Miss Belgium is a national beauty pageant in Belgium. The winner of Miss Belgium automatically represents her country at the Miss Universe and Miss World pageants. Belgian nationality to be never married and without children to have an age of 18 to 23 years, Key: Declared winner Declared runner-up Declared semifinalist Key: Miss Belgium winner Miss Belgium 1st Runner-Up Miss Belgium 3rd Runner-Up The election of Alizee Poulicek, a native speaker of French and Czech, has been linked to the 2007–08 Belgian government formation; the reason is that, during the traditional language test, she failed to understand Dutch. The audience booed her for this; the behaviour of the audience was noted across Europe, the Flemish newspaper Het Laatste Nieuws sarcastically put the headline "Miss Belgium doesn't speak Dutch. Our country is in a deep crisis". Mister Belgium Personality Miss Earth Belgium Miss International Belgium Miss Belgian Beauty Belgium at major beauty pageants Miss België, Miss Belgique, Miss Belgien
Star Hellas is a national beauty pageant in Greece. The Star Hellas, Miss Hellas, Miss Young title is a trademark for Vassilis Prevelakis and Associates E. E. George Prevelakis, the founder of the company, was the driving force behind the Hellenic Beauty Pageant since the late 1960s. From onwards, he was associated with the pageant till his death in 2006. In the early 1980s the owner of the pageant, the Apogevmatini newspaper, decided to pull out of the pageant and transferred the rights to George Prevelakis. George Prevelakis founded a company, together with his son and transferred the rights to the pageant to the new company. Vassilis Prevelakis and Associates E. E. has been the legal owner of the pageant and is the national director of the well known international pageants such as Miss World, Miss Universe. In 2018 the I AM ONE Agency Network as the organiser of the Star Hellas and Miss Hellas 2018 competition, provides titleholders with international access to Miss Universe and Miss World, competitions.
It advances opportunities for young women who embody the Miss World mission of ‘Beauty with a Purpose’ and the Miss Universe Organization’s ‘Confidently Bautiful’ to inspire young women to pursue their personal and professional goals while making an impact in their communities through worthy causes. In the 1970s and early 1980s the pageant was aired every year from the Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi. From 1990 to 2010, it was funded and aired on Greece's private network ANT1; because of the Greek financial crisis, ΑΝΤ1 did not fund the 2011 pageant which had the form of a low-key private casting and was not aired. In 2012 the Star Hellas organizers staged a comeback by teaming with Internet site TLife which became responsible for the publicity of the event and for airing live over the Internet. In 2018 Star Hellas and I AM ONE as organizer of Star Hellas and Miss Hellas competitions help candidates to build remarkable careers. Boldface indicates winner of the Miss Universe, Miss World, Miss International, Miss Earth, Miss Europe or Other pageants Color key Star Hellas and goes on to represent Greece at Miss Universe pageant.
Miss Hellas goes to Miss World pageant. B Star Hellas goes to Miss International pageant. B Miss Hellas goes to Miss Tourism Queen International or Miss Earth pageant; the winner of Star Hellas represents her country at the Miss Universe. On occasion, when the winner does not qualify for either contest, a runner-up is sent. Between 2011, 2013 and 2014 due to economic issues, Star Hellas Organization had selected the delegates to the Miss Universe and Miss World while it absent at the Miss International; the following is a list of all Star Hellas titleholders since 1929. Note: Star Hellas is absent in 1974 and 2016. Color key Miss Universe 1964 - Corinna Tsopei Miss World 1996 - Irene Skliva Miss International 1994 - Christina Lekka Miss Tourism Queen International 2005 - Nikoletta Ralli Miss Europe 1930 - Aliki Diplarakou Miss Europe 1991 - Katerina Michalopoulou Miss Europe 1992 - Marina Tsintikidou Miss Europe 1997 - Isavella Dara Miss Teen World 2010 - Anastasia Sidiropoulou Miss Europe World 2016 - Mikaela-Eleni Fotiadi Star Hellas Official website
Lesotho the Kingdom of Lesotho, is an enclaved country–the only one in the world outside of the Italian peninsula–within the border of South Africa. It has a population of around 2 million, its capital and largest city is Maseru. Lesotho was the British Crown Colony of Basutoland, but it declared independence from the United Kingdom on 4 October 1966, it is now a sovereign state, a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Southern African Development Community. The name Lesotho translates to "the land of the people who speak Sesotho"; the original inhabitants of the area now known as Lesotho were the San people. Examples of their rock art can be found in the mountains throughout the area; the present Lesotho called Basutoland, emerged as a single polity under King Moshoeshoe I in 1822. Moshoeshoe, a son of Mokhachane, a minor chief of the Bakoteli lineage, formed his own clan and became a chief around 1804. Between 1821 and 1823, he and his followers settled at the Butha-Buthe Mountain, joining with former adversaries in resistance against the Lifaqane associated with the reign of Shaka Zulu from 1818 to 1828.
Subsequent evolution of the state hinged on conflicts between British and Dutch colonists leaving the Cape Colony following its seizure from the French-allied Dutch by the British in 1795, subsequently associated with the Orange River Sovereignty and subsequent Orange Free State. Missionaries invited by Moshoeshoe I, Thomas Arbousset, Eugène Casalis and Constant Gosselin from the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, placed at Morija, developed orthography and printed works in the Sesotho language between 1837 and 1855. Casalis, acting as translator and providing advice on foreign affairs, helped to set up diplomatic channels and acquire guns for use against the encroaching Europeans and the Griqua people. Trekboers from the Cape Colony arrived on the western borders of Basutoland and claimed land rights, beginning with Jan de Winnaar, who settled in the Matlakeng area in May–June 1838; as more Boers were moving into the area they tried to colonise the land between the two rivers north of the Caledon, claiming that it had been abandoned by the Sotho people.
Moshoeshoe subsequently signed a treaty with the British Governor of the Cape Colony, Sir George Thomas Napier, that annexed the Orange River Sovereignty that many Boers had settled. These outraged Boers were suppressed in a brief skirmish in 1848. In 1851 a British force was defeated by the Basotho army at Kolonyama, touching off an embarrassing war for the British. After repelling another British attack in 1852, Moshoeshoe sent an appeal to the British commander that settled the dispute diplomatically defeated the Batlokoa in 1853. In 1854 the British pulled out of the region, in 1858 Moshoeshoe fought a series of wars with the Boers in the Free State–Basotho War, losing a great portion of the western lowlands; the last war in 1867 ended when Moshoeshoe appealed to Queen Victoria, who agreed to make Basutoland a British protectorate in 1868. In 1869, the British signed a treaty at Aliwal North with the Boers that defined the boundaries of Basutoland, Lesotho, which by ceding the western territories reduced Moshoeshoe's Kingdom to half its previous size.
Following the cession in 1869, the British transferred functions from Moshoeshoe's capital in Thaba Bosiu to a police camp on the northwest border, until administration of Basutoland was transferred to the Cape Colony in 1871. Moshoeshoe died on 11 March 1870, marking the end of the traditional era and the beginning of the colonial era, he was buried at Thaba Bosiu. In the early years of British rule between 1871 and 1884, Basutoland was treated to other territories, forcibly annexed, much to the chagrin of the Basotho; this led to the Gun War in 1881. In 1884, Basutoland was restored to its status as a protectorate, with Maseru again its capital, but remained under direct rule by a governor, though effective internal power was wielded by traditional chiefs. Basutoland gained its independence from Britain and became the Kingdom of Lesotho in 1966. In January 1970, the ruling Basotho National Party lost the first post-independence general elections, with 23 seats to the Basutoland Congress Party's 36.
Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan refused to cede power to the Basotho Congress Party, declared himself Tona Kholo, imprisoned the BCP leadership. BCP began a rebellion and received training in Libya for its Lesotho Liberation Army under the pretense of being Azanian People's Liberation Army soldiers of the Pan Africanist Congress. Deprived of arms and supplies by the Sibeko faction of the PAC in 1978, the 178-strong LLA was rescued from their Tanzanian base by the financial assistance of a Maoist PAC officer, but they launched the guerrilla war with only a handful of old weapons; the main force was defeated in northern Lesotho, guerrillas launched sporadic but ineffectual attacks. The campaign was compromised when BCP's leader, Ntsu Mokhehle, went to Pretoria. In the early 1980s, several Basotho who sympathised with the exiled BCP were threatened with death and attacked by the government of Leabua Jonathan. On 4 September 1981, the family of Benjamin Masilo was attacked. In the attack his 3-year-old grandson lost his life.
Four days Edgar Mahlomola Motuba, the editor of the popular newspaper Leselinyana la Lesotho, was abducted from his home together with two friends and murdered. The BNP ruled from 1966 until January 1970. What ensued was a de facto government led by Dr. Leab
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that, perceived to be foreign or strange. Xenophobia can involve perceptions of an ingroup towards an outgroup and can manifest itself in suspicion of the activities of others, a desire to eliminate their presence to secure a presumed purity and may relate to a fear of losing national, ethnic or racial identity. Xenophobia can be exhibited in the form of an "uncritical exaltation of another culture" in which a culture is ascribed "an unreal and exotic quality"; the terms xenophobia and racism are sometimes confused and used interchangeably because people who share a national origin may belong to the same race. Due to this, xenophobia is distinguished by opposition to foreign culture. Dictionary definitions of xenophobia include: "deep-rooted fear towards foreigners", "fear of the unfamiliar"; the word comes from the Ancient Greek words ξένος, meaning "strange", "foreigner", φόβος, meaning "fear". A scholarly definition of xenophobia, according to Andreas Wimmer, is "an element of a political struggle about who has the right to be cared for by the state and society: a fight for the collective goods of the modern state."
In other words, xenophobia arises when people feel that their rights to benefit from the government is being subverted by other people's rights. An early example of xenophobic sentiment in Western culture is the Ancient Greek denigration of foreigners as "barbarians", the belief that the Greek people and culture were superior to all others, the subsequent conclusion that barbarians were meant to be enslaved. Ancient Romans held notions of superiority over all other peoples, such as in a speech attributed to Manius Acilius, "There, as you know, there were Macedonians and Thracians and Illyrians, all most warlike nations, here Syrians and Asiatic Greeks, the most worthless peoples among mankind and born for slavery." Despite the majority of the country's population being of mixed, African, or indigenous heritage, depictions of non-European Brazilians on the programming of most national television networks is scarce and relegated for musicians/their shows. In the case of telenovelas, Brazilians of darker skin tone are depicted as housekeepers or in positions of lower socioeconomic standing.
Muslim and Sikh Canadians have faced racism and discrimination within recent years after 2001, the spill over effect of the United States’ War on Terror. A 2016 survey from The Environics Institute, a follow-up to a study conducted 10 years prior that there may be discriminating attitudes that may be a residual of the effects of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States; when it comes to opinions on both Sikh's and Muslims, a poll done by Maclean's revealed that only 28% of Canadians view Islam favourably, only 30% viewed the Sikh religion favourably. 45 % of respondents believed. In Quebec in particular, only 17% of respondents had a favourable view of Muslims There has been racial tension between the Indo-Guyanese people and the Afro-Guyanese. Racism in Mexico has a long history. Mexicans with light skin tones had absolute control over dark skinned Amerindians due to the structure of the Spanish colonial caste system; when a Mexican of a darker-skinned tone marries one of a lighter skinned-tone, it is common for them say that they are "'making the race better'."
This can be interpreted as a self-attack on their ethnicity. Despite improving economic and social conditions of Indigenous Mexicans, discrimination against Indigenous Mexicans continues to this day and there are few laws to protect Indigenous Mexicans from discrimination. Violent attacks against indigenous Mexicans are moderately common and many times go unpunished. In Venezuela, like other South American countries, economic inequality breaks along ethnic and racial lines. A 2013 Swedish academic study stated that Venezuela was the most racist country in the Americas, followed by the Dominican Republic. Concern over Japanese ethnic and immigrant groups during the Second World War prompted the Canadian and U. S. governments to intern most of their ethnically Japanese populations in the western portions of North America. As in most countries, many people in the U. S. continue to be xenophobic against other races. In the view of a network of scores of US civil rights and human rights organizations, "Discrimination permeates all aspects of life in the United States, extends to all communities of color."
Discrimination against racial and religious minorities when it comes to African Americans, is acknowledged. Members of every major American ethnic and religious minority have perceived discrimination in their dealings with other minority racial and religious groups. Philosopher Cornel West has stated that "racism is an integral element within the fabric of American culture and society, it is embedded in the country's first collective definition, enunciated in its subsequent laws, imbued in its dominant way of life." After Donald Trump took presidential office in 2017, he attempted to enact a travel ban on seven countries which were listed as "countries of concern" by Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson under the Obama administration in 2011. This was changed to six in a revision that removed Iraq in part due to criticism that the original order overlooked the country’s role in fighting Islamic terrorism and barred entry to the Iraqi interpreters, embedded with US forces in the region.
Khizr Khan, the father of United States Army Captain Humayun Khan, described it in a CNN interview as a continuat
Miss Universe Canada
Miss Universe Canada or "Beauties of Canada" is a national beauty pageant in Canada. Beauties of Canada Organization gained the exclusive rights to send a Canadian representative to the Miss Universe Pageant in 2002. Created by Brandon Mclennan, the company President is Nicaraguan-born Canadian Denis Davila; the Miss Universe Canada contest was first held in 2003, with the first winner being Leanne Marie Cecile. Cecile made the Top 10 in Miss Universe 2003. Natalie Glebova was crowned the winner in 2005 and went on to become Miss Universe 2005. Glebova's successor Alice Panikian was viewed as a strong contender to win the 2006 Miss Universe crown and placed in the Top 10. In 2010, Miss Universe Canada made headlines when Maria Al-Masani, the first beauty pageant contestant of Yemeni origin, competed; this was controversial due to accommodating her religious beliefs by allowing her to wear a semi-transparent sarong over her swimsuit. In 2012, CNN World News named her one of its eight "agents of change" to follow, the only Canadian to receive that designation.
The 2012 contest was accused of transphobia after disqualifying a transgender contestant, Jenna Talackova, for not being a "naturally born female". A spokesperson from Miss Universe Canada released a statement saying she was disqualified because on her entry form she stated she was born a female, not the case. Talackova was let back into the competition. After this, Sahar Biniaz dropped out of the Miss Universe pageant a few days prior to it starting, having hurt her foot. Adwoa Yamoah, the first runner-up, replaced her and competed in Miss Universe 2012. On May 27, 2013, two days after the Miss Universe Canada 2013 pageant, it was announced that Denise Garrido was the winner; as it turned out, Garrido was 3rd runner-up and due to a mathematical error was named the winner. Calgary's Riza Santos was the actual winner. During the validation of the computerized scoring results, a typo was discovered in the top five entries, which impacted the final results of the competition. Colour key Note: 2012: Sahar Biniaz did not compete at Miss Universe 2012 due to a foot injury.
Color key The following is a list of all Miss International Canada titleholders in under Beauties of Canada or Miss Universe Canada since 2003. Note: 2016: Amber Bernachi won Miss Eco International 2017 in Egypt. Color key The Canadian Search Miss Universe or Miss Canadian Universe was hosted by Terry Lynn Meyer, a former Miss Canada and Seanna Collins; the special entertainment guests were Dendra Taylor. After Miss Canada stopped the annual pageant in 1993, the new franchise was taken by former Miss Canada, Terry Lynn Meyer; the Miss Canada pageant obtained the franchise for the Miss Universe Pageant in 1978, when that year's first runner-up, Andrea Leslie Eng, competed internationally. From 1979 to the final contest, the winners of Miss Canada went on to compete. Miss Canada 1982, Karen Baldwin, being the only Miss Canada to win Miss Universe; the show was popular in the 1970s, with up to 5 million viewers, but declined in the 1980s, until it was cancelled. Producers of the show cited mounting production costs, as the reason for cancellation, along with the absence of host Jim Perry, who went into semi-retirement after the 1991 pageant.
The last winner was Miss Canada 1992 Nicole Dunsdon from British Columbia. Between 1969 to 1977 the Miss Dominion of Canada pageant originated when the Bruno family of Ancaster, Ontario obtained franchise rights to select and send Canada's exclusive representatives to Miss Universe; the winner of Miss Dominion of Canada competed to Miss Universe. The Miss Universe franchise in Canada was taken over by the nationally televised Miss Canada contest in 1978. In 1952 Miss Toronto 1951 competed to Miss Universe 1952. Between 1952 and 1958 Miss Universe Canada selected by Miss Toronto Organization in Canada. In 1957 Miss Toronto won the Miss Canada and went to Miss Universe in the USA. On occasion, when the winner does not qualify a runner-up is sent. Miss Earth Canada Miss World Canada Canada at major beauty pageants Official Miss Universe Canada website
A beauty pageant or beauty contest is a competition that has traditionally focused on judging and ranking the physical attributes of the contestants, although most contests have evolved to incorporate personality traits, intelligence and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria. The term refers to contests for women such as the Big Four international beauty pageants; the organizers of each pageant may determine the rules of the competition, including the age range of contestants. The rules may require the contestants to be unmarried, be "virtuous", "amateur", available for promotions, besides other criteria, it may set the clothing standards in which contestants will be judged, including the type of swimsuit. Beauty pageants are multi-tiered, with local competitions feeding into the larger competitions. For example, the international pageants have thousands of local competitions. Child beauty pageants focus on beauty, sportswear modelling and personal interviews. Adult and teen pageants focus on makeup and gowns, swimsuit modelling, personal interviews.
A winner of a beauty contest is called a beauty queen. The rankings of the contestants are referred to as placements. Possible awards of beauty contests include titles, tiaras or crowns, scepters, savings bonds and cash prizes; however and teen pageants have been moving more towards judging speaking. Some pageants award college scholarships, to multiple runners-up. European festivals dating to the medieval era provide the most direct lineage for beauty pageants. For example, English May Day celebrations always involved the selection of a May Queen. In the United States, the May Day tradition of selecting a woman to serve as a symbol of bounty and community ideals continued, as young beautiful women participated in public celebrations. A beauty pageant was held during the Eglinton Tournament of 1839, organized by Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton, as part of a re-enactment of a medieval joust, held in Scotland; the pageant was won by Georgiana Seymour, Duchess of Somerset, the wife of Edward Seymour, 12th Duke of Somerset, sister of Caroline Norton, she was proclaimed as the "Queen of Beauty".
Entrepreneur Phineas Taylor Barnum staged the first modern American pageant in 1854, but his beauty contest was closed down after public protest. Beauty contests became more popular in the 1880s. In 1888, the title of'beauty queen' was awarded to an 18-year-old Creole contestant at a pageant in Spa, Belgium. All participants had to supply a photograph and a short description of themselves to be eligible to enter and a final selection of 21 was judged by a formal panel; such events were not regarded as respectable. Beauty contests came to be considered more respectable with the first modern "Miss America" contest held in 1921; the oldest pageant still in operation today is the Miss America pageant, organized in 1921 by a local businessman as a means to entice tourists to Atlantic City, New Jersey. The pageant hosted the winners of local newspaper beauty contests in the "Inter-City Beauty" Contest, attended by over one hundred thousand people. Sixteen-year-old Margaret Gorman of Washington, D. C. was crowned Miss America 1921, having won both the popularity and beauty contests, was awarded $100.
In May 1920, promoter C. E. Barfield of Galveston, Texas organized a new event known as "Splash Day" on the island; the event featured a "Bathing Girl Revue" competition as the centerpiece of its attractions. The event was the kick-off of the summer tourist season in the city and was carried forward annually; the event became known outside of Texas and, beginning in 1926, the world's first international contest was added, known as the International Pageant of Pulchritude. This contest is said to have served as a model for modern pageants, it featured contestants from England, Russia and many other nations and the title awarded at the time was known as "Miss Universe". The event was discontinued in the United States in 1932 because of the Depression; the popularity of the Miss America pageant prompted other organizations to establish similar contests in the 1950s and beyond. Some were significant; the Miss World contest started in 1951, Miss Universe started in 1952 as did Miss USA. Miss International started in 1960.
Miss Asia Pacific International started in 1968. The Miss Black America contest started in 1968 in response to the exclusion of African American women from the Miss America pageant; the Miss Universe Organization started the Miss Teen USA in 1983 for the 14-19 age group. Miss Earth started in 2001, which channels the beauty pageant entertainment industry as an effective tool to promote the preservation of the environment; these contests continue to this day. The requirement for contestants to wear a swimsuit was a controversial aspect of the various competitions; the controversy was heightened with the increasing popularity of the bikini after its introduction in 1946. The bikini was banned for the Miss America contest in 1947 because of Roman Catholic protesters; when the Miss World contest started in 1951, there was an outcry when the winner was crowned in a bikini. Pope Pius XII condemned the crowning as sinful, countries with religious traditions threatened to withdraw delegates; the bikini was banned for other contests.
It was not until the late 1990s that they became permitted again, but still generated controversy when finals were held in countries where bikinis were disapproved. For example, in 2003, Vida Samadzai from Afghanistan caused
Violence is "the use of physical force so as to injure, damage, or destroy." Less conventional definitions are used, such as the World Health Organization's definition of violence as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation."Globally, violence resulted in the deaths of an estimated 1.28 million people in 2013 up from 1.13 million in 1990. Of the deaths in 2013 842,000 were attributed to self-harm, 405,000 to interpersonal violence, 31,000 to collective violence and legal intervention. In Africa, out of every 100,000 people, each year an estimated 60.9 die a violent death. For each single death due to violence, there are dozens of hospitalizations, hundreds of emergency department visits, thousands of doctors' appointments. Furthermore, violence has lifelong consequences for physical and mental health and social functioning and can slow economic and social development.
In 2013, assault by firearm was the leading cause of death due to interpersonal violence, with 180,000 such deaths estimated to have occurred. The same year, assault by sharp object resulted in 114,000 deaths, with a remaining 110,000 deaths from personal violence being attributed to other causes. Violence in many forms can be preventable. There is a strong relationship between levels of violence and modifiable factors in a country such as concentrated poverty and gender inequality, the harmful use of alcohol, the absence of safe and nurturing relationships between children and parents. Strategies addressing the underlying causes of violence can be effective in preventing violence, although mental and physical health and individual responses, etc. have always been decisive factors in the formation of these behaviors. The World Health Organization divides violence into three broad categories: self-directed violence interpersonal violence collective violenceThis initial categorization differentiates between violence a person inflicts upon himself or herself, violence inflicted by another individual or by a small group of individuals, violence inflicted by larger groups such as states, organized political groups, militia groups and terrorist organizations.
These three broad categories are each divided further to reflect more specific types of violence: physical sexual psychological emotionalAlternatively, violence can be classified as either instrumental or reactive / hostile. Self-directed violence is subdivided into suicidal self-abuse; the former includes suicidal thoughts, attempted suicides – called para suicide or deliberate self-injury in some countries – and completed suicides. Self-abuse, in contrast, includes acts such as self-mutilation. Collective violence is subdivided into economic violence. Unlike the other two broad categories, the subcategories of collective violence suggest possible motives for violence committed by larger groups of individuals or by states. Collective violence, committed to advance a particular social agenda includes, for example, crimes of hate committed by organized groups, terrorist acts and mob violence. Political violence includes war and related violent conflicts, state violence and similar acts carried out by larger groups.
Economic violence includes attacks by larger groups motivated by economic gain – such as attacks carried out with the purpose of disrupting economic activity, denying access to essential services, or creating economic division and fragmentation. Acts committed by larger groups can have multiple motives; this typology, while imperfect and far from being universally accepted, does provide a useful framework for understanding the complex patterns of violence taking place around the world, as well as violence in the everyday lives of individuals and communities. It overcomes many of the limitations of other typologies by capturing the nature of violent acts, the relevance of the setting, the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, – in the case of collective violence – possible motivations for the violence. However, in both research and practice, the dividing lines between the different types of violence are not always so clear. State violence involves upholding, forms of violence of a structural nature, such as poverty, through dismantling welfare, creating strict policies such as'welfare to work', in order to cause further stimulation and disadvantage Poverty as a form of violence may involve oppressive policies that target minority or low socio-economic groups.
The'war on drugs', for example, rather than increasing the health and well-being of at risk demographics, most results in violence committed against these vulnerable demographics through incarceration and police brutality War is a state of prolonged violent large-scale conflict involving two or more groups of people under the auspices of government. It is the most extreme form of collective violence. War is fought as a means of resolving territorial and other conflicts, as war of aggression to conquer territory or loot resources, in national self-defence or liberation, or to suppress attempts of part of the nation to secede from it. There are ideological and revolutionary wars. Since the Industrial Revolution the lethality of modern warfare has grown. World War I casualties were over 40 million and World War II casualties were over 70 million. Violence includes those acts that result from a power relationship, including threats and intimidation, neglect or acts of omission; such non-physical violence has