Battle of Ravenna (1512)
The Battle of Ravenna, fought on 11 April 1512, by forces of the Holy League and Ferrara was a major battle of the War of the League of Cambrai in the Italian Wars. Although the French and the Ferrarese drove the Spanish-Papal army from the field, their victory failed to help them secure northern Italy, they would be forced to withdraw from the region by August 1512. Beginning in February 1512, the French forces in Italy, newly commanded by Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours, had been engaged in capturing cities in the Romagna and the Veneto, in an attempt to deny control of those regions to the forces of the Holy League. Although he had been successful in a number of sieges, Nemours was aware that the impending invasion of France by Henry VIII of England would cause much of his army to be withdrawn, he was determined to force the main army of the Holy League into battle before that occurred. Thus, in late March, together with an Italian contingent under Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, marched east from Bologna and laid siege to the city of Ravenna, defended by Papal troops.
Julius II, alarmed at the prospect of losing his last stronghold in the Romagna, demanded that an army be sent to relieve the city. By 9 April, they had passed Forlì, were advancing north along the Ronco River towards the city, on the next day had reached Molinaccio, only a mile south of the French positions, but still separated from them by the Ronco. Nemours, short on supplies and anxious to give battle before he was forced to withdraw from Italy, ordered a general attack for the following day; the strengths, relative positions, commanders of the component elements of both armies are unclear, different arrangements are given by historians. The French army formed up in an arc to the east of Cardona's fortified camp. Next to this cavalry was the bulk of the infantry. According to Charles Oman, it consisted of three separate units: 3,500 Gascon crossbowmen, 5,000 landsknechts under Jacob Empser, 3,000 Picards and Gascons under Thomas Bohier, the Seneschal of Normandy. Frederick Taylor groups the infantry into only two units: 9,500 landsknechts under Empser and 8,000 "Gascon archers and Picard pikemen" under the Seigneur de Molart.
The men-at-arms of the "main-battle", consisting of 780 men, was commanded by either Bohier alone, or by Bohier together with the Vicomte de Lautrec, Louis d'Ars, the Chevalier de Bayard. This cavalry occupied one of two positions: according to Oman and Thomas Arnold, it was placed in the arc to the left of the French infantry, while Taylor has it behind the cavalry of the "vaward", next to the river. Farther to the left of the French line—beyond the cavalry of the "main-battle", according to Arnold and Oman, or directly flanking the infantry, according to Taylor—was the "rearward" corps of the army, commanded by Yves d'Alégre, it consisted of about 4,000 Italian infantry under Frederigo de Bozzolo, flanked, on the extreme left, by about 2,000 light cavalry under Gian Bernardo Caracciolo. The arrangement of the Holy League army is a matter of dispute. At the north end of the camp, near the river, was the cavalry of the "vaward", consisting of about 670 Papal men-at-arms under Fabrizio Colonna.
Farther along the river were two more bodies of men-at-arms: the "main-battle", consisting of 565 men under the Marquis of La Palude, the rearguard, consisting of 490 men under Alfonso Carvajal. Taylor divides the Holy League infantry into four blocks: three divisions of Spanish infantry, each consisting of four colunellas of 500–600 men each, one formation of Papal infantry, numbering about 2,000, all under the general command of Pedro Navarro. Oman and Arnold place the infantry in three lines running along the length of the entrenchements. Beyond the infantry—to the far side of it from the river, according to Taylor, or at the end of its line, according to Oman and Arnold—was the light cavalry, consisting of 1,500–1,700 Spanish ginetes and Italian mounted arquebusiers under the command of Fernando d'Avalos, Marquis of Pescara. In his section on war wagons Arnold avers that the Spanish "had at least thirty carts mounting scythe blades, forward-projecting spears and organ guns; the advancing French troops halted about two hundred paces from the enemy lines.
The sporadic exchange of artillery fire, taking place since the French had begun to cross the Ronco now developed into a full-scale artillery duel between the two armies that lasted more than two hours. A new tactic, the open-field exchange of artillery fire was "the most violent cannonade between armies in the field that the world had yet seen", according to Taylor, "the first of its kind in the historical record", according to Bert Hall. De Foix placed the bulk of his artillery in front of the French right wing, directing its fire into the Holy League's camp. Navarro ordered his infantry to take cover—the troops hid in the trenches, or lay prone on the slopes of the river embankments—but Colonna's men-at-arms had no shelter available, began to take heavy casualties from the cannon fire; the S
Vittoria Colonna, marchioness of Pescara, was an Italian noblewoman and poet. As an educated, married noblewoman whose husband was in captivity, Colonna was able to develop relationships within the intellectual circles of Ischia and Naples, her early poetry began to attract attention in the late 1510s and she became one of the most popular female poets of sixteenth-century Italy. Upon the early death of her husband, she took refuge at a convent in Rome. Although she remained a laywoman, she did experience a strong spiritual renewal and remained devoutly religious for the remainder of her life. Colonna is known to have been a spiritual mentor to Michelangelo Buonarroti, himself a poet. Colonna was born at Marino in 1490, a fief of the Colonna family in the Alban Hills near Rome, she was the daughter of Fabrizio Colonna, grand constable of the kingdom of Naples, of Agnese da Montefeltro, daughter of the Duke of Urbino. She was engaged in 1495 at the age of 3 years old to "Ferrante" Fernando Francesco d'Ávalos, son of the marquese di Pescara, at the insistence of Ferdinand, King of Naples.
In 1501, the Colonna family's possessions and land were confiscated by Pope Alessandro VI, the Colonna family moved to Ischia, home of Colonna's betrothed. In Ischia, Colonna received a typical humanist education in literature and the arts from Costanza d'Avalos, the aunt of her betrothed and gave early proof of a love of letters, her hand was sought by many suitors, including the dukes of Savoy and Braganza, but at 17, of her own choice, she married d'Ávalos on the island of Ischia, on 27 December 1509. In Ischia, Vittoria Colonna became part of the literary circle of Costanza d'Avalos, Duchess of Francavilla, her husband's aunt; the couple resided together in Ischia until 1511, when her husband offered his sword to the League against the French. He was conveyed to France. During the months of detention and the long years of campaigning which followed, Colonna and d'Avalos corresponded in the most passionate terms both in prose and verse, but only one poetic'Epistle' to her husband has survived.
Joseph Gibaldi has noted that Vittoria's poem to Ferrante was a direct imitation of Ovid's Heroides, in which famous ancient women such as Dido and Medea address complaints to their absent lovers. Because this is the only extant poem by Vittoria Colonna before her husband's death, one may question whether her passionate verse reflected her true passion for her husband or were a stylish and scholarly reaction to a particular event, it is known that Ferrante was not the most faithful husband, having had an affair with one of Isabella d'Este's ladies in waiting. Between 1516 and 1522, Colonna lost three members of her family, her younger brother Federico, died in 1516, her father, Fabrizio in 1520 and her mother, Agnese in 1522. Colonna and d'Avalos saw each other during their marriage, for he was one of the most active and brilliant captains of Emperor Charles V. However, Colonna's influence was sufficient to keep her husband from joining the projected league against the emperor after the battle of Pavia, to make him refuse the crown of Naples offered to him as the price of his treason towards the French.
Colonna spent the summer of 1525 at her father's castle in Marino, where she fell ill, after which she suffered illness throughout her life. It was during this time that she received an early manuscript copy of Baldessare Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier, which she had circulated around Naples. On 21 September, Castiglione writes her a letter lamenting that she had thus enabled the unpublished work to be transcribed and this pirated version thus pushed Castiglione to hasten the publication of his book. On 3 December 1525, Fernando died at Milan from the wounds. Colonna, hastening to tend him, received the news of his death at Viterbo, her request to take her vows and enter the convent was refused by Pope Clement VII and her brother Ascanio, after which she returned to Ischia, where she remained for several years. Abigail Brundin has suggested Clement and Ascanio's motivations for refusing Colonna's request may have been that they hoped a future marriage would create another desirable political alliance.
However, she dedicated herself to writing poetry. The Sack of Rome in 1527 gave the Colonna family the opportunity to improve the relationship between them and the Medici pope Clement VII by offering help to the Roman population. However, when the French army attacked Naples, the whole house of Avalos took refuge on the island of Ischia. Nine months after the sack of the papal city, the historian Paolo Giovio arrived on Ischia after being invited by Colonna, where he stayed until 1528. During his stay on the island, he wrote his unpublished Dialogus de viris ac foeminis aetate nostra florentibus, set on Ischia between the end of September and the beginning of December 1527. In the third book of this dialogue, Giovio includes a ten-page encomium of Colonna. In 1529, Colonna returned to Rome, spent the next few years between that city, Orvieto and other places. Moreover, she tried to correct the wrongs of her late husband by asking the house of Avalos to return to the abbey of Montecassino some wrongfully seized land.
In 1535, her sister-in-law Giovanna d'Aragona separated from Colonna's brother Ascanio and came to Ischia. Colonna tried to reconcile them, but though Giovanna refused, the two women became close, they both supported Juan de Valdés and tried to intercede for Ascanio when he refused to pay salt tax to Pope Paul III. In 1537
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian diplomat, historian, humanist, writer and poet of the Renaissance period. He has been called the father of modern political science. For many years he was a senior official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs, he wrote comedies, carnival songs, poetry. His personal correspondence is renowned by Italian scholars, he was secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power. He wrote his best-known work The Prince in 1513. Machiavellianism is used as a negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described most famously in The Prince. Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and the killing of innocents, as being normal and effective in politics, he encouraged it in some situations. The book gained notoriety due to claims that it teaches "evil recommendations to tyrants to help them maintain their power".
The term Machiavellian is associated with political deceit and realpolitik. On the other hand, many commentators, such as Baruch Spinoza, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot, have argued that Machiavelli was a republican when writing The Prince, his writings were an inspiration to Enlightenment proponents of modern democratic political philosophy. In one place, for example, he noted his admiration for the selfless Roman dictator Cincinnatus. Machiavelli was born in Florence, the third child and first son of attorney Bernardo di Niccolò Machiavelli and his wife, Bartolomea di Stefano Nelli; the Machiavelli family is believed to be descended from the old marquesses of Tuscany and to have produced thirteen Florentine Gonfalonieres of Justice, one of the offices of a group of nine citizens selected by drawing lots every two months and who formed the government, or Signoria. Machiavelli married Marietta Corsini in 1502. Machiavelli was born in a tumultuous era in which popes waged acquisitive wars against Italian city-states, people and cities fell from power as France and the Holy Roman Empire battled for regional influence and control.
Political-military alliances continually changed, featuring condottieri, who changed sides without warning, the rise and fall of many short-lived governments. Machiavelli was taught grammar and Latin, it is thought that he did not learn Greek though Florence was at the time one of the centers of Greek scholarship in Europe. In 1494 Florence restored the republic, expelling the Medici family that had ruled Florence for some sixty years. Shortly after the execution of Savonarola, Machiavelli was appointed to an office of the second chancery, a medieval writing office that put Machiavelli in charge of the production of official Florentine government documents. Shortly thereafter, he was made the secretary of the Dieci di Libertà e Pace. In the first decade of the sixteenth century, he carried out several diplomatic missions: most notably to the Papacy in Rome. Moreover, from 1502 to 1503, he witnessed the brutal reality of the state-building methods of Cesare Borgia and his father, Pope Alexander VI, who were engaged in the process of trying to bring a large part of Central Italy under their possession.
The pretext of defending Church interests was used as a partial justification by the Borgias. Other excursions to the court of Louis XII and the Spanish court influenced his writings such as The Prince. Between 1503 and 1506, Machiavelli was responsible for the Florentine militia, he distrusted mercenaries and instead staffed his army with citizens, a policy, to be successful. Under his command, Florentine citizen-soldiers defeated Pisa in 1509. However, Machiavelli's success did not last. In August 1512 the Medici, backed by Pope Julius II, used Spanish troops to defeat the Florentines at Prato, but many historians have argued that it was due to Piero Soderini's unwillingness to compromise with the Medici, who were holding Prato under siege. In the wake of the siege, Soderini left in exile; the experience would, like Machiavelli's time in foreign courts and with the Borgia influence his political writings. After the Medici victory, the Florentine city-state and the republic were dissolved, Machiavelli was deprived of office in 1512.
In 1513 the Medici had him imprisoned. Despite having been subjected to torture, he was released after three weeks. Machiavelli retired to his estate at Sant'Andrea in Percussina, near San Casciano in Val di Pesa, devoted himself to studying and writing of the political treatises that earned his place in the intellectual development of political philosophy and political conduct. Despairing of the opportunity to remain directly involved in political matters, after a time, he began to participate in intellectual groups in Florence and wrote several plays that were both popular and known in his lifetime. Still, politics
Louis XII of France
Louis XII was King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, Maria of Cleves, he succeeded his cousin Charles VIII, who died without a closer heir in 1498. Louis was the eighth French king from the House of Valois, the first from the Orléans branch of that dynasty. Before his accession to the throne of France, he was known as Louis of Orléans and was compelled to be married to his disabled and sterile cousin Joan by his second cousin, King Louis XI. By doing so, Louis XI hoped to extinguish the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois. Louis of Orléans was one of the great feudal lords who opposed the French monarchy in the conflict known as the Mad War. At the royal victory in the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier in 1488, Louis was captured, but Charles VIII pardoned him and released him, he subsequently took part in the Italian War of 1494–1498 as one of the French commanders. When Louis XII became king in 1498, he had his marriage with Joan annulled by Pope Alexander VI and instead married Anne of Brittany, the widow of his cousin Charles VIII.
This marriage allowed Louis to reinforce the personal Union of France. Louis persevered in the Italian Wars, initiating a second Italian campaign for the control of the Kingdom of Naples. Louis conquered the Duchy of Milan in 1500 and pushed forward to the Kingdom of Naples, which fell to him in 1501. Proclaimed King of Naples, Louis faced a new coalition gathered by Ferdinand II of Aragon and was forced to cede Naples to Spain in 1504. Louis XII did not encroach on the power of local governments or the privileges of the nobility, in opposition with the long tradition of the French kings to attempt to impose absolute monarchy in France. A popular king, Louis was proclaimed "Father of the People" in 1506 by the Estates-General of Tours for his reduction of the tax known as taille, legal reforms, civil peace within France. Louis, who remained Duke of Milan after the second Italian War, was interested in further expansion in the Italian Peninsula and launched a third Italian War, marked by the military prowess of the Chevalier de Bayard.
Louis XII died in 1515 without a male heir. He was succeeded by his cousin and son-in-law Francis from the Angoulême cadet branch of the House of Valois. Louis d'Orléans was born on 27 June 1462 in the Château de Touraine; the son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, Marie of Cleves, he succeeded his father as Duke of Orléans in the year 1465. Louis XI, who had become king of France in 1461, became distrustful of the close relationship between the Orleanists and the Burgundians and began to oppose the idea of an Orleanist coming to the throne of France. However, Louis XI may have been more influenced in this opinion by his opposition to the entire Orleanist faction of the royal family than by the actual facts of this paternity case. Despite any alleged doubts that King Louis XI may have had, the King became "godfather" of the newborn. King Louis XI died on 30 August 1483, he was succeeded to the throne of France by his thirteen year-old son, Charles VIII. Nobody knew the direction. Accordingly, on 24 October 1483, a call went out for a convocation of the Estates General of the French kingdom.
In January 1484, deputies of the Estates General began to arrive in France. The deputies represented three different "estates" in society; the First Estate was the Church. The Second Estate was composed of the royalty of France; the Third Estate was composed of commoners and the class of traders and merchants in France. Louis, the current Duke of Orleans and future Louis XII, attended as part of the Second Estate; each estate brought their chief complaints to the Estates General in hopes to have some impact on the policies that the new King would pursue. The First Estate wanted a return to the "Pragmatic Sanction"; the Pragmatic Sanction had been first instituted by King Charles VII, the current King Charles VIII's grandfather. The Pragmatic Sanction eliminated the papacy from the process of appointing bishops and abbots in France. Instead, these positions would be filled by appointment made by the cathedrals and monastery chapters themselves. All church prelates within France would be appointed by the King of France without reference to the pope.
The deputies representing the Second Estate at the Estates General of 1484 wanted all foreigners to be prohibited from command positions in the military. The deputies of the Third Estate wanted taxes to be drastically reduced and that the revenue needs of the crown be met by reducing royal pensions and the number offices. All three of the estates were in agreement on the demand for an end to the sale of government offices. By 7 March 1484, the King announced. Five days the deputies were told that there was no more money to pay their salaries, the Estates General meekly concluded its business and went home; the Estates General of 1484 is called, by historians, the most important Estates General until the Estates General of 1789. Important as they were, many of the reforms suggested at the meeting of the Estates General were not adopted. Rather the reforms would only be acted on. Since Charles VIII was only thirteen years of age when he became king, his older sister Anne was to serve as regent until Charles VIII became 20 years old.
From 1485 through 1488, there
Tagliacozzo is a town and comune in the province of L'Aquila, central Italy. Tagliacozzo lies in an area inhabited in early historic times by the Aequi and the Marsi, although the first mentions of the town dates from the 11th century AD, it was a possession on the Orsini, who established a mint here. They were succeeded by the Colonna, who held the Duchy of Tagliacozzo until 1806. Near the modern city was fought the Battle of Tagliacozzo between Conradin of Hohenstaufen and Charles I of Anjou; the Palazzo Ducale, built by Roberto Orsini. The Convent of St. Francis, housing the tomb of Tommaso da Celano. Museo Orientale, with collections of Egyptian and Eastern findings. 13th century fountain in Piazza dell ` a national monument. Sanctuary of Maria Santissima dell'Oriente, on a hill 3 kilometres from town, it is cited as early as the 14th century. Andrea Argoli Page on Tagliacozzo in the Borghi più belli d'Italia website Images of Tagliacozzo
War of the League of Cambrai
The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names, was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. The main participants of the war, fought from 1508 to 1516, were France, the Papal States and the Republic of Venice. Pope Julius II, intending to curb Venetian influence in northern Italy, had created the League of Cambrai, an anti-Venetian alliance consisting of himself, Louis XII of France, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Maximilian I, the Holy Roman Emperor. Although the League was successful, friction between Julius and Louis caused it to collapse by 1510; the Veneto–Papal alliance expanded into the Holy League, which drove the French from Italy in 1512. Under the leadership of Francis I, who had succeeded Louis to the throne, the French and Venetians would, through victory at Marignano in 1515, regain the territory they had lost. In the aftermath of the First Italian War, Pope Alexander VI had, with French assistance, moved to consolidate Papal control over central Italy by seizing the Romagna.
Cesare Borgia, acting as Gonfalonier of the Papal armies, had expelled the Bentivoglio family from Bologna, which they had ruled as a fief, was well on his way towards establishing a permanent Borgia state in the region when Alexander died on 18 August 1503. Although Cesare managed to seize the remnants of the Papal treasury for his own use, he was unable to secure Rome itself, as French and Spanish armies converged on the city in an attempt to influence the Papal conclave. Sensing Cesare's weakness, the dispossessed lords of the Romagna offered to submit to the Republic of Venice in exchange for aid in regaining their dominions. Julius II, having secured his own control of the Papal armies by arresting and imprisoning Cesare, first in Rome and in Madrid moved to re-establish Papal control over the Romagna by demanding that Venice return the cities she had seized; the Republic of Venice, although willing to acknowledge Papal sovereignty over these port cities along the Adriatic coast and willing to pay Julius II an annual tribute, refused to surrender the cities themselves.
In response, Julius concluded an alliance with the Holy Roman Empire against Venice. Julius, although unsatisfied with his gains, did not himself possess sufficient forces to fight the Republic. In 1507, Julius returned to the question of the cities in Venetian hands. Maximilian, using his journey to Rome for the Imperial coronation as a pretext, entered Venetian territory with a large army in February 1508 and advanced on Vicenza, but was defeated by a Venetian army under Bartolomeo d'Alviano. A second assault by a Tyrolean force several weeks was an greater failure. Julius, humiliated by the failure of the Imperial invasion, turned to Louis XII of France with an offer of alliance. In mid-March, the Republic provided a pretext for an attack on itself by appointing her own candidate to the vacant bishopric of Vicenza. On 10 December 1508, representatives of the Papacy, the Holy Roman Empire and Ferdinand I of Spain concluded the League of Cambrai against the Republic; the agreement provided for the complete dismemberment of Venice's territory in Italy and for its partition among the signatories: Maximilian, in addition to regaining Istria, would receive Verona, Vicenza and the Friuli.
On 15 April 1509, Louis left Milan at the head of a French army and moved into Venetian territory. To oppose him, Venice had hired a condottiere army under the command of the Orsini cousins – Bartolomeo d'Alviano and Niccolò di Pitigliano – but had failed to account for their disagreement on how best to stop the French advance; when Louis crossed the Adda River in early May and Alviano advanced to meet him, believing it best to avoid a pitched battle, moved away to the south. On 14 May, Alviano confronted the French at the Battle of Agnadello.
Battle of Cerignola
The Battle of Cerignola was fought on April 28, 1503, between Spanish and French armies, in Cerignola, near Bari in Southern Italy. Spanish forces, under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, formed by 6,300 men, including 2,000 landsknechte, with more than 1,000 arquebusiers, 20 cannons, defeated the French who had 9,000 men, it was one of the first European battles won by gunpowder weapons, as the assault by Swiss pikemen and French cavalry was shattered by the fire of Spanish arquebusiers behind a ditch. Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, called "El Gran Capitán", had many strategic advantages.. He formed his infantry into new units called "Coronelías," that were the seed of the Tercios, they were armed with a mix of pikes and swords. This type of formation had revolutionized the Spanish army, which like the French, had centred upon cavalry from the tenth to the fifteenth centuries, in the battles of the Reconquista against the Muslims in Spain; the Spanish troops had occupied the heights of Cerignola, de Córdoba entrenched his soldiers with walls and stakes.
In front of the hillside, a trench was dug in. The Spanish artillery was placed on top of the hill among the vineyards, having a good view of the entire battlefield; the jinetes, Spanish light cavalry, were placed in front of the rest of the army, while the Spanish heavy cavalry under Prospero Colonna were kept in reserve. De Córdoba's troops faced a professional French army based on the Ordonnance reforms, relying on the armoured cavalry of the Compagnies d'ordonnance and mercenary Swiss pikemen, but this army had more artillery than the Spanish had; this paradox would be constant in the French armies through the first half of the sixteenth century. The French artillery would not arrive in time to take active part in the battle, however.. The battle began with two charges by the French heavy cavalry against the centre of the Spanish army, but these were both dispersed by Spanish heavy artillery and arquebus fire; the next assault tried to force the right flank, but many of the French cavalrymen fell into the Spanish trench and the attack was broken by a storm of fire from the Spanish arquebusiers.
One of those killed by the arquebus volley was the French commander Duke of Nemours, making him the first general killed in action by small arms fire.. With the Swiss commander, taking charge, the Swiss infantry attacked with the cavalry instead of waiting for the arrival of the French rear guard under d'Alègre. At the imminent assault upon the Spanish center the Spanish arquebusiers were withdrawn and the Landsknechts sent forward; the Swiss formations, soon joined by the Gascons, were unable to break into the defensive positions. Shot into the flank by the arquebusiers and harassed by the Spanish cavalry, the Swiss and French were driven back, taking heavy casualties including Chandieu. De Córdoba called for a counterattack against the now disorganized enemy by both the Spanish infantry and the heavy Spanish cavalry waiting in reserve. Mounted arquebusiers surrounded and routed the remaining French gendarmes, but the Swiss pikeman managed to retreat in a organized fashion. Upon witnessing the defeat of both the gendarmes and the pikemen, Yves d'Alègre, the commander of the French rear guard, called for a withdrawal.
He was pursued by the victorious Spanish jinetes."..what happened in the battle of Chirinola. The battle resulted in a heavy French defeat with the French reported to have lost around 4,000 men killed, Spanish losses amounting to some 500 men; the French supplies, wagon train and all of the French artillery still in it fell into the hands of the victorious Spanish troops. The end of the battle saw the first time a "call to prayer" was issued, a practice, adopted by most Western armies, when the Great Captain, upon seeing the fields full of French bodies, ordered three long tones to be played and his troops to pray for all the fallen. After the battle the defeated French army retreated to the fortress of Gaeta north of Naples. De Córdoba's forces attempted to storm the fortress; the besieged French were receiving supplies by sea. Thus unable to take Gaeta and fearing the arrival of possible French reinforcements, De Córdoba lifted the siege and retreated to Castellone, some 8 kilometers south of Gaeta.
In retrospect, Cerignola marks the beginning of a near invincible Spanish dominance on European battlefields until the defeat of Rocroi in 1643 and marked the rise of pike and shot tactics. It is considered to be the first major battle won through the use of firearms, comparable to what was to occur in Japan seven decades in the Battle of Nagashino in 1575. Batista González, Juan. España Estratégica. Guerra y Diplomacia en la Historia de España. Sílex. ISBN 978-84-7737-183-0 Cassidy, Ben. "Machiavelli and the Ideology of the Offensive: Gunpowder Weapons in the Art of War." Journal of Military History 67#2: 381-404. Online Losada, Juan Carlos. Batallas Decisivas de la Historia de España. Punto de Lectura. ISBN 978-84-663-1484-8 Mallet and Shaw, Christine; the Italian Wars 1494-1559. Harlow: Pearson Educated Limited ISBN 978-0-582-05758-6. Tafiłowski, Piotr