace of the commercially viable anti-cancer drug Taxol. Florida State University operates The John & Mable Ringling Museum of Art, the State Art Museum of Florida and one of the largest museum/university complexes in the nation.
The university is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools. For 2019, U. S. News & World Report ranked Florida State as the 26th best public university in the United States in the national university category. Florida State University is one of Florida's three state-designated "preeminent universities." FSU's intercollegiate sports teams known by their "Florida State Seminoles" nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Atlantic Coast Conference. In their 113-year history, Florida State's varsity sports teams have won 20 national athletic championships and Seminole athletes have won 78 individual NCAA national championships. In 1819 the Florida Territory was ceded to the United States by Spain as an element of the Adams–Onís Treaty; the Territory was conventionally split by the Appalachicola or the Suwannee rivers into East and West areas. Florida State University is traceable to a plan set by the 1823 U. S. Congress to create a system of higher education.
The 1838 Florida Constitution codified the basic system by providing for land allocated for the schools. In 1845 Florida became the 27th State of the United States, which permitted the resources and intent of the 1823 Congress regarding education in Florida to be implemented; the Legislature of the State of Florida, in a Legislative Act of January 24, 1851, provided for the establishment of the two institutions of learning on opposite sides of the Suwannee River. The Legislature declared the purpose of these institutions to be "the instruction of persons, both male and female, in the art of teaching all the various branches that pertain to a good common school education. By 1854 the City of Tallahassee had established a school for boys called the Florida Institute, with the hope that the State could be induced to take it over as one of the seminaries. In 1856, Tallahassee Mayor Francis W. Eppes again offered the Institute's land and building to the Legislature; the bill to locate the Seminary in Tallahassee passed both houses and was signed by the Governor on January 1, 1857.
On February 7, 1857, the first meeting of the Board of Education of the State Seminary West of the Suwannee River was held, the institution began offering post-secondary instruction to male students. Francis Eppes served as President of the Seminary's Board of Education for eight years. In 1858 the seminary absorbed the Tallahassee Female Academy, established in 1843, became coeducational; the West Florida Seminary was located on the former Florida Institute property, a hill where the historic Westcott Building now stands. The location is the oldest continuously used site of higher education in Florida; the area west of the state Capitol and ominously known as Gallows Hill, a place for public executions in early Tallahassee. In 1860–61 the legislature started formal military training at the school with a law amending the original 1851 statute. During the Civil War, the seminary became The Florida Collegiate Institute. Enrollment at the school increased to around 250 students with the school establishing itself as the largest and most respected educational institution in the state.
Cadets from the school defeated Union forces at the Battle of Natural Bridge in 1865, leaving Tallahassee as the only Confederate capital east of the Mississippi River not to fall to Union forces. The students were trained by Valentine Mason Johnson, a graduate of Virginia Military Institute, a professor of mathematics and the chief administrator of the college. After the fall of the Confederacy, campus buildings were occupied by Union military forces for four months and the West Florida Seminary reverted to its former academic purpose. In recognition of the cadets, their pivotal role in the battle, the Florida State University Army ROTC cadet corps displays a battle streamer bearing the words "NATURAL BRIDGE 1865" with its flag; the FSU Army ROTC is one of only four collegiate military units in the United States with permission to display such a pennant. In 1883 the institution, now long known as the West Florida Seminary, was organized by the Board of Education as The Literary College of the University of Florida.
The legislative act passed in 1885, bestowing upon the institution the title of the University of Florida, has never been repealed. Under the new university charter, the seminary became the institution's Literary College, was to contain several "schools" or departments in different disciplines. However, in the new university association the seminary'
A self-driving car known as a robot car, autonomous car, or driverless car, is a vehicle, capable of sensing its environment and moving with little or no human input. Autonomous cars combine a variety of sensors to perceive their surroundings, such as radar, sonar, GPS, odometry and inertial measurement units. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage. Experiments have been conducted on automated driving systems since at least the 1920s; the first automated car was developed in 1977, by Japan's Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. The vehicle tracked white street markers, which were interpreted by two cameras on the vehicle, using an analog computer for signal processing; the vehicle reached speeds up with the support of an elevated rail. Autonomous prototype cars appeared in the 1980s, with Carnegie Mellon University's Navlab and ALV projects funded by DARPA starting in 1984 and Mercedes-Benz and Bundeswehr University Munich's EUREKA Prometheus Project in 1987.
By 1985, the ALV had demonstrated self-driving speeds on two-lane roads of 31 kilometres per hour with obstacle avoidance added in 1986 and off-road driving in day and nighttime conditions by 1987. From the 1960s through the second DARPA Grand Challenge in 2005, automated vehicle research in the U. S. was funded by DARPA, the US Army, the U. S. Navy, yielding incremental advances in speeds, driving competence in more complex conditions and sensor systems. Companies and research organizations have developed prototypes; the U. S. allocated $650 million in 1991 for research on the National Automated Highway System, which demonstrated automated driving through a combination of automation, embedded in the highway with automated technology in vehicles and cooperative networking between the vehicles and with the highway infrastructure. The program concluded with a successful demonstration in 1997 but without clear direction or funding to implement the system on a larger scale. Funded by the National Automated Highway System and DARPA, the Carnegie Mellon University Navlab drove 4,584 kilometres across America in 1995, 4,501 kilometres or 98% of it autonomously.
Navlab's record achievement stood unmatched for two decades until 2015 when Delphi improved it by piloting an Audi, augmented with Delphi technology, over 5,472 kilometres through 15 states while remaining in self-driving mode 99% of the time. In 2015, the US states of Nevada, California and Michigan, together with Washington, D. C. allowed the testing of automated cars on public roads. In 2017, Audi stated that its latest A8 would be automated at speeds of up to 60 kilometres per hour using its "Audi AI." The driver would not have to do safety checks such as gripping the steering wheel. The Audi A8 was claimed to be the first production car to reach level 3 automated driving, Audi would be the first manufacturer to use laser scanners in addition to cameras and ultrasonic sensors for their system. In November 2017, Waymo announced that it had begun testing driverless cars without a safety driver in the driver position. In October 2018, Waymo announced that its test vehicles had traveled in automated mode for over 10,000,000 miles, increasing by about 1,000,000 miles per month.
In December 2018, Waymo was the first to commercialize a autonomous taxi service in the U. S. There is some inconsistency in terminology used in the self-driving car industry. Various organizations have proposed to define an consistent vocabulary; such confusion has been documented in SAE J3016 which states that "Some vernacular usages associate autonomous with full driving automation, while other usages apply it to all levels of driving automation, some state legislation has defined it to correspond to any ADS at or above level 3." Modern vehicles provide automated features such as keeping the car within its lane, speed controls or emergency braking. Nonetheless, differences remain between a autonomous self-driving car on one hand and driver assistance technologies on the other hand. According to the BBC, confusion between those concepts leads to deaths. Association of British Insurers considers the usage of the word autonomous in marketing for modern cars to be dangerous, because car ads make motorists think'autonomous' and'autopilot' means a vehicle can drive itself, when they still rely on the driver to ensure safety.
Technology alone still is not able to drive the car. When some car makers suggest or claim vehicles are self-driving, when they are only automated, drivers risk becoming excessively confident, leading to crashes, while self-driving cars are still a long way off in the UK. Autonomous means self-governing. Many historical projects related to vehicle automation have been automated subject to a heavy reliance on artificial aids in their environment, such as magnetic strips. Autonomous control implies satisfactory performance under significant uncertainties in the environment and the ability to compensate for system failures without external intervention. One approach is to implement communication networks both in the immediate vicinity and farther away; such outside influences in the decision process reduce an individual vehicle's autonomy, while still not requiring human intervention. Wood et al. wrote, "This Article uses the term'autonomous,' instead of the term'automated.' " The term
Florida School for the Deaf and Blind
The Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind is a state-supported boarding school for deaf and blind children established in 1885, in St. Augustine, United States. In 1882, Thomas Hines Coleman, a young deaf man, was preparing to graduate from Gallaudet University in Washington, D. C. the only college for the deaf in the world at that time. He had graduated from the South Carolina School for the Deaf and Blind and knew he wanted to make education for children his life's work. Florida was one of the few states that had not made provision for the education of children who were deaf/hard of hearing or who had visual impairments. Coleman wrote Governor William D. Bloxham and he replied favorably toward the establishment of such a school; as their correspondence continued, the sum of $20,000 was reached as a minimum appropriation to start the school. In 1883, Florida´s legislature established an institution for the blind and deaf children for two years at $20,000, they requested bids from towns in the state for the location for the school.
St. Augustine offered the best bid with $1,000 cash and 5 acres of land, the land donated by Captain Edward E. Vaill, a pioneer of the city. Contractor William A. MacDuff erected the original first three wooden buildings at $12,749; the school opened in December, 1885 as The School for the Blind and Dumb. Although the school had both black and white children in its early years, social opposition to racial integration was rampant, the Florida Institute for the Blind and Dumb, Colored Department was created in 1895. By 1892, there were 62 students enrolled and the first graduation ceremony, for two white deaf students, Artemas W. Pope and Cora Carlton, was held in 1898; the first graduation for a white blind student, DeWitt Lightsey, was held in 1898 and the first graduation for a black blind student, Louise Jones, was in 1914. The first graduation for a black deaf student, Cary White, was in 1925; the school was racially integrated in 1967 with the Florida School for the Blind. The school was under the direction of a five-member board of trustees until 1905.
The Florida legislature established the present seven-member Board of Trustees in 1963. Construction began on new dormitories in late 1958 and they opened in 1959. Taylor Hardwick was the architect of record; the school is now the largest school of its type in the United States with 47 buildings on 82 acres of land. The school now has an annual budget of over $30 million, up from its original of $20,000, it serves 600 students on campus and 400 infants/toddlers and their parents through the statewide Parent Infant Program. The school is Florida's primary public school for children who are blind. Students are transported to the school and back home from all over the state, residing in dormitories during the week; the school serves deaf and blind students in pre-school through 12th grade, has a post-secondary program. The school is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the Conference of Educational Administrators Serving the Deaf, the National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving the Blind and Visually Handicapped.
The school has two departments: The Deaf Department serves children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the Blind Department serves children who are blind or visually impaired. In addition, outreach programs provide support to parents and other staff in small and rural school districts in the state of Florida; the school has a health care center for students as well as two well-appointed auditoriums on campus. Blind high school students can take a sound engineering elective and have opportunities to work with state-of-the-art sound systems within the school; the school offers ASL courses to the community for a nominal fee. The school is a member of the. Students have the opportunity to compete in 11 team sports with public and private schools across the state and nation. School coaching personnel work with about 300 student-athletes each year. Athletic teams include basketball, cross country, flag football, soccer, track & field and wrestling; the school has three gyms, a swimming pool, two bowling alleys.
The school boasts the Copeland Recreation and Fitness Center, specially designed and constructed for the blind. The Copeland Center is the site of the annual USABA Youth National Goalball Tournament. Students at the school can join performing groups; the school's Deaf Department has a traveling Dance Troupe, the Blind Department has a band known as OuttaSight. Other clubs and activities include the Blind Skier Club, Academic Bowl Team, MathCounts. Ray Charles attended St. Augustine School; the school was known as The Institute for the Blind and Dumb at the time. Ashley Fiolek attended the Florida School for the Deaf & Blind and is a national women's motorcross champion. Marcus Roberts, jazz pianist. Joseph “Joe” Walker, sports broadcaster. Sir Charles Atkins, Florida blues legend. Florida School for the Deaf and Blind
A fourteen-segment display is a type of display based on 14 segments that can be turned on or off to produce letters and numerals. It is an expansion of the more common seven-segment display, having an additional four diagonal and two vertical segments with the middle horizontal segment broken in half. A seven-segment display suffices for numerals and certain letters, but unambiguously rendering the ISO basic Latin alphabet requires more detail. A slight variation is the sixteen-segment display which allows additional legibility in displaying letters or other symbols. A decimal point or comma may be present as pair of segments. Electronic alphanumeric displays may use LCDs, or vacuum fluorescent display devices; the LED variant is manufactured in single or dual character packages, allowing the system designer to choose the number of characters suiting the application. A character generator is used to translate 7-bit ASCII character codes to the 14 bits that indicate which of the 14 segments to turn on or off.
Multiple-segment display devices use fewer elements than a full dot-matrix display, may produce a better character appearance where the segments are shaped appropriately. This can reduce the number of power consumption. Fourteen-segment gas-plasma displays were used in pinball machines from 1986 through 1991 with an additional comma and period part making for a total of 16 segments. Fourteen and sixteen-segment displays were used to produce alphanumeric characters on calculators and other embedded systems. Applications today include displays fitted to telephone Caller ID units, gymnasium equipment, VCRs, car stereos, microwave ovens, slot machines, DVD players; such displays were common on pinball machines for displaying the score and other information, before the widespread use of dot-matrix display panels. Multiple segment alphanumeric displays are nearly as old as the use of electricity. A 1908 textbook describes an alphanumeric display system using incandescent lamps and a mechanical switching arrangement.
Each of 21 lamps was connected to a switch operated by a set of slotted bars, installed in a rotating drum. This commutator assembly could be arranged so that as the drum was rotated, different sets of switches were closed and different letters and figures could be displayed; the scheme would have been used for "talking" signs to spell out messages, but a complete set of commutator switches and lamps would have been required for each letter of a message, making the resulting sign quite expensive. A few different versions of the fourteen segment display exist as cold-cathode neon lamps. For example, one type made by Burroughs Corporation was called "Panaplex". Instead of using a filament as the incandescent versions do, these use a cathode charged to a 180 V potential which causes the electrified segment to glow a bright orange color, they operated to Nixie tubes but instead of the full-formed numeric shapes, used segments to make up numerals and letters. Seven-segment display Nine-segment display Sixteen-segment display Dot matrix display Media related to Fourteen segment displays at Wikimedia Commons