Business telephone system
A business telephone system is a multiline telephone system used in business environments, encompassing systems ranging from the small key telephone system to the large private branch exchange. A business telephone system differs from an installation of several telephones with multiple central office lines in that the CO lines used are directly controllable in key telephone systems from multiple telephone stations, that such a system provides additional features related to call handling. Business telephone systems are broadly classified into key telephone systems, private branch exchanges, but many hybrid systems exist. A key telephone system was distinguished from a private branch exchange in that it did not require an operator or attendant at the switchboard to establish connections between the central office trunks and stations, or between stations. Technologically, private branch exchanges share lineage with central office telephone systems, in larger or more complex systems, may rival a central office system in capacity and features.
With a key telephone system, a station user could control the connections directly using line buttons, which indicated the status of lines with built-in lamps. Key telephone systems are defined by arrangements with individual line selection buttons for each available telephone line; the earliest systems were known as wiring plans and consisted of telephone sets, keys and wiring. Key was a Bell System term of art for a customer-controlled switching system such as the line-buttons on the phones associated with such systems; the wiring plans evolved into modular hardware building blocks with a variety of functionality and services in the 1A key telephone system developed in the Bell System in the 1930s. Key systems can be built using three principal architectures: electromechanical shared-control, electronic shared-control, or independent key sets. New installations of key telephone systems have become less common, as hybrid systems and private branch exchanges of comparable size have similar cost and greater functionality.
Before the advent of large-scale integrated circuits, key systems were composed of electromechanical components as were larger telephone switching systems. The systems marketed in North America as the 1A, 6A, 1A1 and the 1A2 Key System are typical examples and sold for many decades; the 1A family of Western Electric Company key telephone units were introduced in the late 1930s and remained in use to the 1950s. 1A equipment required at least two KTUs per line. The telephone instrument used by 1A systems was the WECo 300-series telephone. Introduced in 1953, 1A1 key systems simplified wiring with a single KTU for both line and station termination, increased the features available; as the 1A1 systems became commonplace, requirements for intercom features grew. The original intercom KTUs, WECo Model 207, were wired for a single talk link, that is, a single conversation on the intercom at a time; the WECo 6A dial intercom system provided two talk links and was installed as the dial intercom in a 1A1 or 1A2 key system.
The 6A systems were complex and expensive, never became popular. The advent of 1A2 technology in the 1964 simplified key system maintenance; these continued to be used throughout the 1980s, when the arrival of electronic key systems with their easier installation and greater features signaled the end of electromechanical key systems. Two lesser-known key systems were used at airports for air traffic control communications, the 102 and 302 key systems; these were uniquely designed for communications between the air traffic control tower and radar approach control or ground control approach, included radio line connections. Automatic Electric Company produced a family of key telephone equipment, some of it compatible with Western Electric equipment, but it did not gain the widespread use enjoyed by Western Electric equipment. With the advent of LSI ICs, the same architecture could be implemented much less expensively than was possible using relays. In addition, it was possible to eliminate the many-wire cabling and replace it with much simpler cable similar to that used by non-key systems.
Electronic shared-control systems led to the modern hybrid telephone system, as the features of PBX and key system merged. One of the most recognized such systems is the AT&T Merlin. Additionally, these more modern systems allowed a diverse set of features including: Answering machine functions Automatic call accounting Caller ID Remote supervision of the entire system Selection of signaling sounds Speed dialing Station-specific limitations Features could be added or modified using software, allowing easy customization of these systems; the stations were easier to maintain than the previous electromechanical key systems, as they used efficient LEDs instead of incandescent light bulbs for line status indication. LSI allowed smaller systems to distribute the control into individual telephone sets that don't require any single shared control unit; these systems are used with a few telephone sets and it is more difficult to keep the feature set in synchrony between the various sets. Into the 21st century, the distinction between key systems and PBX systems has become blurred.
Early electronic key systems used dedicated handsets which displayed and allowed access to all connected PSTN lines and stations. The modern key system now supports SIP, ISDN, analog handsets (in addition to it
Integrated Services Digital Network
Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in the CCITT red book. Prior to ISDN, the telephone system was viewed as a way to transport voice, with some special services available for data; the key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system. The ISDN standards define several kinds of access interfaces, such as Basic Rate Interface, Primary Rate Interface, Narrowband ISDN, Broadband ISDN. ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, which provides access to packet switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better voice quality than an analog phone can provide, it offers circuit-switched connections, packet-switched connections, in increments of 64 kilobit/s.
In some countries, ISDN found major market application for Internet access, in which ISDN provides a maximum of 128 kbit/s bandwidth in both upstream and downstream directions. Channel bonding can achieve a greater data rate. ISDN is employed as data-link and physical layers in the context of the OSI model. In common use, ISDN is limited to usage to Q.931 and related protocols, which are a set of signaling protocols establishing and breaking circuit-switched connections, for advanced calling features for the user. They were introduced in 1986. In a videoconference, ISDN provides simultaneous voice and text transmission between individual desktop videoconferencing systems and group videoconferencing systems. Integrated services refers to ISDN's ability to deliver at minimum two simultaneous connections, in any combination of data, voice and fax, over a single line. Multiple devices can be attached to the line, used as needed; that means an ISDN line can take care of what were expected to be most people's complete communications needs at a much higher transmission rate, without forcing the purchase of multiple analog phone lines.
It refers to integrated switching and transmission in that telephone switching and carrier wave transmission are integrated rather than separate as in earlier technology. The entry level interface to ISDN is the Basic Rate Interface, a 128 kbit/s service delivered over a pair of standard telephone copper wires; the 144 kbit/s overall payload rate is divided into two 64 kbit/s bearer channels and one 16 kbit/s signaling channel. This is sometimes referred to as 2B+D; the interface specifies the following network interfaces: The U interface is a two-wire interface between the exchange and a network terminating unit, the demarcation point in non-North American networks. The T interface is a serial interface between a computing device and a terminal adapter, the digital equivalent of a modem; the S interface is a four-wire bus. The R interface defines the point between a non-ISDN device and a terminal adapter which provides translation to and from such a device. BRI-ISDN is popular in Europe but is much less common in North America.
It is common in Japan — where it is known as INS64. The other ISDN access available is the Primary Rate Interface, carried over T-carrier with 24 time slots in North America, over E-carrier with 32 channels in most other countries; each channel provides transmission at a 64 kbit/s data rate. With the E1 carrier, the available channels are divided into 30 bearer channels, one data channel, one timing and alarm channel; this scheme is referred to as 30B+2D. In North America, PRI service is delivered via T1 carriers with only one data channel referred to as 23B+D, a total data rate of 1544 kbit/s. Non-Facility Associated Signalling allows two or more PRI circuits to be controlled by a single D channel, sometimes called 23B+D + n*24B. D-channel backup allows for a second D channel in case the primary fails. NFAS is used on a Digital Signal 3. PRI-ISDN is popular throughout the world for connecting private branch exchanges to the public switched telephone network. Though many network professionals use the term ISDN to refer to the lower-bandwidth BRI circuit, in North America BRI is uncommon whilst PRI circuits serving PBXs are commonplace.
The bearer channel is a standard 64 kbit/s voice channel of 8 bits sampled at 8 kHz with G.711 encoding. B-channels can be used to carry data, since they are nothing more than digital channels; each one of these channels is known as a DS0. Most B channels can carry a 64 kbit/s signal, but some were limited to 56K because they traveled over RBS lines; this has since become less so. X.25 can be carried over the B or D channels of a BRI line, over the B channels of a PRI line. X.25 over the D channel is used at many point-of-sale terminals because it eliminates the modem setup, because it connects to the central system over a B channel, thereby eliminating the need for modems and making much better use of the central system's telephone lines. X.25 was part of an ISDN protocol
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well