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Face

The face is the front of an animal's head that features three of the head's sense organs, the eyes and mouth, through which animals express many of their emotions. The face is crucial for human identity, damage such as scarring or developmental deformities affects the psyche adversely; the front of the human head is called the face. It includes several distinct areas, of which the main features are: The forehead, comprising the skin beneath the hairline, bordered laterally by the temples and inferiorly by eyebrows and ears The eyes, sitting in the orbit and protected by eyelids and eyelashes The distinctive human nose shape and nasal septum The cheeks, covering the maxilla and mandibula, the extremity of, the chin The mouth, with the upper lip divided by the philtrum, sometimes revealing the teethFacial appearance is vital for human recognition and communication. Facial muscles in humans allow expression of emotions; the face is itself a sensitive region of the human body and its expression may change when the brain is stimulated by any of the many human senses, such as touch, smell, hearing, hunger, or visual stimuli.

The face is the feature. Specialized regions of the human brain, such as the fusiform face area, enable facial recognition; the pattern of specific organs, such as the eyes, or of parts of them, is used in biometric identification to uniquely identify individuals. The shape of the face is influenced by the bone-structure of the skull, each face is unique through the anatomical variation present in the bones of the viscerocranium; the bones involved in shaping the face are the maxilla, nasal bone and zygomatic bone. Important are various soft tissues, such as fat and skin; the face changes over time, features common in children or babies, such as prominent buccal fat-pads disappear over time, their role in the infant being to stabilize the cheeks during suckling. While the buccal fat-pads diminish in size, the prominence of bones increase with age as they grow and develop. Facial shape is an important determinant of beauty facial symmetry. Faces are essential to expressing consciously or unconsciously.

A frown denotes disapproval. Being able to read emotion in another's face is "the fundamental basis for empathy and the ability to interpret a person’s reactions and predict the probability of ensuing behaviors". One study used the Multimodal Emotion Recognition Test to attempt to determine how to measure emotion; this research aimed at using a measuring device to accomplish what people do so everyday: read emotion in a face. The muscles of the face play a prominent role in the expression of emotion, vary among different individuals, giving rise to additional diversity in expression and facial features. People are relatively good at determining if a smile is real or fake. A recent study looked at individuals judging forced and genuine smiles. While young and elderly participants could tell the difference for smiling young people, the "older adult participants outperformed young adult participants in distinguishing between posed and spontaneous smiles"; this suggests that with experience and age, we become more accurate at perceiving true emotions across various age groups.

Gestalt psychologists theorize that a face is not a set of facial features, but is rather something meaningful in its form. This is consistent with the Gestalt theory that an image is seen in its entirety, not by its individual parts. According to Gary L. Allen, people adapted to respond more to faces during evolution as the natural result of being a social species. Allen suggests that the purpose of recognizing faces has its roots in the "parent-infant attraction, a quick and low-effort means by which parents and infants form an internal representation of each other, reducing the likelihood that the parent will abandon his or her offspring because of recognition failure". Allen's work takes a psychological perspective that combines evolutionary theories with Gestalt psychology. Research has indicated that certain areas of the brain respond well to faces; the fusiform face area, within the fusiform gyrus, is activated by faces, it is activated differently for shy and social people. A study confirmed that "when viewing images of strangers, shy adults exhibited less activation in the fusiform gyri than did social adults".

Furthermore, particular areas respond more to a face, considered attractive, as seen in another study: "Facial beauty evokes a distributed neural network involving perceptual, decision-making and reward circuits. In those experiments, the perceptual response across FFA and LOC remained present when subjects were not attending explicitly to facial beauty". Cosmetic surgery can be used to alter the appearance of the facial features. Maxillofacial surgery may be used in cases of facial trauma, injury to the face and skin diseases. Disfigured individuals have received full face transplants and partial transplants of skin and muscle tissue. Caricatures exaggerate facial features to make a face more recognized in association with a pronounced portion of the face of the individual in question—for example, a caricature of Osama bin Laden might focus on his facial hair and nose. Exaggeration of memorable features helps people to

Jonathan Holmes (theatre director)

Jonathan Holmes is a UK theatre director and writer. Jonathan lives in North London, he is a cousin of army officer William Thomas Forshaw and film director Cy Endfield. He attended Wath Comprehensive School, The University of Birmingham, completed a Ph. D. at The Shakespeare Institute. For six years, he taught Drama at Royal Holloway, University of London, leaving as a Senior Lecturer in 2007. During his time there, he wrote two books: Refiguring Mimesis, he set up a new degree programme in Drama and English. During this first career, he became an expert in the work of John Donne, organised the first live performance for four centuries of several of Donne’s songs at St. Paul’s Cathedral, in 2005. Performers included Carolyn Sampson and The Sixteen; the event sold out, the proceeds were donated to the charity Peace Direct. In 2011, he wrote and directed Into Thy Hands, a biographical play on Donne. In 2007, he wrote and produced the play Fallujah, starring Harriet Walter, Imogen Stubbs and Irène Jacob.

It ran in a specially tailored space on Brick Lane, with a score by Nitin Sawhney, design by the conceptual artist Lucy Orta. At the time, it was the only significant account of the sieges of Fallujah, is composed of verbatim testimony. In 2008, he collaborated with the choir and period instrument orchestra The Sixteen and actors Alan Howard and Virginia McKenna in a series of concerts at the South Bank Centre, he has written and directed two short films starring Rebecca Lenkiewicz, Elliot Cowan and Julian Ovenden, is nearing completion on a feature documentary, Perpetual Peace. This last includes interviews with peacemakers around the world and features contributions by Harold Pinter, John Berger, Karen Armstrong, George Monbiot, Tony Benn and Noreena Hertz, among others. In 2008, he set up The Jericho House, a movable performance venue specialising in cross-media collaborations around the theme of hospitality; the Jericho House is groundbreaking in its use of sound and music, leading Holmes to set up a partnership with The Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience examining the effect of sound on the brain.

In 2009, Jericho produced a critically acclaimed site-specific testimony play about the neglect of New Orleans after the hurricane. It was called simply'Katrina,’ and the run sold out completely. In 2010, Holmes began a campaign for continuing state support for the arts with an event called ‘What’s the point of art?’ attended by many influential people from the creative industries. The resulting public debate led to all three main parties committing to maintaining arts funding at 2009 levels at the next spending round

Thunder on the Ohio

See: Sports in Evansville. Thunder on the Ohio was a hydroplane boat race in the H1 Unlimited season. Thunder was held each year on the Ohio River in downtown Evansville, United States. Evansville had hosted Thunder on the Ohio consecutively since 1979; the winner of Thunder on the Ohio received the Four Freedoms Cup, named after the nearby Four Freedoms Monument which rests along the Ohio River. The race had been broadcast on major television networks such as ESPN and SPEED. Evansville had established itself as one of hydroplane racing’s most important venues with superb spectator viewing areas. Most of the world speed records for two-mile courses have been set on Evansville’s sporty tri-oval. Having hosted its first Thunderboat classic in 1938, only two current race sites pre-date Evansville, Indiana. Madison, conducted its first major event in 1929 and Detroit, debuted in 1916. Thunder on the Ohio had been an Unlimited hydroplane mainstay for 31 consecutive years. "Ideal Evansville" replaced Owensboro, Kentucky, on the unlimited calendar in 1979.

Evansville was the world headquarters of Atlas Van Lines, Inc. which sponsored Bill Muncey's race team. Muncey played a major role in Evansville being awarded its first sanction. Thunder on the Ohio was not new to Evansville in 1978. From 1938 through 1940 the 725 Cubic Inch Class boats, the forerunners of the modern unlimiteds, raced at Evansville for the Thunder on the Ohio title. From 1938 through 1940, the winning driver was presented the Seagram Cup instead of the current Four Freedoms Cup. From 1979 through 2008, Thunder on the Ohio had been the primary event of the broader Evansville Freedom Festival. In 2009, Thunder on the Ohio broke away from the Evansville Freedom Festival, moved towards the end of August as a stand-alone event; the 2010 event was cancelled because of financial problems. Dave Villwock won more Evansville races including seven with Miss Budweiser. H1 Unlimited website

Taringamotu Tramway

Taringamotu Tramway, nicknamed Taringamotu Express, was a bush railway near Oruaiwi known as Waituhi, a settlement in the valley of the Taringamotu River in the Manawatu-Wanganui Region of New Zealand's North Island. It operated from 1910 to the mid 1960s; the tramway with a track gauge of 3 1⁄2 feet was used from 1910 to the mid 1960s. After 1956 it shuttled just between the NZR station on the North Island Main Trunk and the Taringamotu Totara Sawmill Company, which operated from 1907 to 1956, it was sufficiently well constructed. For a long time the Railway Enthusiasts Society of Auckland's excursion trains stopped on several occasions at the siding to take a ride on the tram; the former route can still be determined up to the mill, but not beyond. Most of the trestle bridges were built by Frank Ward. Although he was of a small stature and seemed a bit frail, his strength in wielding an axe was unusual, he worked on his own, when he built trestle bridges ahead of the bush gangs, who felled the trees and hauled them to the track for being carted with the locomotive of the tramway to the mill.

He had to carve the girders by hand from massive totara logs. The trimming of trestles and squaring of stringers was done using a broadaxe with a much wider blade than that of normal axes, his masterpiece was 300 feet long. It was two bridges in one; the lower section of bents was 50 feet high and the upper section another 55 feet. Frank Ward chose the best totara trees for the stringers and broadaxed them down to a uniform thickness of 18 inches from end to end commencing at the butt, he left the sap edges on, so that the a high strength was achieved by retaining the natural strength of each tree’s grain. He used only a crosscut saw, axes, files, marking line and chalk for line marking; the only machine that he used was hand winch and one of the Vulcan steam haulers, known as Ward’s Hauler which he always operated by himself. At about 4 o'clock in the afternoon of 3 September 1912, a party was being taken through some of the Taringamotu Sawmilling Company's bush on the company's tramway; when near the foot of a steep grade some wild pigs ran across the line, but failed to clear it, a collision ensuing, a truck containing passengers overturned.

A number of travellers were thrown clear. The youth Lade, who died before reaching the hospital, was about 20 years of age, he was a native of Scotsdale, where his parents reside. The Rev. Mr Hanby had his leg broken, a sprained ankle, was crushed about the chest. Sister Macfarlane, on the train at, the time of the mishap, rendered first aid until medical assistance was obtained; the injured persons where brought to Frankton on the Main Trunk express train. Lade died on the train at 1.12 a.m. Another fatal accident occurred on 22 January 1915 on the Taringamotu Timber Company's line. A train composed of an open truck and a covered passenger car ran in the morning from Taringamotu to Waituhi. According to a contemporary newspaper article, a number of Māoris travelled in the open truck, the pākehās travelling in the covered car; the train ran off the line, as the trucks overturned, killing a Māori child, badly injuring another, breaking the legs of two Māori women and the arm of another. The covered van saved the pākehās who escaped injury.

The Taringamotu Totara Sawmill Company owned in total four steam locomotives and several draisines. In 1908, they bought a second hand Barclay 0-4-0 saddle tank steam locomotive manufactured in 1878, it operated at a steam pressure of 180 pounds per square inch and had 10 1⁄4 inches diameter cylinders, which were subsequently bored out to 10 1⁄2 inches. In 1912, they replaced the boiler with a bespoke new boiler made by A & G Price, in service until the locomotive was taken out of use in 1951. Taringamotu tram. Photos of 24 February 2011 on Flickr

List of number-one singles of 1999 (Canada)

RPM was a Canadian magazine that published the best-performing singles of Canada from 1964 to 2000. During 1999, sixteen different songs reached number one. Canadian singer Alanis Morissette achieved the first number-one single of the year, "Thank U", while Italian group Eiffel 65 became the final musical act to peak at the top spot during the year with "Blue". Twelve of the sixteen chart-topping songs provided their performers with their first Canadian number-one single. No artists peaked at number one with multiple singles during the year; the longest-running number-one single of the year was Lou Bega's "Mambo No. 5", which spent 11 weeks at number one from 21 September to 29 November. The most successful song of the year was "Livin' la Vida Loca" by Ricky Martin, which topped the chart for eight weeks in late spring and early summer. Sugar Ray and Jennifer Lopez were the only other acts to spend at least five weeks at number one, while Cher, Sixpence None the Richer, Eiffel 65 each stayed at number one for three weeks during 1999.

Three Canadian acts earned a number-one single this year: Alanis Morissette, Barenaked Ladies, Sky. 1999 in music Canadian number-one albums of 1999 Hot 100 No. 1 Hits of 1999 List of number-one singles in 1999 Read about RPM Magazine at the AV Trust Search RPM charts here at Library and Archives Canada

Kunturiri (Los Andes)

Kunturiri is a mountain in the Cordillera Real of Bolivia, about 5,648 metres high. It is the name of the whole massif. Kunturiri is located in the La Paz Department, Los Andes Province, Pukarani Municipality, southeast of Chachakumani and northwest of Huayna Potosí; the central part of the Kunturiri group is formed by three peaks which resemble a condor with wings spread: the Kunturiri itself called Cabeza de Condor, Ala Izquierda, Ala Norte, the Kunturiri west peak and Ala Derecha or Ala Sur. Kuchillu Khunu is the name of the peak south of the "head of the condor" at 16°10′47″S 68°14′50″W. Other peaks in the Kunturiri massif are Pico Reya, Qallwani 2 km north of Kunturiri, Pico Eslovenia, Pequeño Alpamayo, Pico Medio, Ilusión, Aguja Negra, Jist'aña, Ilusioncita and Titicaca; the Spanish names of the peaks do not occur in the maps of the Bolivian IGM. The lakes Ch'iyar Quta and Juri Quta are situated south of the massif. Jist'aña