Qualcomm Incorporated is an American multinational semiconductor and telecommunications equipment company that designs and markets wireless telecommunications products and services. It derives most of its revenue from chipmaking and the bulk of its profit from patent licensing businesses; the company headquarters is located in San Diego, United States, has 224 worldwide locations. The parent company is Qualcomm Incorporated, which includes the Qualcomm Technology Licensing Division. Qualcomm's wholly owned subsidiary, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. operates all of Qualcomm's R&D activities. Qualcomm was created on July 1985 by seven former Linkabit employees led by Irwin Jacobs; the company was named Qualcomm for “QUALity COMMunications.” It started as a contract research and development center for government and defense projects. Qualcomm merged with Omninet in 1988 and raised $3.5 million in funding in order to produce the Omnitracs satellite communications system for trucking companies. Qualcomm grew from eight employees in 1986 to 620 employees in 1991.
By 1989, Qualcomm had $32 million in revenues, 50 percent of, from an Omnitracs contract with Schneider National. Omnitracs profits helped fund Qualcomm's research and development into code-division multiple access technologies for cell phone networks. Qualcomm was operating at a loss in the 1990s due to its investment in CDMA research. To obtain funding, the company filed an initial public offering in September 1991 raising $68 million. An additional $486 million was raised in 1995 through the sale of 11.5 million more shares. The second funding round was done to raise money for the mass manufacturing of CDMA-based phones, base-stations, equipment, after most US-based cellular networks announced they would adopt the CDMA standard; the company had $383 million in annual revenue in 1995 and $814 million by 1996. In 1991, Qualcomm acquired Eudora, an email client software for the PC that could be used with the OmniTRACS system; the acquisition associated a used email client with a company, little-known at the time.
In 1998, Qualcomm was restructured. Its cell-phone manufacturing business was spun-off in order to focus on its higher-margin patents business; the following year, Qualcomm was the fastest growing stock on the market with a 2,621 percent growth over one year. By 2000, Qualcomm had grown to 6,300 employees, $3.2 billion in revenues, $670 million in profit. 39 percent of its sales were from CDMA technology, followed by licensing and other products. Around this time, Qualcomm established offices in Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America. By 2001, 65 percent of Qualcomm's revenues originated from outside the United States with 35 percent coming from South Korea. In 2005, Paul E. Jacobs, son of Qualcomm founder Dr. Irwin Jacobs, was appointed as Qualcomm's new CEO. Whereas Irwin Jacobs focused on CDMA patents, Paul Jacobs refocused much of Qualcomm's new research and development on projects related to the internet of things. Qualcomm announced Steven Mollenkopf would succeed Paul Jacobs as CEO in December 2013.
Mollenkopf said he would expand Qualcomm's focus to wireless technology for cars, wearable devices, other new markets. The European Commission fined Qualcomm €997 million for abuse of dominant market position on January 24, 2018. On March 16, 2018, Qualcomm removed executive chairman Paul Jacobs after he "broached a long-shot bid" for a buyout earlier that week. In 2018, Qualcomm filed a lawsuit against Intel. "After several meet-and-confers and exchanges of written correspondence, on May 18, Intel appeared willing to cooperate, offering a'limited supplemental production of technical materials relating to relevant components designed for 2018 iPhone models' in exchange for Qualcomm's agreement that the limited production would satisfy certain requests in the document subpoena," the US federal court filing states. A court in the US, on March 15,2019, ruled that Apple must indemnify Qualcomm for infringing three patents related to mobile technologies; the jury ruled. $1.41 per iPhone that used the company’s technology without authorization.
For the fiscal year 2017, Qualcomm reported earnings of US$2.5 billion, with an annual revenue of US$22.3 billion, an increase of 5.4% over the previous fiscal cycle. Qualcomm's shares traded at over $55 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$91.9 billion in September 2018. The company is ranked 133rd on the Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by revenue. Qualcomm pioneered the commercialization of the cdmaOne standard for wireless cellular communications, following up with CDMA2000, an early standard for third-generation mobile. Today, the company is the leading patent holder in advanced 3G mobile technologies, including CDMA2000 1xEV-DO and its evolutions; the license streams from the patents on these inventions, related products, are a major component of Qualcomm's business. In June 2011, Qualcomm announced that it would release a set of application programming interfaces geared to give Web-based applications deeper links into hardware. Beginning in 1991, Qualcomm participated in the development of the Globalstar satellite system along with Loral Space & Communications.
It uses a low Earth orbit satellite constellation consisting of 44 active satellites. The system is used for voice telephony via hand-held satellite phones, asset tracking and data transfer using mobile satellite modems; the system was designed as a normal IS-95 system, used the satellite as a "
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited known as Taiwan Semiconductor, is the world's largest dedicated independent semiconductor foundry, with its headquarters and main operations located in the Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park in Hsinchu, Taiwan. Founded in Taiwan in 1987 by Morris Chang, TSMC was the world's first dedicated semiconductor foundry and has long been the leading company in its field, it is listed on both the New York Stock Exchange. Mark Liu serves as Chairman and C. C. Wei serves as Vice Chairman. Most of the leading fabless semiconductor companies such as Qualcomm, Advanced Micro Devices, MediaTek and Broadcom Inc. are customers of TSMC, as well as emerging players such as Spectra7, AppliedMicro, Allwinner Technology and HiSilicon, many smaller companies. Leading programmable logic device companies Xilinx and Altera make or made use of TSMC's foundry services; some integrated device manufacturers that have their own fabrication facilities like Intel, STMicroelectronics and Texas Instruments outsource some of their production to TSMC.
At least one semiconductor company, LSI, re-sells TSMC wafers through its ASIC design services and design IP-portfolio. The company has been increasing and upgrading its manufacturing capacity for most of its existence, although influenced by the demand cycles of the semiconductor industry. In 2011, the company planned to increase research and development expenditures by 39% to NT$50 billion in an effort to fend off growing competition; the company planned to expand capacity by 30% in 2011 to meet strong market demand. In May 2014, TSMC's board of directors approved capital appropriations of US$568 million to establish and upgrade advanced technology capacity after the company forecast higher than expected demand. In August 2014, TSMC's board of directors approved additional capital appropriations of US$3.05 billion. In 2011, it was reported that TSMC had begun trial production of the A5 SoC and A6 SoCs for Apple's iPad and iPhone devices. According to reports, as of May 2014, Apple is sourcing its new A8 and A8X SoCs from TSMC and sourced the A9 SoC with both TSMC and Samsung with the A9X being made by TSMC, thus resolving the issue of sourcing a chip in two different microarchitecture sizes.
Apple has become TSMC's most important customer. TSMC's market capitalization reached a value of NT$1.9 trillion in December 2010. It was ranked 70th in the FT Global 500 2013 list of the world's most valued companies with a capitalization of US$86.7 billion, while reaching US$110 billion in May 2014. In March 2017, TSMC's market capitalisation surpassed that of semiconductor giant Intel for the first time, hitting NT$5.14 trillion, with Intel's at US$165.7 billion. On 12-inch wafers TSMC is realizing the following devices: 90 nm, 65 nm, 55 nm, it offers "design for manufacturing" customer services. For the 40 nm process TSMC reports: The 40 nm logic family includes low-power, general-purpose superb, low-power triple gate oxide process options. All three processes offer multiple-threshold-voltage core devices and 1.8 V, 2.5 V, 3.3 V I/O options to meet different product requirements. Although TSMC offers a variety of wafer product lines, it is best known for its logic chip product line with particular strength in advanced low-power processes such as 28 nm HPM with HKMG technology for mobile and high-performance applications.
A press release from 2015 lists these seven variants: Today TSMC has five versions of 28 nm: HP, HPM, HPC, HPL, LP. Two additional processes were added: HPC+, an faster version of HP, ULP, ultra-low-power for IoT and other battery-powered applications. In press publications these processes will be referenced, for example, for the mobile variant by 28nmHPM or more by 28HPM. TSMC is at the end of 2016 further advertising 16 nm production technologies. Apart from its main base of operations in Hsinchu in Northern Taiwan, where several of its fab facilities are located, it has leading-edge fabs in Southern Taiwan and Central Taiwan, with other fabs located at its subsidiaries TSMC China in Shanghai, WaferTech in Washington State, USA, SSMC in Singapore, it has offices in China, India, North America, South Korea; the following fabs are in operation as of 2018: Three 300 mm "GIGAFABs" in operation in Taiwan: Fab 12, 14, 15 Four 200 mm wafer fabs in full operation in Taiwan TSMC China Company Limited, 200 mm TSMC Nanjing Company Limited, 300 mm WaferTech L.
L. C. TSMC's wholly owned subsidiary, a 200 mm fab in Camas, United States SSMC, a joint venture with NXP Semiconductors in Singapore, 200 mm, where production started at the end of 2002 One 150 mm wafer fab in full operation in Taiwan Fab under construction as of 2018: Fab 18, 300 mm TSMC has 4 Backend Fabs under operation: Fab 1, 2
LSI Corporation was an American company based in San Jose, California which designed semiconductors and software that accelerate storage and networking in data centers, mobile networks and client computing. On May 6, 2014, LSI Corporation was acquired by Avago Technologies for $6.6 billion. LSI Stockholders voted in favor of the proposal in April 2014, merging the company into its parent, continuing with the LSI brand. In 1981, Wilfred Corrigan, Bill O'Meara, Rob Walker and Mitchell "Mick" Bohn founded LSI under the name LSI Logic in Milpitas, California. Wilfred Corrigan served as the CEO from 1981 until 2005. LSI was funded by venture capitalists, including Sequoia Capital with $6 million. In March 1982, a second round of financing brought in another $16 million. LSI Logic went public with Nasdaq as LSI in May 1983 with the largest IPO to date of $153 million. In 1985, the firm entered into a joint venture with Kawasaki Steel—Japan's third largest steel manufacturer—to build a $100 million wafer fabrication plant in Tsukuba, Japan.
In 1987, SEMATECH was incorporated in result of the 1984 National Cooperative Research Act, which reduced potential antitrust liabilities of research joint ventures. SEMATECH is a development consortium to advance semiconductor and chip manufacturing. LSI Logic was among the 14 founding members, but withdrew from SEMATECH in January 1992. In July 1991, LSI entered into an agreement with Sanyo Electric of Japan to make a set of chips that translate an HDTV signal into a television image. LSI Logic started developing its CoreWare technology in 1992. In 1993, Sony Computer Entertainment chose LSI Logic as their ASIC partner, charged with fitting the PlayStation CPU on a single chip. LSI's CoreWare could do it. Sony worked with LSI’s engineers develop the graphics engine, DMA controller, I/O and bus controllers. In 1995, LSI Logic acquired the remaining shares its Canadian subsidiary held, which amounted to 45%. In 1997, Mint Technology, an engineering services company, was acquired by LSI. In August 1998 it bought Symbios Logic from Hyundai Electronic for $760 million cash.
In February 1999, LSI acquired Seeq Technology, adding physical-layer based Ethernet technology to LSI’s product line. In May 2000, LSI acquired IntraServer for $70 million, with expectations to add their expanding customer base to LSI’s own. In November 2000, LSI acquired Syntax Systems, in August 2001 the groups merged to become LSI Logic Storage Systems, Engenio Information Technologies. In March 2001 LSI acquired C-Cube for $878 million in stock. In that same quarter, LSI introduced a flexible process technology. In September 2001 LSI acquired a RAID adapter division from American Megatrends in a $221 million cash transaction. Included in this deal, LSI received AMI’s MegaRAID software intellectual property, host bus adapter products and 200 RAID employees. LSI and Storage Technology Corporation entered an alliance making StorageTek the distributor of their co-branded storage products in January 2002. In August 2002 LSI acquired Mylex from IBM. In November 2003, LSI sold its Tsukuba, Japan facility to Ltd..
The Engenio division of LSI filed for its own IPO in 2004, but withdrew citing adverse market conditions after the burst of the dot-com bubble. In 2005, Abhi Talwalkar joined the company as president and CEO, was appointed to the board of directors. Talwalkar was an executive at Intel Corporation before joining LSI, began a program of acquisitions and divestitures. In October 2005, LSI Logic opened a semiconductor design and engineering development center at the Dubai Silicon Oasis Microelectronics Innovation Center. In 2006, LSI Logic sold the Oregon design and manufacturing facility to ON Semiconductor. In October of that same year it agreed to an all-stock merger with Agere Systems worth about $4 billion. In March 2007, LSI acquired SiliconStor Inc. a provider of semiconductor solutions for enterprise storage networks, for $55 million in cash. In April 2007, LSI completed its merger with Agere Systems Inc. who owned LSI’s Mobility Products Group, rebranded the firm LSI Corporation. Magnum Semiconductor Inc. a spin-off of Cirrus Logic Inc. acquired LSI’s consumer products business and 13 percent of LSI’s workforce in July 2007.
These lines included architectures named DoMiNo and Zevio, evolutions of the C-Cube Microsystems technology. August 2007, LSI signed an agreement with STATS ChipPAC Ltd to sell its Pathumthani, Thailand semiconductor assembly and test operations for $100 million. In October 2007, LSI acquired a maker of silicon and software, for $85 million in cash. Tarari’s products integrated into LSI’s NSPG organization. In October 2007 LSI completed its sale of its Mobility Division to Infineon Technologies AG for $450 million in cash. 700 LSI employees transferred to Infineon in the deal. In July 2009, LSI agreed to acquire Inc. for $25 million. LSI put ONStor into its Engenio storage division, a NAS vendor. LSI bought the 3ware RAID adapter business of Applied Micro Circuits Corporation in April that same year. In March 2011, LSI announced its sale of its Engenio external storage systems business to NetApp for $480 million in cash; the sale of the Engenio division, which generated revenues of $705 million in 2010, completed in May.
In January 2012, LSI completed the acquisition of SandForce, which produced flash memory controllers. LSI started producing its own PCIe cards for data center servers, using SandForce’s flash controller chips, under their new Nytro product line that April
Conexant Systems, Inc. was an American-based software developer and fabless semiconductor company. They provided products for voice and audio processing and modems; the company began as a division of Rockwell International, before being spun off as a public company. Conexant itself spun off several business units, creating independent public companies which included Skyworks Solutions and Mindspeed Technologies; the company was acquired by Synaptics, Inc. in July 2017. In 1996, Rockwell International Corporation incorporated its semiconductor division as Rockwell Semiconductor Systems, Inc. On January 4, 1999, Rockwell spun off Inc. as a public company. It was listed on the NASDAQ under symbol CNXT on January 4, 1999. At that time, Conexant became the world's largest. Dwight W. Decker was its first chairman of its board of directors; the company was based in California. In the early 2000s, Conexant spun off several standalone technology businesses to create public companies. In March 2002, Conexant entered into a joint venture agreement with The Carlyle Group to share ownership of its wafer fabrication plant, called Jazz Semiconductor.
In June 2002, Conexant spun off its wireless communications division, which merged following the spinoff with Massachusetts-based chip manufacturer Alpha Industries Inc. to form publicly held Skyworks Solutions Inc. In June 2003, Conexant spun off its Internet infrastructure business to create the publicly held company Mindspeed Technologies Inc. Mindspeed would be acquired by Lowell, MA-based M/A-COM Technology Solutions. In 2004, Conexant merged with Red Bank, New Jersey semiconductor company GlobespanVirata, Inc. with Conexant as the surviving corporation. Subsequently, GlobespanVirata's name was changed to Inc.. In April 2008, Conexant announced the sale of its broadband media processing business, which provided products for satellite, cable and IPTV applications, to Dutch semiconductor manufacturer NXP Semiconductors NV. In September 2008, Jazz was sold to Israel-based Tower Semiconductor Ltd and became known as TowerJazz. In August 2009, Conexant sold its broadband access product line to Fremont, CA semiconductor company Ikanos Communications.
In February 2011, an agreement was announced for San Francisco investment firm Golden Gate Capital to acquire all of the outstanding shares of Conexant at a price of $2.40 per share, take the company private. In February 2013, citing the burden of servicing debt related to multiple corporate acquisitions in the late 1990s, as well as the loss of revenue from the bankruptcy of key customer Eastman Kodak, Conexant filed for Chapter 11 protection in the U. S. Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware; as part of the bankruptcy agreement, the company agreed on a restructuring plan with owners and its sole secured lender, QP SFM Capital Holdings Ltd. The reorganized company emerged from bankruptcy in July 2013; as part of the operational restructuring, the company moved its headquarters from Newport Beach to nearby Irvine, focused on a narrower product portfolio, consisting of far-field voice input processing-based devices, video surveillance and printer systems on a chip. Since 2013, Conexant's silicon and software solutions for voice processing have been instrumental in the CE industry's proliferation of voice-enabled devices.
The company's AudioSmart brand of voice input processors and embedded far-field processing software has become adopted by CE device manufacturers in numerous products ranging from Artificially Intelligent digital assistant devices and smart speakers to voice-enabled televisions and personal robots. In February 2016, it was announced that Korean electronics company LG Electronics was going to integrate Conexant's CX2092x far-field voice input processor system-on-chip into two of its smart home products: a set top box and an IoT hub for controlling home electronic devices. In March 2016, Conexant announced that their AudioSmart software was being integrated into Qualcomm's Hexagon digital signal processor family, a major component of Qualcomm's Snapdragon processor contained in over 1 billion smart devices. In December 2016, Conexant and Amazon co-announced the AudioSmart 2-Mic Development Kit for Amazon AVS, a commercial-grade reference solution that streamlines the design and implementation of audio front end systems.
Based on the Conexant AudioSmart™ CX20921 Voice Input Processor, the dual microphone board was designed to reduce time-to-market for new third-party voice-enabled Alexa devices. On 11 May 2017 news appeared that security researchers discovered that Conexant's audio drivers were installing keylogger software, including many laptops sold by HP; the keylogger writes every single keystroke typed by a user and stores them in an unencrypted file on the user's computer. On July 26, 2017, Synaptics completed its acquisition of Conexant Systems, LLC. Conexant has two main product families: the AudioSmart brand of audio processors and the ImagingSmart brand of image processors and modems. AudioSmart is a line of analog-to-digital converters, codecs, USB digital signal processor codecs, voice/speech processors, software that improves how audio signals are processed for electronic audio equipment. AD Converters - Conexant's analog to digital converters are used for far-field voice/speech capture applications.
They convert analog signals to digital in order to enhance the signal before transmitting it to third party speech recognition products. The technology is used in voice-enabled consumer products. A low power version with a standby mode and a fast wake up mode is used for battery powered devices. Codecs - Conexant's codecs encode and decode digital signals
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material, silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components; the IC's mass production capability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. Integrated circuits were made practical by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication. Since their origins in the 1960s, the size and capacity of chips have progressed enormously, driven by technical advances that fit more and more transistors on chips of the same size – a modern chip may have many billions of transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail.
These advances following Moore's law, make computer chips of today possess millions of times the capacity and thousands of times the speed of the computer chips of the early 1970s. ICs have two main advantages over discrete circuits: performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography rather than being constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, packaged ICs use much less material than discrete circuits. Performance is high because the IC's components switch and consume comparatively little power because of their small size and close proximity; the main disadvantage of ICs is the high cost to fabricate the required photomasks. This high initial cost means. An integrated circuit is defined as: A circuit in which all or some of the circuit elements are inseparably associated and electrically interconnected so that it is considered to be indivisible for the purposes of construction and commerce. Circuits meeting this definition can be constructed using many different technologies, including thin-film transistors, thick-film technologies, or hybrid integrated circuits.
However, in general usage integrated circuit has come to refer to the single-piece circuit construction known as a monolithic integrated circuit. Arguably, the first examples of integrated circuits would include the Loewe 3NF. Although far from a monolithic construction, it meets the definition given above. Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when German engineer Werner Jacobi filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common substrate in a 3-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi disclosed cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent. An immediate commercial use of his patent has not been reported; the idea of the integrated circuit was conceived by Geoffrey Dummer, a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence. Dummer presented the idea to the public at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D. C. on 7 May 1952.
He gave many symposia publicly to propagate his ideas and unsuccessfully attempted to build such a circuit in 1956. A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares, each containing a single miniaturized component. Components could be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid; this idea, which seemed promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program. However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC. Newly employed by Texas Instruments, Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 demonstrating the first working integrated example on 12 September 1958. In his patent application of 6 February 1959, Kilby described his new device as "a body of semiconductor material … wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are integrated." The first customer for the new invention was the US Air Force. Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.
His work was named an IEEE Milestone in 2009. Half a year after Kilby, Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor developed a new variety of integrated circuit, more practical than Kilby's implementation. Noyce's design was made of silicon. Noyce credited Kurt Lehovec of Sprague Electric for the principle of p–n junction isolation, a key concept behind the IC; this isolation allows each transistor to operate independently despite being part of the same piece of silicon. Fairchild Semiconductor was home of the first silicon-gate IC technology with self-aligned gates, the basis of all modern CMOS integrated circuits; the technology was developed by Italian physicist Federico Faggin in 1968. In 1970, he joined Intel in order to develop the first single-chip central processing unit microprocessor, the Intel 4004, for which he received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 2010; the 4004 was designed by Busicom's Masatoshi Shima and Intel's Ted Hoff in 1969, but it was Faggin's improved design in 1970 that made it a reality.
Advances in IC technology smaller features and la
Marvell Technology Group
Marvell Technology Group, Limited, is a producer of storage and consumer semiconductor products. The company has over 3,700 employees. Marvell's U. S. operating headquarters is located in Santa Clara and the company operates design centers in Europe, India and China. Marvell is a "fabless" manufacturer of semiconductors that ships more than one billion integrated circuits per year, its market segments include data center, enterprise / campus, automotive and home / consumer. Marvell was founded in 1995 by Sehat Sutardja, his wife Weili Dai, brother Pantas Sutardja; the initial public offering on June 27, 2000 raised $90 million, with the stock listed on NASDAQ with the symbol MRVL. After raising from $19 to over $63 per share, three days it was $55.25. At the time, the five largest customers, Samsung Electronics, Seagate Technology and Toshiba, accounted for 97% of sales; the shares dropped in December when insiders were allowed to sell. In July 2018, Marvell completed its acquisition of Cavium, Inc. strengthening its storage, networking, wireless connectivity and security product portfolios for the infrastructure market.
On the same day, Marvell announced the appointment of Syed Ali, Brad Buss and Dr. Edward Frank to the Marvell Board of Directors. In the summer of 2018, Marvell became the first silicon vendor in North America to open a CISPR 25 qualified automotive electromagnetic compatibility lab with the in-house capability to perform a wide range of emission, immunity and ESD tests to further drive the development of industry-leading automotive connectivity solutions; the company is headquartered in Hamilton, Bermuda. The US operations known as Marvell Semiconductor, are located in Silicon Valley, California. Through the years, Marvell acquired smaller companies to enter new markets. Marvell's first products were sold for computer data storage devices. In March 2000, computer networking products for the Ethernet family were first shipped. In October 2002, the Yukon brand Gigabit Ethernet controller was announced. On June 27, 2006, the sale of Intel's XScale assets was announced. Intel agreed to sell the XScale business to Marvell for an estimated USD 600 million in cash and the assumption of unspecified liabilities.
The acquisition was completed on November 9, 2006. In 2009, Marvell announced that the SheevaPlug, a small, low-power, SoC-based ARM architecture computer, would be released with full schematics. Marvell supplied the Wi-Fi chip for the original Apple iPhone. Marvell Mobile Hotspot is an in-car Wi-Fi connectivity; the 2010 Audi A8 was the first automobile in the market to feature a factory-installed MMH. Google's Chromecast products are powered by Marvell SoCs. Namely the Marvell ARMADA 1500 Mini SoC for the Chromecast 1st gen and Marvell ARMADA 1500 Mini Plus SoC for the Chromecast 2nd gen & Chromecast audio. Synaptics acquired Marvell Multimedia Solutions on 2017-06-12 ARMADA 1500 SoC's are now produced under different names In 2012, Marvell was named one of Thomson Reuters top 100 global innovators. In 2006, the US Securities and Exchange Commission started an inquiry on the company's stock option grant practices. An investigation determined "grant dates were chosen with the benefit of hindsight" to make the options more valuable.
The press estimated that the founders and other executives had made $760 million in gains from the options, which were awarded by the founding couple, Sehat Sutardja and Weili Dai. The SEC asked to interview the company general counsel Matthew Gloss, but Marvell claimed attorney-client privilege. Gloss was fired just before the investigation results were announced in May 2007. Abraham David Sofaer was hired to investigate the investigation after Gloss alleged it was not independent. In announcing the results of its own inquiry, the SEC did not give Marvell the credit granted other companies in the options scandal for cooperating with the SEC’s investigation or for cleaning up. At the time of the announcement, the co-acting regional director of the SEC’s San Francisco office stated, among other things, that the SEC did not believe that the lack of cooperation and remediation shown by Marvell merited a whole lot of credit in terms of giving Marvell a break. In announcing its results, the SEC found that Gloss was not a participant in Dai and Sutardja’s backdating scheme.
Marvell restated its financial results, stated that Dai will no longer be executive vice president, chief operating officer, a director but continue with the company in a non-management position. The company agreed to pay a $10 million fine in 2008, but did not fire Dai nor replace Sutardja as chairman as stated by the investigating committee. In December 2012, a Pittsburgh jury ruled that Marvell had infringed two patents by incorporating hard disk technology developed and owned by Carnegie Mellon University without a license; the technology, relating to improving hard disk data read accuracy at high speeds, was reported to have been used in 2.3 billion chips sold by Marvell between 2003 and 2012. The jury awarded damages of $1.17 billion, the third largest in a patent case at the time. The jury found that the breach had been "willful", giving the judge discretion to award up to three times the original damage amount. In December 2
Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or existing activity, or could be done internally, sometimes involves transferring employees and assets from one firm to another. The term outsourcing, which came from the phrase outside resourcing, originated no than 1981; the concept, which The Economist says "made its presence felt since the time of the Second World War," involves the contracting of a business process, and/or non-core functions, such as manufacturing, facility management, call center support). Outsourcing is the practice of handing over control of public services to private enterprises. Outsourcing includes both foreign and domestic contracting, sometimes includes offshoring or nearshoring. Offshoring and outsourcing are not mutually inclusive: there can be one without the other, they can be intertwined, can be individually or jointly or reversed, involving terms such as reshoring and insourcing. Offshoring is moving the work to a distant country.
If the distant workplace is a foreign subsidiary/owned by the company the offshore operation is a captive, sometimes referred to as in-house offshore. Insourcing entails bringing processes handled by third-party firms in-house, is sometimes accomplished via vertical integration. Offshore outsourcing is the practice of hiring an external organization to perform some business functions in a country other than the one where the products or services are performed, developed or manufactured. An Intermediary is when a business provides a contract service to another organization while contracting out that same service; some of the acronyms related to BPO (Business Process Outsourcing are: Global labor arbitrage can provide major financial savings from lower international labor rates can provide a major motivation for offshoring. Cost savings from Economies of scale and specialization can motivate outsourcing. Another motivation is speed to market. Details of managing DuPont's CIO Cinda Hallman's $4 billion 10-year ourtsourcing contract with Computer Sciences Corporation and Anderson Consulting were outsourced, thus avoiding "inventing a process if we'd done it in-house."
A subsequently developed term to describe. Outsourcing can offer greater budget flexibility and control by allowing organizations to pay for the services and business functions they need, when they need them, it reduces the need to hire and train specialized staff, makes available specialized expertise, can reduce capital, operating expenses, risk. "Do what you do best and outsource the rest" has become an internationally recognized business tagline first "coined and developed" in the 1990s by the "legendary management consultant" Peter Drucker. The slogan was used to advocate outsourcing as a viable business strategy. Drucker began explaining the concept of "Outsourcing" as early as 1989 in his Wall Street Journal article entitled "Sell the Mailroom." Two organizations may enter into a contractual agreement involving an exchange of services and payments. Outsourcing is said to help firms to perform well in their core competencies, fuel innovation, mitigate a shortage of skill or expertise in the areas where they want to outsource.
Following the adding of management layers in the 1950s and 1960 to support expansion for the sake of economy of scale, corporations found that agility and added profits could be obtained by focusing on core strengths. Kodak's 1989 "outsourcing most of its information technology systems" was followed by others during the 1990s. In the early 21st century, businesses outsourced to suppliers outside their own country, sometimes referred to as offshoring or offshore outsourcing. Other options subsequently emerged: nearshoring, multisourcing, strategic alliances/strategic partnerships, strategic outsourcing. and vested outsourcing. From Drucker's perspective, a company should only seek to subcontract in those areas in which it demonstrated no special ability; the business strategy outlined by his slogan recommended that companies should take advantage of a specialist provider's knowledge and economies of scale to improve performance and achieve the service needed. In 2009, by way of recognition, Peter Drucker posthumously received a significant honor when he was inducted into the Outsourcing Hall of Fame for his outstanding work in the field.
Although offshoring focused on manufacturing, white-collar offshoring/outsourcing has grown since the early 21st century. The digital workforce of countries like India and China are only paid a fraction of what would be minimum wage in the US. On average, software engineers are getting paid between 250,000 and 1,500,000 rupees in India as opposed to $40,000–$100,000 in countries such as the US and Canada. Closer to the USA, Costa Rica has become a big source for the advantages of a educated labor force, a large bilingual population, stable democratic government, similar time zones with the United States, it takes only a few hours to travel between Costa Rica and the US. Companies such as Intel, Procter & Gamble, HP, Gensler and Bank of America have big operations in Costa Rica. Unlike outsourced manufacturing, outsourced white collar workers can choose their working hours, for which companies to work. Clients benefit from telecommuting, reduce