Valladolid is a city in Spain and the de facto capital of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It has a population of 309,714 people, making it Spain's 13th most populous municipality and northwestern Spain's biggest city, its metropolitan area ranks 20th in Spain with a population of 414,244 people in 23 municipalities. The city is situated at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers 15 km before they join the Duero, located within five winegrowing regions: Ribera del Duero, Toro, Tierra de León, Cigales. Valladolid was settled in pre-Roman times by the Celtic Vaccaei people, the Romans themselves, it remained a small settlement until being re-established by King Alfonso VI of Castile as a Lordship for the Count Pedro Ansúrez in 1072. It grew to prominence in the Middle Ages as the seat of the Court of Castile and being endowed with fairs and different institutions as a collegiate church, Royal Court and Chancery and the Royal Mint; the Catholic Monarchs, Isabel I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, married in Valladolid in 1469 and established it as the capital of the Kingdom of Castile and of united Spain.
Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid in 1506, while authors Francisco de Quevedo and Miguel de Cervantes lived and worked in the city. The city was the capital of Habsburg Spain under Phillip III between 1601 and 1606, before returning indefinitely to Madrid; the city declined until the arrival of the railway in the 19th century, with its industrialisation into the 20th century. The Old Town is made up of a variety of historic houses, churches, plazas and parks, includes the National Museum of Sculpture, the Museum of Contemporary Art Patio Herreriano or the Oriental Museum, as well as the houses of José Zorrilla and Cervantes which are open as museums. Among the events that are held each year in the city there is Holy Week, Valladolid International Film Week, the Theatre Festival and street arts. There is no direct evidence for the origin of the modern name of Valladolid. One held etymological theory suggests that the modern name Valladolid derives from the Celtiberian language expression Vallis Tolitum, meaning "valley of waters", referring to the confluence of rivers in the area.
Another theory suggests that the name derives from the Arabic expression Balad al-Walid بلد الوليد, which means "city of al-Walid", referring to Al-Walid I. Yet a third claims that it derives from Vallis Olivetum, meaning "valley of the olives". Instead, in the south part of the city exist an innumerable amount of pine trees; the gastronomy reflect the importance of the piñon as a local product, not olives. In texts from the middle ages the town is called Vallisoletum, meaning "sunny valley", a person from the town is a Vallisoletano, o Vallisoletana; the city is popularly called Pucela, a nickname whose origin is not clear, but may refer to knights in the service of Joan of Arc, known as La Pucelle. Another theory is that Pucela comes from the fact that Pozzolana cement was sold there, the only city in Spain that sold it; the Vaccaei were a Celtic tribe, the first people with stable presence on the sector of the middle valley of the River Duero documented in historical times. Remains of Celtiberian and of a Roman camp have been excavated near the city.
The nucleus of the city was located in the area of the current San Miguel y el Rosarillo square, was surrounded by a palisade. Archaeological proofs of the existence of three ancient lines of walls have been found. During the time of Muslim rule in Spain the Christian kings moved the population of this region north into more defended areas, deliberately created a no man's land as a buffer zone against further Moorish conquests; the area was captured from the Moors in the 10th century, Valladolid was a village until King Alfonso VI of León and Castile donated it to Count Pedro Ansúrez in 1072. He built a palace for himself and his wife, Countess Eylo, the Collegiate of St. Mary and the La Antigua churches. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Valladolid grew thanks to the commercial privileges granted by the kings Alfonso VIII and Alfonso X, as well as to the repopulation of the area after the Reconquista. In 1469 Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand of Aragon were married in the city. In 1506 Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid "still convinced that he had reached the Indies" in a house, now a Museum dedicated to him.
It was made the capital of the kingdom again between 1601 and 1606 by Philip III. The city was again damaged by a flood of the rivers Esgueva. Despite the damage to the old city by the 1960s economic boom, it still boasts a few architectural manifestations of its former glory; some monuments include the unfinished cathedral, the Plaza Mayor, the model for that of Madrid, of other main squares throughout the former Spanish Empire, the National Sculpture Museum, next to the church of Saint Paul, which includes Spain's greatest collections of polychrome wood sculptures, the Faculty of Law of the University of Valladolid, whose façade is one of the few surviving works by Narciso Tomei, the same artist who did the transparente in Toledo Cathedral. The Science Museum is next to the river Pisuerga; the only surviving house of Miguel de Cervantes is located in Valladolid. Although unfinished, the Cathedral of Valladolid was designed by Juan de Herrera, architect of El Escorial. At an elevation of 735 metres or 2,411 feet, the city of Valladolid experiences a hot-summer Medi
Campaspero is a Spanish town in province of Valladolid, next to the borders with the province of Segovia. It is the highest municipality of the province of Valladolid, at more than 900 m over sea level, it belongs to the historical region of Castile Old Castile. There are several theories about the origin of Campaspero's name, a leading one being from the Spanish phrase "Rough Field," which describes the rocky terrain of the area. If it is like most of the villages of the Communidad de Villa y Tierra de Cuéllar, Campaspero was founded at the beginning of the 11th century, during the period of repopulation of the Valley of the Douro; this repopulation was directed by Don Pedro Ansúrez of Valladolid. From the earliest records until 1833, the Campaspero belonged to the province of Segovia, it was linked to the province of Valladolid because of the proximity to the Comunidad de Villa y Tierra de Peñafiel. In 1833, Campaspero was made a part of Valladolid province. Nowadays, Campaspero is the only town in Valladolid's province belonging to the Churrería, a region integrated by Segovian localities, with the sole exception of Campaspero.
The parochial church of Guzmán's Santo Domingo is built on stone of its famous quarries. This building dates back to the 18th century, when it was decided to raise this temple due to the condition of ruin of the previous one, missing today; the church has a simple structure, keeps within some carvings of notable interest, as that of the Ascension, made by Pedro Berrugete, a sculptor from the neighbour town of Peñafiel, in the second half of the 18th century. The images of Santo Domingo of Guzmán and San Buenaventura were carved in the same century, they share the major altarpiece with that of the Ascension. They share the Baroque style, were carved in wood for Pedro Ventosa, an artist from Sepúlveda. On the left of the presbytery stands out a sculpture of Christ Crucificado, built in the endings of the 16th century, it was carved in Cuéllar by Roque Muñoz. In the side of the Epistle an altarpiece of dressing shows an image of the Virgin of the Rosario. Campaspero sits on a seam of stone 30 meters thick, which the townspeople have used since they settled there.
The stone of its quarries has long been an important source of work for the village. Many buildings of the province were built with Campaspero's stone the stones were carved locally; the craftsmen of the town still make fronts, shields and chimneys. As time goes by, the home-made work has given way to technology and industrial processes though, there still remain some craftsmen in the purest sense of the word, they work with their hands and simple tools that help them to make those pantheons and fountains. The stone-cutters of Campaspero have not forgotten their old skills and they work hard when they are entrusted with any special order, as shields or restoration of ancient works of art. In spite of the fact that the "Rough Field" is not ideal for farming for the water shortage of this high and stony land, the tenacity of its inhabitants has managed to extract the scanty wealth of the soil, it has been enough for the sustenance of a good number of neighbors. The predominant animal husbandry is the wool one, whose "lechazos" have determined to a great extent Campaspero's gastronomy, where there can be tasted two of the tastiest specialities of lamb: the typical roast lechazo and the grill of chops.
The town boasts the F. Soria candy factory, known for its puff-pastries, tea pastries, "lenguas de gato", their specialities include Christmas sweets such as marzipan and "amarguillos." The first celebration of the year to be held in Campaspero is Carnival, in which the "Quintos" are the main characters. While the "dulzainas" sound, the young lads ask for money in the village's streets; the most important day is Tuesday. The "Quintos" have chosen this day to celebrate the traditional cock races; the next celebration to be held is "Pentecostés". It takes place a Sunday at the end of may, the people of the village make a procession with the "Virgen del Amor Hermoso", the centre of the celebration; the children of the village take part in sports competitions. The Patron of Campaspero is Santo Domingo of Guzmán, the saint's day is August 8. After an important mass and a dance's procession, a soft drink is served by the council in the Main Square; the program is completed with running of bulls across the streets of Campaspero.
Official page of Campaspero
University of Valladolid
The University of Valladolid is a public university in the city of Valladolid, province of Valladolid, in the autonomous region of Castile and Leon, Spain. Established in the 13th century, it is one of the oldest universities in the world; the university has more than 2,000 teachers. The University of Valladolid is a Spanish public university founded in 1241 as removal of studies at the University of Palencia, founded by Alfonso VIII of Castile, between 1208 and 1212, it is responsible for teaching higher education in seven campuses distributed through four cities of Castile and Leon: Valladolid, Palencia and Segovia. The first building of the university, notable for its architecture is the one constructed at the end of the 15th century, after the move of the institution from the Colegiata, it consists of a four sided cloister, which opens up the hallways, a late Gothic chapel. At the cloister one enters through a portal late Gothic, that opens to the Bookshop Street. At the beginning of the 18th century, this became insufficient, prompting an enlargement consisting of a quadrangular cloister with four galleries that open to hallways built at the same time.
From the Plaza de Santa María, one can see the Baroque facade designed by the Carmelite Fray Pedro de la Visitación and constructed in 1715. There are sculptural groups that represent allegories of the subjects that are taught in the building; the central section, organized into four columns of giants, is finished off by a giant ornamental comb. In 1909, with great controversy, it was decided to destroy the old building, including the entrance hall from the 15th century that opened to Bookshop Street, in order to construct a new building following a design by the architect Teodosio Torres; the Baroque facade was kept. Torres's design featured two cloisters. A staircase was situated between a great vestibule opened to Bookshop Street; the facade of the university building to this street was based on a reinterpretation of the Baroque facade of Fray Pedro, with a mixture of Plateresque and Neoclassical decorative elements. At one side of the facade was an observation tower and on the other was a new clock tower that filled the corner between the University Sq. and Bookshop St.
The project experienced problems. In 1939, the building suffered a fire. To alleviate the problem of the facade's integration into Torres's building, Constantino Candeira designed a great staircase and vestibule, in the historicist style, accessed through the Baroque facade; the staircase is an example of the historicist architecture of Postwar Spain. In 1968 the building was finished with the destruction of the second cloister and the construction of a five-floor building to house students, the destruction of Torres's building, built for far fewer students. In this same reform, the observation tower and the great auditorium of 1909; the facade that faces Librería was remodeled. The new auditorium flanks the facade of Fray Pedro on one of its sides; the computer science department has hosted programming contests for the Association for Computing Machinery using online judging of the submitted programs. Within the university there are cultural associations for theatre; the youth symphonic orchestra: the Joven Orquesta de la Universidad de Valladolid is run by students of the university, headquartered in the Residencia Universitaria Alfonso VIII of Valladolid.
Since its founding in 1998 Francisco Lara Tejero has been the artistic musical director. The choir, the Coro de la Universidad de Valladolid, is directed by Marcos Castán and the Early Music Group El Parnasso; the theatre group is Gente de Teatro de la Uva, founded in 1984 with the name of People's Theatre of the Faculty of Medicine, that from 1998 became the official theater group of the university. Its director is Carlos Burguillo. Through the Area of Extension and Culture, the university presents cultural programs throughout the year, with special emphasis on the UniversiJazz Festival and Santa Cruz. Valladolid University supports cultural initiatives such as those developed by the Hermandad Universitaria del Santo Cristo de la Luz, which includes Christmas and Auto Passion, it assists in the concerts that are organized through each Vice President for University Association and with public and private partnerships. The university library has 14 library services: they are located in Palencia and Segovia provinces, the rest are situated in Valladolid, each of them have a director.
All the services are coordinated by Central Services. The book collection is available through the Almena UVaDoc repository; the collection has 970,000 books. Periodicals: 16,000 titles, E-journals: 21,000 titles, E-books: 900, Data bases: 66. Theses and Masters projects: 33,000. Library Services: Website, reading room and intercampus loan, computers, e-books, bibliographic information, user education online through Moodle, subject guides, tutorials; the library is a member of OCLC, Europe Direct, REBIUN, Catálogo 17, ABBA, Documat, REDINED y BUCLE. List of oldest universities in continuous operation List of medieval universities Official website International Relations Office Technical High School of Computer Engineer Web of the University Young Orchestra of Valladolid Choir of the Uni
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
A baluster—also called spindle—is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood, sometimes of metal or plastic, standing on a unifying footing, supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase. Multiplied in this way, they form a balustrade. Individually, a baluster shaft may describe the turned form taken by a brass or silver candlestick, an upright furniture support, or the stem of a brass chandelier, etc. According to OED, "baluster" is derived through the French: balustre, from Italian: balaustro, from balaustra, "pomegranate flower", from Latin balaustium, from Greek βαλαύστιον; the earliest examples are those shown in the bas-reliefs representing the Assyrian palaces, where they were employed as window balustrades and had Ionic capitals. As an architectural element the balustrade did not seem to have been known to either the Greeks or the Romans, but baluster forms are familiar in the legs of chairs and tables represented in Roman bas-reliefs, where the original legs or the models for cast bronze ones were shaped on the lathe, or in Antique marble candelabra, formed as a series of stacked bulbous and disc-shaped elements, both kinds of sources familiar to Quattrocento designers.
The application to architecture was a feature of the early Renaissance: late fifteenth-century examples are found in the balconies of palaces at Venice and Verona. These quattrocento balustrades are to be following yet-unidentified Gothic precedents, they form balustrades of colonnettes as an alternative to miniature arcading. Rudolf Wittkower withheld judgement as to the inventor of the baluster and credited Giuliano da Sangallo with using it as early as the balustrade on the terrace and stairs at the Medici villa at Poggio a Caiano, used balustrades in his reconstructions of antique structures. Sangallo passed the motif to Bramante and Michelangelo, through whom balustrades gained wide currency in the 16th century. Wittkower distinguished two types, one symmetrical in profile that inverted one bulbous vase-shape over another, separating them with a cushionlike torus or a concave ring, the other a simple vase shape, whose employment by Michelangelo at the Campidoglio steps, noted by Wittkower, was preceded by early vasiform balusters in a balustrade round the drum of Santa Maria delle Grazie, railings in the cathedrals of Aquileia and Parma, in the cortile of San Damaso and Antonio da Sangallo's crowning balustrade on the Santa Casa at Loreto installed in 1535, liberally in his model for the Basilica of Saint Peter.
Because of its low center of gravity, this "vase-baluster" may be given the modern term "dropped baluster". The baluster, being a turned structure, tends to follow design precedents that were set in woodworking and ceramic practices, where the turner's lathe and the potter's wheel are ancient tools; the profile a baluster takes is diagnostic of a particular style of architecture or furniture, may offer a rough guide to date of a design, though not of a particular example. Some complicated Mannerist baluster forms can be read as a vase set upon another vase; the high shoulders and bold, rhythmic shapes of the Baroque vase and baluster forms are distinctly different from the sober baluster forms of Neoclassicism, which look to other precedents, like Greek amphoras. The distinctive twist-turned designs of balusters in oak and walnut English and Dutch seventeenth-century furniture, which took as their prototype the Solomonic column, given prominence by Bernini, fell out of style after the 1710s.
Once it had been taken from the lathe, a turned wood baluster could be split and applied to an architectural surface, or to one in which architectonic themes were more treated, as on cabinets made in Italy and Northern Europe from the sixteenth through the seventeenth centuries. Modern baluster design is in use for example in designs influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement in a 1905 row of houses in Etchingham Park Road Finchley London England. Outside Europe, the baluster column appeared as a new motif in Mughal architecture, introduced in Shah Jahan's interventions in two of the three great fortress-palaces, the Red Fort of Agra and Delhi, in the early seventeenth century. Foliate baluster columns with naturalistic foliate capitals, unexampled in previous Indo-Islamic architecture according to Ebba Koch became one of the most used forms of supporting shaft in Northern and Central India in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; the modern term baluster shaft is applied to the shaft dividing a window in Saxon architecture.
In the south transept of the Abbey in St Albans, are some of these shafts, supposed to have been taken from the old Saxon church. Norman bases and capitals have been added, together with plain cylindrical Norman shafts. Balusters are separated by at least the same measurement as the size of the square bottom section. Placing balusters too far apart diminishes their aesthetic appeal. Balustrades terminate in columns, building walls or more properly in heavy newel posts because otherwise they will not be structurally strong enough. Balusters may be formed in several ways. Wood and stone can be shaped on the lathe, wood can be cut from square or rectangular section boards, while concrete, plaster and plastics are formed by molding and casting. Turned patterns or old examples are used for the molds. Cast iron Cast stone Hardwoods and softwoods Plaster Polymer stone Polyurethane/polystyrene Wrought iron Vinyl The word banister
Philip II of Spain
Philip II was King of Spain, King of Portugal, King of Naples and Sicily, jure uxoris King of England and Ireland. He was Duke of Milan. From 1555 he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands; the son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" in Spain. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its power; this is sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age. The expression "the empire on which the sun never sets" was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his dominion. During Philip's reign there were separate state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, 1596; this was the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581. On 31 December 1584 Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, with Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf of the Catholic League. A devout Catholic, Philip saw himself as the defender of Catholic Europe against the Ottoman Empire and the Protestant Reformation.
He sent a large armada to invade Protestant England in 1588, with the strategic aim of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and the establishment of Protestantism in England. He hoped to stop both English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering. Philip was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, pink skin, but his overall appearance is attractive"; the Ambassador went on to say "He dresses tastefully, everything that he does is courteous and gracious." Besides Mary I, Philip was married three other times and widowed four times. The son of Charles I and V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor and his wife, Isabella of Portugal, Philip was born in the Spanish capital of Valladolid on 21 May 1527 at Palacio de Pimentel, owned by Don Bernardino Pimentel; the culture and courtly life of Spain were an important influence in his early life.
He was tutored by the future Archbishop of Toledo. Philip displayed reasonable aptitude in letters alike, he would study with more illustrious tutors, including the humanist Juan Cristóbal Calvete de Estrella. Though Philip had good command over Latin and Portuguese, he never managed to equal his father, Charles V, as a polyglot. While Philip was a German archduke of the House of Habsburg, he was seen as a foreigner in the Holy Roman Empire; the feeling was mutual. Philip felt himself to be culturally Spanish; this would impede his succession to the imperial throne. In April 1528, when Philip was eleven months old, he received the oath of allegiance as heir to the crown from the Cortes of Castile. From that time until the death of his mother Isabella in 1539, he was raised in the royal court of Castile under the care of his mother and one of her Portuguese ladies, Dona Leonor de Mascarenhas, to whom he was devotedly attached. Philip was close to his two sisters, María and Juana, to his two pages, the Portuguese nobleman Rui Gomes da Silva and Luis de Requesens, the son of his governor Juan de Zúñiga.
These men would serve Philip throughout their lives, as would Antonio Pérez, his secretary from 1541. Philip's martial training was undertaken by his governor, Juan de Zúñiga, a Castilian nobleman who served as the commendador mayor of Castile; the practical lessons in warfare were overseen by the Duke of Alba during the Italian Wars. Philip was present at the Siege of Perpignan in 1542 but did not see action as the Spanish army under Alba decisively defeated the besieging French forces under the Dauphin of France. On his way back to Castile, Philip received the oath of allegiance of the Aragonese Cortes at Monzón, his political training had begun a year under his father, who had found his son studious and prudent beyond his years, having decided to train and initiate him in the government of Spain. The king-emperor's interactions with his son during his stay in Spain convinced him of Philip's precocity in statesmanship, so he determined to leave in his hands the regency of Spain in 1543. Philip, made the Duke of Milan in 1540, began governing the most extensive empire in the world at the young age of sixteen.
Charles left Philip with experienced advisors—notably the secretary Francisco de los Cobos and the general Duke of Alba. Philip was left with extensive written instructions that emphasised "piety, patience and distrust." These principles of Charles were assimilated by his son, who would grow up to become grave, self-possessed and cautious. Philip spoke and had an icy self-mastery. After living in the Netherlands in the early years of his reign, Philip II decided to return to Spain. Although sometimes described as an absolute monarch, Philip faced many constitutional constraints on his authority, influenced by the growing strength of the bureaucracy; the Spanish Empire was not a single monarchy with one legal system but a federation of separate r
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric order, the earliest, followed by the Ionic order; when classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order. The Corinthian, with its offshoot the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders; this architectural style is characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls. There are many variations; the name Corinthian is derived from the ancient Greek city of Corinth, although the style had its own model in Roman practice, following precedents set by the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus. It was employed in southern Gaul at the Maison Carrée, Nîmes and at the comparable podium temple at Vienne. Other prime examples noted by Mark Wilson Jones are the lower order of the Basilica Ulpia and the arch at Ancona the "column of Phocas", the "Temple of Bacchus" at Baalbek.
The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, to which it was connected in the period. However, according to the architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket, its earliest use can be traced back to the Late Classical Period. The earliest Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. Proportion is a defining characteristic of the Corinthian order: the "coherent integration of dimensions and ratios in accordance with the principles of symmetria" are noted by Mark Wilson Jones, who finds that the ratio of total column height to column-shaft height is in a 6:5 ratio, so that, the full height of column with capital is a multiple of 6 Roman feet while the column height itself is a multiple of 5. In its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column, though it is more slender, stands apart by its distinctive carved capital; the abacus upon the capital has concave sides to conform to the outscrolling corners of the capital, it may have a rosette at the center of each side.
Corinthian columns were erected on the top level of the Roman Colosseum, holding up the least weight, having the slenderest ratio of thickness to height. Their height to width ratio is about 10:1. One variant is the Tivoli Order, found at the Temple of Tivoli; the Tivoli Order's Corintinan Capital has two rows of Acanthus and its abacus is decorated with oversize fleuron in the form of hibiscus flowers with pronounced spiral pistils. The column flutes have flat tops; the frieze exhibits fruit swag suspended between bucrania. Above each swag is a rosette; the cornice does not have modillions. Indo-Corinthian capitals are capitals crowning columns or pilasters, which can be found in the northwestern Indian subcontinent, combine Hellenistic and Indian elements; these capitals are dated to the 1st centuries of our era, constitute important elements of Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara. The classical design was adapted taking a more elongated form, sometimes being combined with scrolls within the context of Buddhist stupas and temples.
Indo-Corinthian capitals incorporated figures of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas as central figures surrounded, in the shade, of the luxurious foliage of Corinthian designs. During the first flush of the Italian Renaissance, the Florentine architectural theorist Francesco di Giorgio expressed the human analogies that writers who followed Vitruvius associated with the human form, in squared drawings he made of the Corinthian capital overlaid with human heads, to show the proportions common to both; the Corinthian architrave is divided in two or three sections, which may be equal, or may bear interesting proportional relationships, to one with another. Above the plain, unadorned architrave lies the frieze, which may be richly carved with a continuous design or left plain, as at the U. S. Capitol extension. At the Capitol the proportions of architrave to frieze are 1:1. Above that, the profiles of the cornice moldings are like those of the Ionic order. If the cornice is deep, it may be supported by brackets or modillions, which are ornamental brackets used in a series under a cornice.
The Corinthian column is always fluted, the flutes of a Corinthian column may be enriched. They may be filleted, with rods nestled within the hollow flutes, or stop-fluted, with the rods rising a third of the way, to where the entasis begins. In French, these are called chandelles and sometimes terminate in carved wisps of flame, or with bellflowers. Alternatively, beading or chains of husks may take the place of the fillets in the fluting, Corinthian being the most flexible of the orders, with more opportunities for variation. Elaborating upon an offhand remark when Vitruvius accounted for the origin of its acanthus capital, it became a commonplace to identify the Corinthian column with the slender figure of a young girl. Sir William Chambers expressed the conventional comparison with the Doric order: The proportions of the orders were by the ancients formed on those of the human body, it could n