Joinery is a part of woodworking that involves joining together pieces of timber or lumber, to produce more complex items. Some wood joints employ bindings, or adhesives, while others use only wood elements; the characteristics of wooden joints - strength, toughness, etc. - derive from the properties of the materials involved and the purpose of the joint. Therefore, different joinery techniques are used to meet differing requirements. For example, the joinery used to construct a house can be different from that used to make puzzle toys, although some concepts overlap. Dowel: A small rod is used internal to a joint both to help align and to strengthen the joint. Traditional joints are used with natural timbers as they do not need any other materials other than the timber itself. For example: Butt joints. Dowel joints are useful for pegging together weaker, cheaper composite materials such as laminate-faced chipboard, where limited woodworking tools are available. Biscuit joints: A small'biscuit' is used to help align an edge or butt joint when gluing.
Domino joiner: A trademarked tool similar to a biscuit joiner, where a piece larger than a biscuit has some of the advantages of dowels, some of the advantages of biscuits. Many wood joinery techniques either depend upon or compensate for the fact that wood is anisotropic: its material properties are different along different dimensions; this must be taken into account when joining wood parts together, otherwise the joint is destined to fail. Gluing boards with the grain running perpendicular to each other is the reason for split boards, or broken joints. Furniture from the 18th century, while made by master craftsmen, did not take this into account; the result is this masterful work suffers from broken bracket feet, attached with a glue block which ran perpendicular to the base pieces. The glue blocks were fastened with both glue and nails, resulting in unequal expansion and contraction between the pieces; this was the cause of splitting of wide boards, which were used during that period. In modern woodworking it is more critical, as heating and air conditioning cause major changes in the moisture content of the wood.
All woodworking joints must take these changes into account, allow for the resulting movement. Wood is stronger. Wood is a natural composite material; these long chains of fibers make the wood exceptionally strong by resisting stress and spreading the load over the length of the board. Furthermore, cellulose is tougher than lignin, a fact demonstrated by the relative ease with which wood can be split along the grain compared to across it. Different species of wood have different strength levels, the exact strength may vary from sample to sample. Timber expands and contracts in response to humidity much less so longitudinally than in the radial and tangential directions; as tracheophytes, trees have lignified tissues which transport resources such as water and photosynthetic products up and down the plant. While lumber from a harvested tree is no longer alive, these tissues still absorb and expel water causing swelling and shrinkage of the wood in kind with change in humidity; when the dimensional stability of the wood is paramount, quarter-sawn or rift-sawn lumber is preferred because its grain pattern is consistent and thus reacts less to humidity.
Joints can be designed to hold without the use of glue or fasteners. Glue is effective for joining timber when both surfaces of the joint are edge grain. A properly glued joint may be stronger than a single piece of wood. However, glue is notably less effective on end-grain surfaces. Animal glue is soluble in water, producing joints that can be disassembled using steam to soften the glue. Various mechanical fasteners may be used, the simplest being screws. Glue and fasteners can be used together. Many traditional wood joinery techniques use the distinctive material properties of wood without resorting to mechanical fasteners or adhesives. While every culture in which pieces of wood are joined together to make furniture or structures has a joinery tradition, wood joinery techniques have been well documented and is celebrated in the Indian, Chinese and Japanese traditions; because of the physical existence of Indian and Egyptian examples, we know that furniture from the first several dynasties show the use of complex joints, like the Dovetail, over 5,000 years ago.
This tradition continued to other Western styles. The 18th century writer Diderot included over 90 detailed illustrations of wood joints in his comprehensive encyclopedia. While Western techniques focused on concealment of joinery, the Eastern societies, though did not attempt to "hide" their joints; the Japanese and Chinese traditions in particular required the use of hundreds of types of joints. The reason was that nails and glues used did not stand up well to the vastly fluctuating temperatures and humid weather conditions in most of Central and South-East Asia; as well, the resinous woods used in traditional Chinese furniture do not glue well if they are cleaned with solvents and attached using modern glues. Methods that are not considered traditional joinery have come about in modern times to attempt to simplify the job of the woodworker for various reasons; these include pocket hole joinery. Joiner, a woodworking occupation Woodworking Cabinet making Timber framing Shaker tilting chair Bu
A cabinet is a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers for storing miscellaneous items. Some cabinets stand alone while others are built in to a wall or are attached to it like a medicine cabinet. Cabinets are made of wood, coated steel, or synthetic materials. Commercial grade cabinets, which differ in the materials used, are called casework, casegoods, or case furniture. Cabinets have one or more doors on the front, which are mounted with door hardware, a lock. Cabinets may have one or more doors, and/or shelves. Short cabinets have a finished surface on top that can be used for display, or as a working surface, such as the countertops found in kitchens. A cabinet intended to be used in a bedroom and with several drawers placed one above another in one or more columns intended for clothing and small articles is called a chest of drawers. A small bedside cabinet is more called a nightstand or night table. A tall cabinet intended for clothing storage including hanging of clothes is called a wardrobe or an armoire, or a closet if built-in.
Before the advent of industrial design, cabinet makers were responsible for the conception and the production of any piece of furniture. In the last half of the 18th century, cabinet makers, such as Thomas Sheraton, Thomas Chippendale and Wormley Bros. Cabinet Constructors, George Hepplewhite published books of furniture forms; these books were those of other cabinet makers. The most famous cabinetmaker before the advent of industrial design is André-Charles Boulle and his legacy is known as "Boulle Work" and the École Boulle, a college of fine arts and crafts and applied arts in Paris, today bears testimony to his Art. With the industrial revolution and the application of steam power to cabinet making tools, mass production techniques were applied to nearly all aspects of cabinet making, the traditional cabinet shop ceased to be the main source of furniture, domestic or commercial. In parallel to this evolution there came a growing demand by the rising middle class in most industrialised countries for finely made furniture.
This resulted in a growth in the total number of traditional cabinet makers. Before 1650, fine furniture was a rarity in North America. People did not need it and for the most part could not afford it, they made do with serviceable pieces. The arts and craft movement which started in the United Kingdom in the middle of the 19th century spurred a market for traditional cabinet making, other craft goods, it spread to the United States and to all the countries in the British Empire. This movement exemplified the reaction to the eclectic historicism of the Victorian era and to the'soulless' machine-made production, starting to become widespread. After World War II woodworking became a popular hobby among the middle classes; the more serious and skilled amateurs in this field now turn out pieces of furniture which rival the work of professional cabinet makers. Together, their work now represents but a small percentage of furniture production in any industrial country, but their numbers are vastly greater than those of their counterparts in the 18th century and before.
This style of design is typified by clean vertical lines. Compared to other designs there is a distinct absence of ornamentation. While Scandinavian design is easy to identify, it is much more about the materials than the design; this style of design is ornate. French Provincial objects are stained or painted, leaving the wood concealed. Corners and bevels are decorated with gold leaf or given some other kind of gilding. Flat surfaces have artwork such as landscapes painted directly on them; the wood used in French provincial varied, but was originally beech. This design emphasises materials. Early American chairs and tables are constructed with turned spindles and chair backs constructed using steaming to bend the wood. Wood choices tend to be deciduous hardwoods with a particular emphasis on the wood of edible or fruit-bearing trees such as cherry or walnut; the rustic style of design sometimes called "log cabin" is the least finished. Design is utilitarian yet seeks to feature not only the materials used but in, as much as possible, how they existed in their natural state.
For example, a table top may have what is considered a "live edge" that allows you to see the original contours of the tree that it came from. It often uses whole logs or branches including the bark of the tree. Rustic furniture is made from pine, cedar and spruce. See Adirondack Architecture. Mission Design is characterized by flat panels; the most common material used in Mission furniture is oak. For early mission cabinetmakers, the material of choice was white oak, which they darkened through a process known as "fuming". Hardware is visible on the outside of the pieces and made of black iron, it is a style. Known as Asian Design, this style of furniture is characterized by its use of materials such as bamboo and rattan. Red is a frequent color choice along with landscape art and Chinese or other Asian language characters on the pieces. Shaker furniture design is focused on symmetry; because it is so influenced by an egalitarian religious community and tradition it is rooted in the needs of the community versus the creat
Coping or scribing is the woodworking technique of shaping the end of a moulding or frame component to neatly fit the contours of an abutting member. Joining tubular members in metalworking is referred to as a cope, or sometimes a "fish mouth joint" or saddle joint. Most English-speaking countries outside the United States use the terms scribing. Coping is used in the fitting of skirting and other mouldings in a room, it allows for clean joints between intersecting members. The other method of fitting these mouldings, used is the mitre joint, but this technique relies upon knowing the precise angle between the walls for neat results. Coping is only used for internal corners. External corners are always mitred; the main reason that scribed joints are used is that timber shrinks in width far more than it does in length. By using a scribed joint rather than an internal mitre joint, the effect of shrinkage is minimised, it is possible to arrange the scribed joints pointing away from the most common viewpoint and so present the best appearance.
Coping is commonly used in cabinet making for mouldings and frame components. The rails in frame and panel construction are cope cut to fit the profile of the stiles; the technique is common in the construction of doors and windows. Scribe joinery is commonly used in the building of log homes; the shape of the log underneath is scribed into the bottom of a log to be placed on top. This provides a tight seal between the two adjacent logs, it is commonly used in the building of boats since there is a straight edge but many curves. Traditionally, coping would be performed using a coping saw. There are mechanical means of producing coped joints, including matching rail and stile cutters for the router as used in frame and panel construction. Cope and stick Tube Coping Calculator
Moulding known as coving, is a strip of material with various profiles used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration. It may be of plastic or reformed wood. In classical architecture and sculpture, the molding is carved in marble or other stones. A "plain" molding has right-angled upper and lower edges. A "sprung" molding has upper and lower edges that bevel towards its rear, allowing mounting between two non-parallel planes, with an open space behind. Decorative moldings have been made of wood and cement. Moldings have been made of extruded PVC and Expanded Polystyrene as a core with a cement-based protective coating. Synthetic moldings have environmental and safety concerns that were investigated by Doroudiani et al. Common moldings include: Astragal — Semi-circular molding attached to one of a pair of doors to cover the gap where they meet. Baguette — Thin, half-round molding, smaller than an astragal, sometimes carved, enriched with foliages, ribbands, etc; when enriched with ornaments, it was called chapelet.
Bandelet — Any little band or flat molding, which crowns a Doric architrave. It is called a tenia (from Greek ταινία an article of clothing in the form of a ribbon. Baseboard, "base molding" or "skirting board" — Used to conceal the junction of an interior wall and floor, to protect the wall from impacts and to add decorative features. A "speed base" makes use of a base "cap molding" set on top of a plain 1" thick board, however there are hundreds of baseboard profiles. Baton — See Torus Batten or board and batten — Symmetrical molding, placed across a joint where two parallel panels or boards meet Bead molding — Narrow, half-round convex molding, when repeated forms reeding Beading or bead — Molding in the form of a row of half spherical beads, larger than pearling Other forms: Bead and leaf and reel, bead and spindle Beak — Small fillet molding left on the edge of a larmier, which forms a canal, makes a kind of pendant. See also: chin-beak Bed molding — Narrow molding used at the junction of a wall and ceiling.
Bed moldings can be either plain. Bolection — Raised molding projecting proud of a face frame at the intersection of the different levels between the frame and an inset panel on a door or wood panel, it will sometimes have a rabbet on its underside the depth of the lower level so it can lay flat over both. It can leave an inset panel free to contract with temperature and humidity. Cable molding or ropework — Convex molding carved in imitation of a twisted rope or cord, used for decorative moldings of the Romanesque style in England and Spain and adapted for 18th-century silver and furniture design Cabled fluting or cable — Convex circular molding sunk in the concave fluting of a classic column, rising about one-third of the height of the shaft Casing — Finish trim around the sides of a door or window opening covering the gap between finished wall and the jam or frame it is attached to. Cartouche escutcheon — Framed panel in the form of a scroll with an inscribed centre, or surrounded by compound moldings decorated with floral motifs Cavetto — cavare: Concave, quarter-round molding sometimes employed in the place of the cymatium of a cornice, as in the Doric order of the Theatre of Marcellus.
It forms the crowning feature of the Egyptian temples, took the place of the cymatium in many of the Etruscan temples. Chair rail or dado rail — Horizontal molding placed part way up a wall to protect the surface from chair-backs, used as decoration Chamfer — Beveled edge connecting two adjacent surfaces Chin-beak — Concave quarter-round molding, rare in ancient buildings, more common today. Corner guard — Used to protect the edge of the wall at an outside corner, or to cover a joint on an inside corner. Cove molding or coving — Concave-profile molding, used at the junction of an interior wall and ceiling Crown molding — Wide, sprung molding, used at the junction of an interior wall and ceiling. General term for any molding at the top or "crowning" an architectural element. Cyma — Molding of double curvature, combining the convex ovolo and concave cavetto; when the concave part is uppermost, it is called a cyma recta but if the convex portion is at the top, it is called a Cyma reversa — Crowning molding at the entablature is of the cyma form, it is called a cymatium.
Dentils — Small blocks spaced evenly along the bottom edge of the cornice Drip cap — Molding placed over a door or window opening to prevent water from flowing under the siding or across the glass Echinus — Similar to the ovolo molding and found beneath the abacus of the Doric capital or decorated with the egg-and-dart pattern below the Ionic capital Egg-and-dart — egg shapes alternating with V-shapes. Also: Egg and tongue and anchor, egg and star Fillet — Small, flat band separating two surfaces, or between the flutes of a column. Fillet is used on handrail applications when the handrail is "plowed" to accept square shaped balusters; the fillet is used on the bottom side of the handrail between each of the balusters. Fluting — Vertical, half-round grooves cut into the surface of a column in regular intervals, each separated by a flat astragal; this ornament was used for all but the Tuscan order Godroon or Gadroon — Ornamental band with the appearance of beading or reeding frequent in silverwork and molding.
It comes from the Latin word Guttus. It is said to be derived from raised work on linen, applied in Fran
A butt joint is a technique in which two pieces of material are joined by placing their ends together without any special shaping. The name ` butt joint' comes from the way; the butt joint is the simplest joint to make since it involves cutting the wood to the appropriate length and butting them together. It is the weakest because unless some form of reinforcement is used it relies upon glue alone to hold it together; because the orientation of the wood presents only one end to long grain gluing surface, the resulting joint is inherently weak. The butt joint is a simple joint to construct. Members are docked at the right angle and have a required length. One member will be shorter than the finished size by the thickness of the adjacent member. For enclosed constructions, such as four-sided frames or boxes, the thickness of the two adjacent members must be taken into consideration. For example: when constructing a four sided box made from 19mm thick material, to be of finished size 600mm x 600mm, two of the members will be docked at 600mm and two will be docked at 600mm - 19mm - 19mm = 562mm.
Reinforced butt joints may require additional steps. In solid timber, docking of members for a butt joint is a crosscut, so a crosscut saw is best for this job; when working with sheetgoods, there is no distinction between rip cut. The joint members can be docked by any of the following methods: Carcase butt jointsCrosscut saw Circular saw and straightedge Table sawFrame butt jointsCrosscut backsaw Miter saw Table saw using a mitre gauge, crosscut sled, or sliding table attachment. To overcome their inherent weakness, butt joints are reinforced by one of the following methods: This is the most common form of the butt joint in building construction. Members are brought together and a number of nails are driven in to hold them in place; the technique of skew-nailing is applied so that nails are not parallel to each other and so resist the pulling apart of the joint. This form of butt joint is used in furniture making. Use for: framing in building construction, such as platform framing Basic or temporary box/cabinet/frame making woodwork toys The dowel reinforced butt joint or dowel joint has been a common method of reinforcing butt joints in furniture for years.
They are common in both carcase construction. Dowel joints are popular in chairs, cabinets and tabletops, they are used to assist with alignment during glue up. The technique consists of cutting the members to size and drilling a series of holes in the joint surface of each member. Holes are drilled with the assistance of a dowelling jig which aids in accurate hole placement — accuracy is paramount in this technique to ensure members line up in the completed joint; the holes are drilled such that there are corresponding holes in each member into which short dowels are inserted with some glue. The joint is clamped until the glue has dried; this produces a joint, much stronger than a butt joint without reinforcement. The dowels offer some holding strength after the glue has deteriorated. Over time, dowels may become loose, they take on an oval shape in section owing to the different rate at which wood moves with different orientations of the grain. Loose dowels allow the joint to flex; this phenomenon is evident in wobbling book cases.
For this reason, dowel joints are not preferred for high-quality furniture. Use for: Frame joinery Cabinet carcase construction Panel assembly A variation of the dowel method for reinforcement is the use of a Miller dowel in place of the usual straight cylindrical dowel; the Miller dowel is drilled with a special stepped drill bit. It is drilled from the outside face of the frame piece to be joined and therefore leaves an exposed dowel protruding after glue dries, the excess dowell head is thus flush cut; the advantages of the special dowel are documented in various media promoting the method, but one advantage that should not be overlooked is speed of assembly. The butt joint can be joined temporarily and sometimes more with glue, allowing faster set up than the usual tedious alignment procedures mentioned above. After the glue dries one or more Miller dowels are used to reinforce the joint. Dowel trimming and sanding of the surface, followed by normal finishing proceed in the usual manner; the blind alignment problems of floating dowels are eliminated by the use of the Miller dowel.
Not all projects are appropriate for the stepped dowel method if an exposed dowel end is not visually acceptable, however. The biscuit reinforced butt joint is a recent innovation in butt joint construction, it is used in carcase and frame construction. The biscuit is an oval shaped piece of specially dried and compressed wood beech, installed in matching mortises in both members of the joint in a similar fashion to a loose or floating tenon. Biscuit joints are common in both carcase construction, they are convenient for panel glue ups as they facilitate alignment of panel members. To create the mortise for the biscuit, a biscuit joiner is required. There are other methods of cutting the slot, such as a slot cutter bit in a router, but the biscuit joiner is the most common. Accuracy is not as important in the creation of these mortises as the biscuit joint is designed to allow a bit of flexibility during glue