The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. They are members of the Central Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League, they have won six Stanley Cup championships since their founding in 1926. The Blackhawks are one of the "Original Six" NHL teams along with the Detroit Red Wings, Montreal Canadiens, Toronto Maple Leafs, Boston Bruins and New York Rangers. Since 1994, the club's home rink is the United Center, which they share with the National Basketball Association's Chicago Bulls; the club had played for 65 years at Chicago Stadium. The club's original owner was Frederic McLaughlin, who owned the club until his death in 1944. Under McLaughlin, a "hands-on" owner who fired many coaches during his ownership, the club won two Stanley Cup titles; the club was owned by the Norris family, who as owners of the Chicago Stadium were the club's landlord, owned stakes in several of the NHL teams. At first, the Norris ownership was as part of a syndicate fronted by long-time executive Bill Tobin, the team languished in favor of the Norris-owned Detroit Red Wings.
After the senior James E. Norris died in 1952, the Norris assets were spread among family members and James D. Norris became owner. Norris Jr. took an active interest in the team and under his ownership, the club won one Stanley Cup title in 1961. After James D. Norris died in 1966, the Wirtz family became owners of the franchise. In 2007, the club came under the control of Rocky Wirtz, credited with turning around the organization, which had lost fan interest and competitiveness. Under Rocky Wirtz, the Blackhawks won the Stanley Cup three times between 2010 and 2015. On May 1, 1926, the NHL awarded an expansion franchise for Chicago to a syndicate headed by former football star Huntington Hardwick of Boston. At the same meeting, Hardwick arranged the purchase of the players of the Portland Rosebuds of the Western Hockey League for $100,000 from WHL president Frank Patrick in a deal brokered by Boston Bruins' owner Charles Adams. However, only one month Hardwick's group sold out to Chicago coffee tycoon Frederic McLaughlin.
McLaughlin had been a commander with the 333rd Machine Gun Battalion of the 86th Infantry Division during World War I. This division was nicknamed the "Blackhawk Division" after a Native American of the Sauk nation, Black Hawk, a prominent figure in the history of Illinois. McLaughlin named the new hockey team in honor of the military unit, making it one of many sports team names using Native Americans as icons. However, unlike the military division, the team's name was spelled in two words as the "Black Hawks" until 1986, when the club became the "Blackhawks," based on the spelling found in the original franchise documents; the Black Hawks began play in the 1926–27 season, along with fellow expansion franchises the Detroit Cougars and New York Rangers. The team had to face immediate competition in Chicago from Eddie Livingstone's rival Chicago Cardinals, which played in the same building. McLaughlin took a active role in running the team despite having no background in the sport, he was very interested in promoting American hockey players very rare in professional hockey.
Several of them, including Doc Romnes, Taffy Abel, Alex Levinsky, Mike Karakas, Cully Dahlstrom, become staples with the club, under McLaughlin, the Black Hawks were the first NHL team with an all-American-born lineup. The Black Hawks played their first game on November 17, 1926, against the Toronto St. Patricks in the Chicago Coliseum; the Black Hawks won their first game 4–1, in front of a crowd of over 7,000. The Hawks' first season was a moderate success. However, they lost the 1927 first-round playoff series to the Boston Bruins. Following the series, McLaughlin fired head coach Pete Muldoon. According to Jim Coleman, sportswriter for the Toronto-based The Globe and Mail, McLaughlin felt the Hawks were good enough to finish first. Muldoon disagreed, in a fit of pique, McLaughlin fired him. According to Coleman, Muldoon responded by yelling, "Fire me, you'll never finish first. I'll put a curse on this team that will hoodoo it until the end of time." The Curse of Muldoon was born – although Coleman admitted years after the fact that he had fabricated the whole incident – and became one of the first widely-known sports "curses."
While the team would go on to win three Stanley Cups in its first 39 years of existence, it did so without having finished in first place, either in a single- or multi-division format. The Black Hawks proceeded to have the worst record in the league in 1927–28, winning only seven of 44 games. For the 1928–29 season, the Black Hawks were slated to play in the new Chicago Stadium, but due to construction delays and a dispute between McLaughlin and Chicago Stadium promoter Paddy Harmon, they instead divided their time between the Coliseum, the Detroit Olympia, the Peace Bridge Arena in Fort Erie, Ontario, they moved to Chicago Stadium the following season. By 1931, with goal-scorer Johnny Gottselig, Cy Wentworth on defense, Charlie Gardiner in goal, the Hawks reached their first Stanley Cup Final, but fizzled in the final two games against the Montreal Canadiens. Chicago had another stellar season in 1932. However, two years Gardiner led his team to victory by shutting out the Detroit Red Wings in the final game of the Stanley Cup Finals.
SportsChannel is the collective name for a former group of regional sports networks in the United States, owned by Cablevision, which from 1988 until the group's demise, operated it as a joint venture with NBC. Operating from March 1, 1979 to January 27, 1998, it was the country's first regional sports network, along with Prime Network, was an important ancestor to many of the regional sports outlets in the U. S. Fox Sports Networks and Comcast SportsNet. At its peak, SportsChannel operated nine networks serving several of the nation's largest cities including New York City, Los Angeles and Philadelphia. SportsChannel's origins date back to 1976, when Cablevision launched Cablevision Sports 3, a sports network carried on the company's New York City area system; the network originated the SportsChannel brand on March 1, 1979, when it changed its name to SportsChannel New York. The network carried games from several New York area sports teams including the New York Yankees and New York Mets Major League Baseball franchises and the NBA's New Jersey Nets.
One of the notable accomplishments from the channel's early days was inking one of the earliest cable deals with a pro sports team when they signed a contract to broadcast games on cable for the National Hockey League's New York Islanders in 1978 while still known as Sports 3. The network expanded to other regions with the launches and purchases of additional networks throughout the 1980s; the following year, Rainbow purchased Sportsvision, a Chicago-based pay television network founded by Chicago White Sox owners Jerry Reinsdorf and Eddie Einhorn, media entrepreneur Fred Eychaner. Rainbow launched SportsChannel networks in Florida, Cleveland, Los Angeles and Philadelphia between 1987 and 1990. In December 1988, NBC and Cablevision announced that they would form a joint venture to operate their respective cable networks, including SportsChannel. Through this partnership, SportsChannel acquired the regional cable television rights to several National Hockey League teams, while NBC and Cablevision partnered to carry events from the 1992 Summer Olympics through a pay-per-view service known as the Olympics Triplecast.
In 1990, Rainbow/NBC acquired the San Francisco-based Pacific Sports Network, relaunching it as SportsChannel Bay Area. SportsChannel Los Angeles ceased operations in 1993 due to financial issues, with all of its sports broadcast contracts being acquired by the competing Prime Ticket. On April 25, 1995, NBC sold its 50% interest in SportsChannel New York to Rainbow Media for US$93 million. On June 30, 1997, Fox/Liberty Networks, a joint venture between News Corporation and Liberty Media, purchased a 40% interest in Cablevision's sports properties including the SportsChannel networks, Madison Square Garden, the New York Knicks and the New York Rangers. Through the deal, the SportsChannel networks would be integrated into Fox Sports Net, a group of regional sports networks launched in November 1996 through News Corporation's purchase of Liberty's Prime Network group. National Sports Partners, the venture formed through Cablevision's entry into the News Corporation/Liberty partnership to operate the existing and newly acquired owned-and-operated regional networks announced that it would relaunch the other SportsChannel networks under the "Fox Sports Net" banner.
SportsChannel New York was the first to rebrand, as Fox Sports New York, on January 27, 1998. Five of the seven other remaining SportsChannel networks relaunched as member networks of Fox Sports Net that week. Two of the SportsChannel networks would not become part of one of them not immediately. After Comcast acquired a majority stake in Philadelphia-based entertainment company Spectacor to form Comcast Spectacor in 1996 and announced plans to create its own regional sports network, Rainbow Media decided to shut down SportsChannel Philadelphia and sister premium service PRISM on October 1, 1997, with both networks' NBA and NHL contracts with the Philadelphia 76ers and Flyers being acquired by the new Comcast SportsNet Philadelphia. SportsChannel Florida was unable to join Fox Sports Net at the same time as its sisters as Wayne Huizenga, owner of the NHL's Florida Panthers, owned a 70% controlling interest in the channel. Cablevision repurchased Huizenga's share of the network in November 1999, relaunching it as Fox Sports Net Florida on March 1, 2000, formally dissolving the SportsChannel brand two years after the national group ceased operations.
On February 22, 2005, Cablevision acquired News Corporation's ownership interests in Fox Sports Chicago and Fox Sports New York, a 50% interest in Fox Sports New England, in a trade deal in which News Corporation sold its interests in Madison Square Garden, the Knicks and Rangers in exchange for acquiring sole ownership of Fox Sports Ohio and Fox Sports Florida. However, News Corporation and Cablevision retained joint ownership of Fox Sports Bay Area. Fox Sports Chicago ceased operations in June 2006, after losing the regional cable television rights t
Harry Caray was an American sportscaster on radio and television. He covered five Major League Baseball teams, beginning with 25 years of calling the games of the St. Louis Cardinals with two of these years spent calling games for the St. Louis Browns. After a year working for the Oakland Athletics and eleven years with the Chicago White Sox, Caray spent the last sixteen years of his career as the announcer for the Chicago Cubs. Caray was born Harry Christopher Carabina to an Italian Romanian mother in St. Louis, he was 14 when Daisy Argint, died from complications due to pneumonia. Caray did not have much recollection of his father. Caray went to live with his uncle John Argint and Aunt Doxie at 1909 LaSalle Avenue. Caray attended high school at Webster Groves High School. In this youth, Caray was said to be a talented baseball player, he possessed the tools to play at the next level. Due to financial woes, Caray could not accept. Around this time, World War II was occurring, so Caray tried to enlist into the Armed Forces, but got denied due to poor eyesight.
With not being able to advance his physical side of baseball, selling gym equipment was not enough, he wanted to find another avenue to keep his love of baseball alive. He spent a few years learning the trade at radio stations in Joliet and Kalamazoo, Michigan. While in Joliet, WCLS station manager Bob Holt suggested that Harry change his surname from Carabina to Caray. Caray caught his break when he landed the job with the Cardinals in 1945 and, according to several histories of the franchise, proved as expert at selling the sponsor's beer as he'd been in selling the Cardinals on KMOX. Preceding the Cardinal job, Caray announced hockey games for the St. Louis Flyers. Caray co-announced with Ralph Bouncer Taylor, former NHL player. On one occasion Taylor temporarily ended his retirement when he volunteered to play goalie for the Flyers in a regular season game with the team from Minnesota. Caray was seen as influential enough that he could affect team personnel moves. Caray, stated in his autobiography that he liked Johnny Keane as a manager, did not want to be involved in Keane's dismissal.
As the Cardinals' announcer, Caray broadcast three World Series on NBC with fellow Hall of Fame announcer Jack Buck. In November 1968, Caray was nearly killed after being struck by an automobile while crossing a street in St. Louis. Cardinals' president Gussie Busch CEO of owner Anheuser-Busch, spent lavishly to ensure Caray recovered, flying him on the company's planes to a company facility in Florida to rehabilitate and recuperate. On Opening Day, fans cheered when he threw aside the two canes he had been using to cross the field and continued to the broadcast booth under his own power. Following the 1969 season, the Cardinals declined to renew Caray's contract after he had called their games for 25 years, his longest tenure with any sports team; the team stated that the action had been taken on the recommendation of Anheuser–Busch's marketing department, but did not give specifics. At a news conference afterward, where he drank conspicuously from a can of Schlitz, at that time a major competitor to Anheuser–Busch, Caray dismissed that claim, saying no one was better at selling beer than he had been.
Instead, he suggested, he had been the victim of rumors that he had had an affair with Gussie Busch's daughter-in-law. He spent one season broadcasting for the Athletics, in 1970, before, as he told interviewers, he grew tired of owner Charles O. Finley's interference and accepted a job with the Chicago White Sox. Finley wanted Caray to change his broadcast chant of "Holy Cow" to "Holy Mule."However, there were some reports that Caray and Finley did, in fact, work well with each other and that Caray's strained relationship with the A's came from longtime A's announcer Monte Moore. Caray joined the Chicago White Sox in 1971 and became popular with the South Side faithful and enjoying a reputation for joviality and public carousing, he wasn't always popular with players, however. During his tenure with the White Sox, Caray was teamed with many color analysts who didn't work out well, including Bob Waller, Bill Mercer and ex-Major League catcher J. C. Martin, among others, but in 1976, during a game against the Texas Rangers, Caray had former outfielder Jimmy Piersall as a guest in the White Sox booth that night.
The tandem proved to work so well that Piersall was hired to be Caray's
Tribune Publishing Company is an American newspaper print and online media publishing company based in Chicago, Illinois. The company's portfolio includes the Chicago Tribune, the New York Daily News, The Baltimore Sun, the Orlando Sentinel, South Florida's Sun-Sentinel, the Hartford Courant, additional titles in Pennsylvania and Virginia, syndication operations, websites, it publishes several local newspapers in its metropolitan regions, which are organized in subsidiary groups. It is the nation's third-largest newspaper publisher, with eleven daily newspapers and commuter tabloids throughout the United States. Incorporated in 1847 with the founding of the Chicago Tribune, Tribune Publishing operated as a division of the Tribune Company, a Chicago-based multimedia conglomerate, until it was spun off into a separate public company in August 2014. On June 20, 2016, the company adopted the name tronc, short for "Tribune online content", its principal shareholder, with a 17.9% stake, is the American business magnate Michael W. Ferro, Jr.
In 2016 The New York Times described him as being "one of the country’s most significant and unpredictable media moguls". In 2018, Tronc announced that it would sell its California papers, including the Los Angeles Times, San Diego Union-Tribune and other smaller titles in the California News Group to an investment firm headed by Patrick Soon-Shiong for US$500 million; the sale closed on June 18, 2018. In October 2018, the company reverted again to Tribune Publishing. Tribune Publishing's history dates back to 1847, when the Chicago Tribune published its first edition on June 10 of that year, in a one-room plant at LaSalle and Lake Streets in Chicago; the Tribune constructed its first building, a four-story structure at Dearborn and Madison Streets, in 1869. The Tribune resumed printing two days with an editorial declaring "Chicago Shall Rise Again"; the newspaper's editor and part-owner, Joseph Medill, was elected mayor and led the city's reconstruction. A native Ohioan who first acquired an interest in the Tribune in 1855, Medill gained full control of the newspaper in 1874 and ran it until his death in 1899.
Medill's two grandsons, cousins Robert R. McCormick and Joseph Medill Patterson, assumed leadership of the company in 1911; that same year, the Chicago Tribune's first newsprint mill opened in Thorold, Canada. The mill marked the beginnings of the Canadian newsprint producer known as QUNO, in which Tribune held an investment interest until 1995; the Chicago Tribune-New York News Syndicate was formed in 1918, leading to Joseph Patterson's establishment of the company's second newspaper, the New York Daily News on June 26, 1919. Tribune's ownership of the New York City tabloid was considered "interlocking" due to an agreement between McCormick and Patterson; the company acquired the Fort Lauderdale-based Sun-Sentinel newspaper in 1963. In 1973, the company began sharing stories among 25 subscriber newspapers via the newly formed news service, the Knight News Wire. By 1990, this service was known as Knight-Ridder/Tribune and provided graphics and news content to its member newspapers. KRT became McClatchy-Tribune Information Services, owned by the Tribune Company and McClatchy, when The McClatchy Company purchased Knight-Ridder Inc. in 2006.
Tribune acquired the Newport News, Virginia-based Daily Press in 1986. In the wake of a dispute with some of its labor unions, the New York Daily News was sold to British businessman Robert Maxwell in 1991. In June 2000, Tribune acquired the Los Angeles-based Times Mirror Company in a merger deal worth $8.3 billion, the largest acquisition in the history of the newspaper industry. The merger added seven daily newspapers to Tribune's portfolio, including the Los Angeles Times, the Long Island-based Newsday, The Baltimore Sun and the Hartford Courant. Tribune Media Net, the national advertising sales organization of Tribune Publishing, was established in 2000 to take advantage of the company's expanded scale and scope. In the decade, Tribune launched daily newspapers targeting urban commuters, including the Chicago Tribune's RedEye edition in 2002, followed by an investment in AM New York one year later. In 2006, Tribune acquired the minority equity interest in AM New York, giving it full ownership of the newspaper.
The company sold both Newsday and AM New York to Cablevision Systems Corporation in 2008, with the sale of the latter paper closing on July 29 of that year. On April 2, 2007, Chicago-based investor Sam Zell announced plans to buy out the Tribune Company for $34.00 a share, totaling $8.2 billion, with intentions to take the company private. The deal was approved by 97% of the company's shareholders on August 21, 2007. Privatization of the Tribune Company occurred on December 20, 2007 with Tribune's stock listing being terminated at the close of the trading day. On December 8, 2008, faced with a high debt load totaling $13 billion, related to the company's leveraged buyout and subsequent privatization, a sharp downturn in newspaper advertising revenue, Tribune filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in what was the largest bankruptcy in the history of the American media industry. Company plans called for it to emerge from bankruptcy by May 31, 2010, but the company would end up in protracted bankruptcy proceedings for four years.
On July 13, 2012, the Tribune Company received approval of a reorganization plan to allow the company to emerge from Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in a Delaware bankruptcy court. Oak
WPWR-TV, virtual channel 50, is a primary CW-affiliated and secondary MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated television station serving Chicago, United States, licensed to Gary, Indiana. It is one of two commercial television stations in Chicago that are licensed on the Indiana side of the market. WPWR is owned by the Fox Television Stations subsidiary of Fox Corporation, as part of a duopoly with Fox owned-and-operated station WFLD; the two stations share studios at Michigan Plaza on North Michigan Avenue in the Chicago Loop, transmitter facilities atop the Willis Tower on South Wacker Drive in the Loop business district. On cable, WPWR is available on Comcast Xfinity on channel 8 /184, AT&T U-verse on channel 8 SD/1008 HD, WOW! on channel 8 SD/204 HD. WPWR-TV sold its spectrum space in the Federal Communications Commission's incentive auction, began channel-sharing with WFLD on June 11, 2018. Due to its secondary status as an O&O of MyNetworkTV, WPWR is the only Fox-owned station carrying The CW; the station first signed on the air on April 4, 1982 as a shared station operation broadcasting on UHF channel 60, split between English-language WPWR-TV and Spanish-language WBBS-TV.
The Federal Communications Commission awarded the license to two locally based station owners who had competed for the construction permit, were the top contenders among a half-dozen applicants for the channel 60 license. Metrowest Corporation—owned by Fred Eychaner, which would become Newsweb Corporation—was the original applicant for the UHF channel 60 license in 1978, was the original owner of WPWR. Chicago resident Marcelino Miyares—who owned WBBS—assisted Eychaner in completing the construction of channel 60, was the one, granted the license. Under the arrangement, the combined station operated as an independent. A large percentage of WPWR's programming schedule was occupied by Sportsvision, a new pay television service which Eychaner had developed through a deal with Chicago White Sox co-owners Jerry Reinsdorf and Eddie Einhorn. To receive the service, viewers had to rent a set-top converter and pay a monthly fee in order to view Sportsvision's event telecasts, involving the Chicago sports teams.
However, Sportsvision was not a success and transitioned into a cable channel in January 1983 evolving into SportsChannel Chicago. With Sportsvision removed from its schedule, Eychaner began acquiring public domain movies to air on weekends and a few shows that were still owned by fellow independent station WSNS-TV, which began carrying the ONTV subscription entertainment service on a full-time basis in the fall of 1982; these programs ran weekdays from 6:00 to 8:00 a.m. and from 5:00 to 7:00 p.m. as well as from 6:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. on weekends. WPWR chose to compete with rival independent WCIU-TV's locally produced business news service, Stock Market Observer, by running national business programming from the Financial News Network each weekday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. The FNN simulcast was dropped in January 1984, at which time the station added several classic sitcoms from the early to mid-1950s and older cartoons to its schedule. In 1984, more recognizable classic sitcoms and newer barter cartoons were mixed into the schedule.
While Miyares won the license, he was only able to acquire enough programming to run about eight hours per day. WBBS' schedule featured an array of Spanish-language programs—including telenovelas and movies, as well as locally produced shows, such as the popular music video program Imagen, hosted by local Spanish-language television personality Rey Mena and Vivianne Plazas. One of the notable events for WBBS occurred in 1983, when the station introduced the Latin teen pop group Menudo, to Chicago's Latino community. WBBS programmed channel 60 daily from 7:00 p.m. to 2:30 a.m. with Eychaner's WPWR purchasing the rest of the time. Another twist in this arrangement was that although the two stations broadcast from the same transmitter, as per the FCC's channel assignment table, WBBS was licensed to West Chicago while WPWR was licensed to Aurora. In the spring of 1985, WSNS-TV announced that station would become an affiliate of the Spanish International Network. Miyares subsequently realized that he could not hope to compete with SIN, reduced the programming on WBBS' schedule to just Spanish-language movies that aired only on weekend evenings.
He sold the rest of the weekday time periods that his station had occupied to Eychaner, allowing WPWR to broadcast full-time on channel 60, at least on weekdays. Meanwhile, Eychaner acquired the construction permit for WGMI, a proposed station that would be licensed to Gary and broadcast on UHF channel 56, for $1.5 million. The permit had been held by a group of Indiana businessmen since 1976, but the station was never built and never signed on. Eychaner planned to move the WPWR intellectual unit and call letters to channel 56, while broadcasting its transmitter from a tower in downtown Chicago. However, he was unable to have the channel 56 transmitter relocated because of the presence of channel 60 there. However, Eychaner had a backup plan. Soon after acquiring the construction permit for channel 56, he acquired the license for WCAE, a non-
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de