Animal Farm is an allegorical novella by George Orwell, first published in England on 17 August 1945. According to Orwell, the fable reflects events leading up to the Russian Revolution of 1917 and on into the Stalinist era of the Soviet Union. Orwell, a democratic socialist, was a critic of Joseph Stalin and hostile to Moscow-directed Stalinism, an attitude, critically shaped by his experiences during the Spanish Civil War; the Soviet Union, he believed, had become a brutal dictatorship, built upon a cult of personality and enforced by a reign of terror. In a letter to Yvonne Davet, Orwell described Animal Farm as a satirical tale against Stalin, in his essay "Why I Write", wrote that Animal Farm was the first book in which he tried, with full consciousness of what he was doing, "to fuse political purpose and artistic purpose into one whole"; the original title was Animal Farm: A Fairy Story, but U. S. publishers dropped the subtitle when it was published in 1946, only one of the translations during Orwell's lifetime kept it.
Other titular variations include subtitles like "A Satire" and "A Contemporary Satire". Orwell suggested the title Union des républiques socialistes animales for the French translation, which abbreviates to URSA, the Latin word for "bear", a symbol of Russia, it played on the French name of the Soviet Union, Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques. Orwell wrote the book between November 1943 and February 1944, when the UK was in its wartime alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany and the British people and intelligentsia held Stalin in high esteem, a phenomenon Orwell hated; the manuscript was rejected by a number of British and American publishers, including one of Orwell's own, Victor Gollancz, which delayed its publication. It became a great commercial success when it did appear because international relations were transformed as the wartime alliance gave way to the Cold War. Time magazine chose the book as one of the 100 best English-language novels, it won a Retrospective Hugo Award in 1996 and is included in the Great Books of the Western World selection.
Old Major, the old boar on the Manor Farm, summons the animals on the farm together for a meeting, during which he refers to humans as "enemies" and teaches the animals a revolutionary song called "Beasts of England". When Major dies, two young pigs and Napoleon, assume command and consider it a duty to prepare for the Rebellion; the animals revolt, driving the drunken, irresponsible farmer Mr. Jones, as well as Mrs. Jones and the other human caretakers and employees, off the farm, renaming it "Animal Farm", they adopt the Seven Commandments of Animalism, the most important of which is, "All animals are equal". The decree is painted in large letters on one side of the barn. Snowball teaches the animals to read and write, while Napoleon educates young puppies on the principles of Animalism. Food is plentiful, the farm runs smoothly; the pigs elevate themselves to positions of leadership and set aside special food items, ostensibly for their personal health. Some time several men attack Animal Farm.
Jones and his men are making an attempt to recapture the farm, aided by several other farmers who are terrified of similar animal revolts. Snowball and the animals, who are hiding in ambush, defeat the men by launching a surprise attack as soon as they enter the farmyard. Snowball's popularity soars, this event is proclaimed "The Battle of the Cowshed", it is celebrated annually on the anniversary of the Rebellion. Napoleon and Snowball vie for pre-eminence; when Snowball announces his plans to modernize the farm by building a windmill, Napoleon has his dogs chase Snowball away and declares himself leader. Napoleon enacts changes to the governance structure of the farm, replacing meetings with a committee of pigs who will run the farm. Through a young pig named Squealer, Napoleon claims credit for the windmill idea; the animals work harder with the promise of easier lives with the windmill. When the animals find the windmill collapsed after a violent storm and Squealer convince the animals that Snowball is trying to sabotage their project.
Once Snowball becomes a scapegoat, Napoleon begins to purge the farm with his dogs, killing animals he accuses of consorting with his old rival. When some animals recall the Battle of the Cowshed, Napoleon smears Snowball as a collaborator of Farmer Jones', while falsely representing himself as the hero of the battle. "Beasts of England" is replaced with an anthem glorifying Napoleon, who appears to be adopting the lifestyle of a man. The animals remain convinced. Mr Frederick, a neighbouring farmer, attacks the farm, using blasting powder to blow up the restored windmill. Although the animals win the battle, they do so at great cost, as many, including Boxer, the workhorse, are wounded. Despite his injuries, Boxer continues working harder and harder, until he collapses while working on the windmill. Napoleon sends for a van to purportedly take Boxer to a veterinary surgeon, explaining that better care can be given there. Benjamin, the cynical donkey who "could read as well as any pig", notices that the van belongs to a knacker and attempts a futile rescue.
Squealer assures the animals that the van had been purchased from the knacker by an animal hospital, that the previous owner's signboard had not been repainted. In a subsequent report, Squealer reports sadly to the animals that Boxer died peacefully at the animal hospital; the pigs hold a festival one day after Boxer's death to further praise
Holtzbrinck Publishing Group
Holtzbrinck Publishing Group is a privately-held Stuttgart-based company which owns publishing companies worldwide. The company has published a wide variety of books including The Satanic Verses by Salman Rushdie and classics by Agatha Christie, Jean-Paul Sartre, Ernest Hemingway and John Updike. Other well-known publications of the company include the scientific journal Nature and Scientific American, it is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies. In 2015, it merged most of its Macmillan Science and Education unit with Springer Science+Business Media, creating the company Springer Nature. Holtzbrinck owns 53% of the combined company. Established by Georg von Holtzbrinck in 1948, the group first began as a German book club. In the 1960s, it purchased Droemer, Rowohlt and S. Fischer Verlag, two German publishing companies. In 1985, it acquired the retail book division of Holt and Winston, naming it the Henry Holt Book Company. One year the company acquired Scientific American magazine for $52.6 million.
In 1994, it purchased a majority interest in Farrar, Straus & Giroux from retiring Roger W. Straus, Jr. A year it purchased a 70% majority interest in The Macmillan Group, the remaining shares in 1999. In March 2006, Holtzbrinck forced Tor Books, owned by Holtzbrinck, to stop making its books available as e-books via Baen Ebooks because of concerns regarding the lack of digital rights management; the policy was changed and Tor titles became available as DRM-free e-books in 2012. The Tor UK label in Britain does the same; the company received a good deal of attention when it bought the leading German social networking platform StudiVZ in January 2007. Holtzbrinck has total annual sales of 2.1 billion euros. It had 2005 earnings before taxes of 142 million euros, a total of 14,000 employees. Chairman of the group is Stefan von Holtzbrinck. John Sargent is CEO of the company that unites the US-based businesses of the group. In Germany: S. Fischer Verlag O. W. Barth Wolfgang Krüger Argon Verlag Scherz Verlag Fretz & Wasmuth Rowohlt Verlag Kiepenheuer & Witsch Verlagsgruppe Droemer Knaur Die Zeit In the United States: Using the Macmillan name: Farrar and Giroux Faber & Faber Henry Holt and Company Holt Paperbacks Metropolitan Books Times Books Owl Books Palgrave Macmillan Picador Roaring Brook Press Neal Porter Books First Second Books St. Martin's Press Tom Doherty Associates Tor Books Forge Books Bedford and Worth Publishing Group W.
H. Freeman Bedford-St. Martin's Worth Publishers Macmillan Learning Hayden-McNeil Nature Publishing Group Scientific AmericanUsing the Audio Renaissance name in Southfield, Michigan: Renaissance MediaIn the United Kingdom: Macmillan Publishers Palgrave Macmillan Pan Macmillan Macmillan Pan Books Picador Macmillan Children's Books Campbell Books Priddy Books Boxtree Sidgwick & Jackson Macmillan Education Springer Nature Digital Science The Big Five English-language book publishers: Simon & Schuster, Penguin Random House, HarperCollins, Macmillan Publishers, Hachette Springer Nature Books in Germany Official website Mary H. Munroe. "Holtzbrinck Timeline". The Academic Publishing Industry: A Story of Merger and Acquisition. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014 – via Northern Illinois University
Sir William Gerald Golding, was a British novelist and poet. Best known for his novel Lord of the Flies, he won a Nobel Prize in Literature and was awarded the Booker Prize for fiction in 1980 for his novel Rites of Passage, the first book in what became his sea trilogy, To the Ends of the Earth. Golding was knighted in 1988, he was a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature. In 2008, The Times ranked Golding third on their list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Brasenose College, Oxford offers a non-stipendiary William Golding Fellowship in the Arts and Social Sciences. William Golding was born in his grandmother's house, 47 Mount Wise, Cornwall; the house was known as Karenza, the Cornish language word for love, he spent many childhood holidays there. He grew up in Marlborough, where his father was a science master at Marlborough Grammar School, the school the young Golding and his elder brother Joseph attended, his mother, kept house at 29, The Green and was a campaigner for female suffrage.
Golding's mother, Cornish and whom he considered "a superstitious celt", used to tell him old Cornish fairy tales from her own childhood. In 1930 Golding went to Brasenose College, where he read Natural Sciences for two years before transferring to English Literature, his original tutor was the chemist Thomas Taylor. Golding took his B. A. degree with Second Class Honours in the summer of 1934, that year a book of his Poems was published by Macmillan & Co, with the help of his Oxford friend, the anthroposophist Adam Bittleston. He was a schoolmaster teaching English & music at Maidstone Grammar School 1938 - 1940 and teaching Philosophy and English in 1939 just English from 1945 to 1961 at Bishop Wordsworth's School, Wiltshire. Golding married Ann Brookfield, an analytical chemist, on 30 September 1939, they had two children and Judith. During World War II, Golding joined the Royal Navy in 1940, he served in a destroyer, involved in the pursuit and sinking of the German battleship Bismarck. He participated in the invasion of Normandy on D-Day, commanding a landing ship that fired salvoes of rockets onto the beaches, was in action at Walcheren in which 23 out of 24 assault craft were sunk.
While his father had been an insistent atheist, Golding himself was a Christian, though a member of no established Church. In 1985, Golding and his wife moved to Tullimaar House near Truro, Cornwall, he died of heart failure eight years on 19 June 1993. His body was buried in the parish churchyard of Wiltshire. On his death he left the draft of a novel, The Double Tongue, set in ancient Delphi, published posthumously, his son David continues to live at Tullimaar House. In September 1953, after many rejections from other publishers, Golding sent a manuscript to Faber & Faber and was rejected by their reader, his book, was championed by Charles Monteith, a new editor at the firm. Monteith asked for some changes to the text and the novel was published in September 1954 as Lord of the Flies. After moving in 1958 from Salisbury to nearby Bowerchalke, he met his fellow villager and walking companion James Lovelock; the two discussed Lovelock's hypothesis, that the living matter of the planet Earth functions like a single organism, Golding suggested naming this hypothesis after Gaia, the Titan of the earth in Greek mythology.
His publishing success made it possible for Golding to resign his teaching post at Bishop Wordsworth's School in 1961, he spent that academic year in the United States as writer-in-residence at Hollins College, near Roanoke, Virginia. Golding won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize in 1979, the Booker Prize in 1980. In 1983 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, was according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography "an unexpected and contentious choice". In 1988 Golding was appointed a Knight Bachelor. In September 1993, only a few months after his sudden death, the First International William Golding Conference was held in France, where Golding's presence had been promised and was eagerly expected. Despite his success, Golding "was abnormally thin-skinned, he could not read the mildest reservation and on occasion left the country when his books were published." His first novel, Lord of the Flies, describes a group of boys stranded on a tropical island reverting to savagery. The Inheritors shows "new people", triumphing over a gentler race by violence.
His 1956 novel Pincher Martin records the thoughts of a drowning sailor. Free Fall explores the issue of free choice as a prisoner held in solitary confinement in a German POW camp during World War Two looks back over his life; the Spire follows the building of a huge spire onto a medieval cathedral. In his 1967 novel The Pyramid three separate stories in a shared setting are linked by a narrator, The Scorpion God consists of three novellas, the first set in a prehistoric African hunter-gatherer band, the second in an ancient Egyptian court and the third in the court of a Roman emperor; the last of these reworks his 1958 play The Brass Butterfly. His n
Percy Wyndham Lewis was an English writer and critic. He was a co-founder of the Vorticist movement in art, edited the literary magazine of the Vorticists, BLAST, his novels include his pre-World War I-era novel Tarr, The Human Age, a trilogy comprising The Childermass, Monstre Gai and Malign Fiesta, set in the afterworld. A fourth volume of The Human Age, The Trial of Man, was begun by Lewis but left in a fragmentary state at the time of his death, he wrote two autobiographical volumes and Bombardiering and Rude Assignment: A Narrative of my Career Up-to-Date. Lewis was reputedly born on his father's yacht off the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, his British mother and American father separated about 1893. His mother subsequently returned to England, where Lewis was educated, first at Rugby School, at the Slade School of Fine Art, University College, before spending most of the 1900s travelling around Europe and studying art in Paris. Residing in London from 1908, Lewis published his first work in Ford Madox Ford's The English Review in 1909.
He was a founder-member of the Camden Town Group in 1911. In 1912 he exhibited his Cubo-Futurist illustrations to Timon of Athens and three major oil paintings at the second Post-Impressionist exhibition; this brought him into close contact with the Bloomsbury Group Roger Fry and Clive Bell, with whom he soon fell out. In 1912 he was commissioned to produce a decorative mural, a drop curtain, more designs for The Cave of the Golden Calf, an avant-garde cabaret and nightclub on London's Heddon Street, it was in the years 1913–15 that he developed the style of geometric abstraction for which he is best known today, a style which his friend Ezra Pound dubbed "Vorticism." Lewis found the strong structure of Cubist painting appealing, but said it did not seem "alive" compared to Futurist art, conversely, lacked structure. Vorticism combined the two movements in a strikingly dramatic critique of modernity. In his early visual works versions of village life in Brittany showing dancers, Lewis may have been influenced by the process philosophy of Henri Bergson, whose lectures he attended in Paris.
Though he was savagely critical of Bergson, he admitted in a letter to Theodore Weiss that he "began by embracing his evolutionary system." Nietzsche was an important influence. After a brief tenure at the Omega Workshops, Lewis quarrelled with the founder, Roger Fry, over a commission to provide wall decorations for the Daily Mail Ideal Home Exhibition, which Lewis believed Fry had misappropriated, he walked out with several Omega artists to start a competing workshop called the Rebel Art Centre. The Centre operated for only four months, but it gave birth to the Vorticist group and the publication, BLAST. In BLAST Lewis wrote the group's manifesto, several essays expounding his Vorticist aesthetic, a modernist drama, "Enemy of the Stars"; the magazine included reproductions of now lost Vorticist works by Lewis and others. After the Vorticists' only U. K. exhibition in 1915, the movement broke up as a result of World War I, though Lewis's patron, John Quinn, organised a Vorticist exhibition at the Penguin Club in New York in 1917.
Lewis was posted to the western front, served as a second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery. Much of his time was spent in Forward Observation Posts looking down at deserted German lines, registering targets and calling down fire from batteries massed around the rim of the Ypres Salient, it was dangerous work and he made vivid accounts of narrow misses and deadly artillery duels. After the Third Battle of Ypres in 1917, he was appointed as an official war artist for both the Canadian and British governments, beginning work in December 1917. For the Canadians he painted A Canadian Gun-Pit from sketches made on Vimy Ridge. For the British he painted one of his best known works, A Battery Shelled, drawing on his own experience in charge of a 6-inch howitzer at Ypres. Lewis exhibited his war drawings and some other paintings of the war in an exhibition, "Guns," in 1918, his first novel Tarr was published in book-form in 1918, having been serialised in The Egoist during 1916–17. It is regarded as one of the key modernist texts.
Lewis documented his experiences and opinions of this period of his life in the autobiographical Blasting and Bombardiering, which covered his life up to 1926. After the war, Lewis resumed his career as a painter, with a major exhibition and Portraits, at the Leicester Galleries in 1921. "Tyros" were satirical caricatural figures intended by Lewis to comment on the culture of the "new epoch" that succeeded the First World War. A Reading of Ovid and Mr Wyndham Lewis as a Tyro are the only surviving oil paintings from this series; as part of the same project, Lewis launched his second magazine, The Tyro, of which there were only two issues. The second contained an important statement of Lewis's visual aesthetic: "Essay on the Objective of Plastic Art in our Time", it was during the early 1920s. By the late 1920s, he was not painting so much, but instead concentrating on writing, he launched yet another magazine, The Enemy written by himself and declaring its belligerent critical stance in its title.
The magazine, the theoretical and critical work
Sir Stephen Harold Spender was an English poet and essayist who concentrated on themes of social injustice and the class struggle in his work. He was appointed Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the United States Library of Congress in 1965. Spender was born in Kensington, London, to journalist Harold Spender and Violet Hilda Schuster, a painter and poet, of German Jewish heritage, he went first to Hall School in Hampstead and at thirteen to Gresham's School and Charlecote School in Worthing, but was unhappy there. On the death of his mother he was transferred to University College School, which he described as "that gentlest of schools." Spender subsequently went up to University College, Oxford. Spender said at various times throughout his life, his closest friend and the man who had the biggest influence on him was W. H. Auden, who introduced him to Christopher Isherwood; the earliest version of Poems written by Auden was hand-printed by Spender. He left Oxford without taking a degree and in 1929 he moved to Hamburg.
Isherwood invited him to come to Berlin. Every six months Spender went back to England. Spender was acquainted with fellow Auden Group members Louis MacNeice, Edward Upward and Cecil Day-Lewis, he was friendly with David Jones and came to know W. B. Yeats, Allen Ginsberg, Ted Hughes, Joseph Brodsky, Isaiah Berlin, Mary McCarthy, Roy Campbell, Raymond Chandler, Dylan Thomas, Jean-Paul Sartre, F. T. Prince and T. S. Eliot, as well as members of the Bloomsbury Group, in particular Virginia Woolf. Spender began work on a novel in 1929, not published until 1988, under the title The Temple; the novel is about a young man who travels to Germany and finds a culture at once more open than England's—particularly about relationships between men—and showing frightening anticipations of Nazism, which are confusingly related to the openness the main character admires. Spender says in his 1988 introduction: In the late Twenties young English writers were more concerned with censorship than with politics... 1929 was the last year of that strange Indian Summer—the Weimar Republic.
For many of my friends and for myself, Germany seemed a paradise where there was no censorship and young Germans enjoyed extraordinary freedom in their lives... His early poetry, notably Poems was inspired by social protest. Living in Vienna his convictions found further expression in Forward from Liberalism and in Vienna, a long poem in praise of the 1934 uprising of Austrian socialists, in Trial of a Judge, an anti-Fascist drama in verse. In 1936 he became a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain. Harry Pollitt, head of the CPGB invited him to write for the Daily Worker on the Moscow Trials. In late 1936, Spender married Inez Pearn, whom he had only met at an Aid to Spain meeting, she is described as'small and rather ironic,' and'strikingly good-looking'. In 1937, during the Spanish civil war, the Daily Worker sent him to Spain, his mission was to observe and report on the Soviet ship Komsomol, which had sunk while carrying Soviet weapons to the Second Spanish Republic. Spender travelled to Tangier and tried to enter the country via Cadiz.
He travelled to Valencia and met Ernest Hemingway and Manuel Altolaguirre. Spender was imprisoned for a while in Albacete. In Madrid he met André Malraux. S. S. R; because of medical problems he bought a house in Lavenham. In 1939 he divorced, his 1938 translations of works by Bertolt Brecht and Miguel Hernández appeared in John Lehmann's New Writing. He felt close to the Jewish people. Spender's second wife, whom he married in 1941, was Jewish. In 1942 he joined as a volunteer the fire brigade of Maresfield Gardens. Spender met several times with the poet Edwin Muir. A member of the political left wing during this early period, he was one of those who wrote of their disillusionment with communism in the essay collection The God that Failed, along with Arthur Koestler and others, it is thought that one of the big areas of disappointment was the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia, which many leftists saw as a betrayal. Like W. H. Auden, Christopher Isherwood, several other outspoken opponents of fascism in the 1930s, Spender did not see active military service in World War II.
He was graded "C" upon examination due to his earlier colitis, poor eyesight, varicose veins, the long-term effects of a tapeworm in 1934. However, he contrived by pulling strings to be re-examined and was upgraded to "B" which meant that he could serve in the London Auxiliary Fire Service. Spender spent the winter of 1940 teaching at Blundell's School, having taken the position left vacant by Manning Clark, who returned to Australia as a consequence of the war to teach at Geelong Grammar. After the war he was a member of the Allied Control Commission, restoring civil authority in Germany. With Cyril Connolly and Peter Watson Spender co-founded Horizon magazine and served as its editor from 1939 to 1941. From 1947 till 1949 he saw his friends Auden and Isherwood, he was editor of Encounter magazine from 1953 to 1966, but resigne
T. S. Eliot
Thomas Stearns Eliot, "one of the twentieth century's major poets" was an essayist, publisher and literary and social critic. Born in St. Louis, Missouri, in the United States, to a prominent Boston Brahmin family, he moved to England in 1914 at the age of 25, settling and marrying there, he became a British subject in 1927 at the age of 39. Eliot attracted widespread attention for his poem "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", seen as a masterpiece of the Modernist movement, it was followed by some of the best-known poems in the English language, including The Waste Land, "The Hollow Men", "Ash Wednesday", Four Quartets. He was known for his seven plays Murder in the Cathedral and The Cocktail Party, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948, "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry". The Eliots were a Boston Brahmin family with roots in New England. Thomas Eliot's paternal grandfather, William Greenleaf Eliot, had moved to St. Louis, Missouri, to establish a Unitarian Christian church there.
His father, Henry Ware Eliot, was a successful businessman and treasurer of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company in St Louis. His mother, Charlotte Champe Stearns, wrote poetry and was a social worker, a new profession in the early 20th century. Eliot was the last of six surviving children. Eliot was born at a property owned by his grandfather, William Greenleaf Eliot, his four sisters were between 19 years older. Known to family and friends as Tom, he was the namesake of Thomas Stearns. Eliot's childhood infatuation with literature can be ascribed to several factors. First, he had to overcome physical limitations as a child. Struggling from a congenital double inguinal hernia, he could not participate in many physical activities and thus was prevented from socializing with his peers; as he was isolated, his love for literature developed. Once he learned to read, the young boy became obsessed with books and was absorbed in tales depicting savages, the Wild West, or Mark Twain's thrill-seeking Tom Sawyer.
In his memoir of Eliot, his friend Robert Sencourt comments that the young Eliot "would curl up in the window-seat behind an enormous book, setting the drug of dreams against the pain of living." Secondly, Eliot credited his hometown with fuelling his literary vision: "It is self-evident that St. Louis affected me more than any other environment has done. I feel that there is something in having passed one's childhood beside the big river, incommunicable to those people who have not. I consider myself fortunate to have been born here, rather than in Boston, or New York, or London."From 1898 to 1905, Eliot attended Smith Academy, where his studies included Latin, Ancient Greek and German. He began to write poetry when he was fourteen under the influence of Edward Fitzgerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, a translation of the poetry of Omar Khayyam, he said the results were gloomy and despairing and he destroyed them. His first published poem, "A Fable For Feasters", was written as a school exercise and was published in the Smith Academy Record in February 1905.
Published there in April 1905 was his oldest surviving poem in manuscript, an untitled lyric revised and reprinted as "Song" in The Harvard Advocate, Harvard University's student magazine. He published three short stories in 1905, "Birds of Prey", "A Tale of a Whale" and "The Man Who Was King"; the last mentioned story reflects his exploration of the Igorot Village while visiting the 1904 World's Fair of St. Louis; such a link with primitive people antedates his anthropological studies at Harvard. Eliot lived in St. Louis, Missouri for the first sixteen years of his life at the house on Locust St. where he was born. After going away to school in 1905, he only returned to St. Louis for visits. Despite moving away from the city, Eliot wrote to a friend that the "Missouri and the Mississippi have made a deeper impression on me than any other part of the world."Following graduation, Eliot attended Milton Academy in Massachusetts for a preparatory year, where he met Scofield Thayer who published The Waste Land.
He studied philosophy at Harvard College from 1906 to 1909, earning his bachelor's degree after three years, instead of the usual four. While a student, Eliot was graduated with a pass degree, he recovered and persisted, attaining a B. A. in an elective program best described as comparative literature in three years, an M. A. in English literature in the fourth. Frank Kermode writes that the most important moment of Eliot's undergraduate career was in 1908 when he discovered Arthur Symons's The Symbolist Movement in Literature; this introduced him to Jules Laforgue, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine. Without Verlaine, Eliot wrote, he might never have heard of Tristan Corbière and his book Les amours jaunes, a work that affected the course of Eliot's life; the Harvard Advocate published some of his poems and he became lifelong friends with Conrad Aiken, the American writer and critic. After working as a philosophy assistant at Harvard from 1909 to 1910, Eliot moved to Paris where, from 1910 to 1911, he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne.
He read poetry with Henri Alban-Fournier. From 1911 to 1914, he was back at Harvard studying Indian Sanskrit. Eliot was awarded a scholarship to Merton College, Oxford, in 1914, he first visited Marb
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde and is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses, a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in a variety of literary styles, most famously stream of consciousness. Other well-known works are the short-story collection Dubliners, the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Finnegans Wake, his other writings include three books of poetry, a play, his published letters and occasional journalism. Joyce was born in Dublin into a middle-class family. A brilliant student, he attended the Christian Brothers-run O'Connell School before excelling at the Jesuit schools Clongowes and Belvedere, despite the chaotic family life imposed by his father's alcoholism and unpredictable finances, he went on to attend University College Dublin. In 1904, in his early twenties, Joyce emigrated to continental Europe with his partner Nora Barnacle.
They lived in Trieste and Zurich. Although most of his adult life was spent abroad, Joyce's fictional universe centres on Dublin and is populated by characters who resemble family members and friends from his time there. Ulysses in particular is set with precision in the alleyways of the city. Shortly after the publication of Ulysses, he elucidated this preoccupation somewhat, saying, "For myself, I always write about Dublin, because if I can get to the heart of Dublin I can get to the heart of all the cities of the world. In the particular is contained the universal." On 2 February 1882, Joyce was born at 41 Brighton Square, Dublin, Ireland. Joyce's father was John Stanislaus Joyce and his mother was Mary Jane "May" Murray, he was the eldest of ten surviving siblings. James was baptised according to the Rites of the Catholic Church in the nearby St Joseph's Church in Terenure on 5 February 1882 by Rev. John O'Mulloy. Joyce's godparents were Ellen McCann. John Stanislaus Joyce's family came from Fermoy in County Cork, had owned a small salt and lime works.
Joyce's paternal grandfather, James Augustine Joyce, married Ellen O'Connell, daughter of John O'Connell, a Cork Alderman who owned a drapery business and other properties in Cork City. Ellen's family claimed kinship with Daniel O'Connell, "The Liberator"; the Joyce family's purported ancestor, Seán Mór Seoighe was a stonemason from Connemara. In 1887, his father was appointed rate collector by Dublin Corporation. Around this time Joyce was attacked by leading to his lifelong cynophobia, he suffered from astraphobia. In 1891 Joyce wrote a poem on the death of Charles Stewart Parnell, his father was angry at the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic Church, the Irish Home Rule Party and the British Liberal Party and the resulting collaborative failure to secure Home Rule for Ireland. The Irish Party had dropped Parnell from leadership, but the Vatican's role in allying with the British Conservative Party to prevent Home Rule left a lasting impression on the young Joyce. The elder Joyce had the poem printed and sent a part to the Vatican Library.
In November, John Joyce was suspended from work. In 1893, John Joyce was dismissed with a pension, beginning the family's slide into poverty caused by his drinking and financial mismanagement. Joyce had begun his education at Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit boarding school near Clane, County Kildare, in 1888 but had to leave in 1892 when his father could no longer pay the fees. Joyce studied at home and at the Christian Brothers O'Connell School on North Richmond Street, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits' Dublin school, Belvedere College, in 1893; this came about because of a chance meeting his father had with a Jesuit priest called John Conmee who knew the family and Joyce was given a reduction in fees to attend Belvedere. In 1895, now aged 13, was elected to join the Sodality of Our Lady by his peers at Belvedere; the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas continued to have a strong influence on him for most of his life. Joyce enrolled at the established University College Dublin in 1898, studying English and Italian.
He became active in literary circles in the city. In 1900 his laudatory review of Henrik Ibsen's When We Dead Awaken was published in The Fortnightly Review. Joyce wrote a number of at least two plays during this period. Many of the friends he made at University College Dublin appeared as characters in Joyce's works, his closest colleagues included leading figures of the generation, most notably, Tom Kettle, Francis Sheehy-Skeffington and Oliver St. John Gogarty. Joyce was first introduced to the Irish public by Arthur Griffith in his newspaper, United Irishman, in November 1901. Joyce had written an article on the Irish Literary Theatre and his college magazine refused to print it. Joyce had it distributed locally. Griffith himself wrote a piece decrying the censorship of the student James Joyce. In 1901, the National Census of Ireland lists James Joyce as an English- and Irish-speaking scholar living with his mother and father, six sisters and three brothers at Royal Terrace (now Inverness Ro