National Library of New Zealand
The National Library of New Zealand is New Zealand's legal deposit library charged with the obligation to "enrich the cultural and economic life of New Zealand and its interchanges with other nations". Under the Act, the library is expected to be: "collecting and protecting documents those relating to New Zealand, making them accessible for all the people of New Zealand, in a manner consistent with their status as documentary heritage and taonga; the Legal Deposit Office is New Zealand's agency for ISBN and ISSN. The library headquarters is close to the Parliament of New Zealand and the Court of Appeal on the corner of Aitken and Molesworth Streets, Wellington; the National Library of New Zealand was formed in 1965 when the Alexander Turnbull Library, the General Assembly Library, the National Library Service were brought together by the National Library Act. In 1980, the Archive of New Zealand Music was established at the suggestion of New Zealand composer Douglas Lilburn. In 1985, the General Assembly Library separated from the National Library and is now known as The Parliamentary Library.
Staff and collections from 14 different sites around Wellington were centralised in a new National Library building opened in August 1987. The architecture of the building is said to have been influenced by design of the Boston City Hall, but direct reference to the Birmingham Central Library should not be ruled out. In 1988, the National Library became an autonomous government department where it had been administered by the Department of Education; the same year, the Library took on the Maori name Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa, which translated means: the wellspring of knowledge, of New Zealand. In early 1998 an ambitious $8.5 million computer project was scrapped. The National Library building was to be expanded and upgraded in 2009–2011, but the incoming government scaled down the scope of the work, reducing the budget for it and delaying the commencement, arguing concerns about the cost of the project and the reduction in the accessibility of collections and facilities during the construction work.
The building closed for two years, while refurbishment continued. On 25 March 2010 the Minister of State Services announced that Archives New Zealand and the National Library of New Zealand would be merged into the Department of Internal Affairs. In June 2018 a National Archival and Library Institutions Ministerial Group was announced; the purpose of NALI was to examine the structure and role of the National Library, Archives New Zealand and Ngā Taonga Sound & Vision, the position of the Chief Archivist and National Librarian, the future of collecting and providing access to New Zealand's documentary heritage digital preservation and access. Before and since NALI was set up concern has been expressed about the National Library being part of the Department of Internal Affairs; the He Tohu exhibition in the Library is home to three nationally significant documents: Te Tiriti o Waitangi He Whakaputanga Women's Suffrage Petition. The documents were moved from Archives New Zealand on 22 April 2017 under tight security.
The National Library's collections are stored in the main building in Wellington and several other cities in New Zealand. The library has three main groups: the General Collections, the Schools Collection, the collections of the Alexander Turnbull Library. Access to many collections is provided through online resources; the General Collections focus on supporting the information needs of New Zealanders through services to individuals and researchers, with notable collections such as the Dorothy Neal White Collection. The Schools Collection contains books and other material to support teaching and learning in New Zealand schools; the collections of the Alexander Turnbull Library are in the custody of the National Library and are held in its Wellington building. Turnbull House, the library's former location in Bowen Street in downtown Wellington, is now managed by Heritage New Zealand, it is named after Alexander Horsburgh Turnbull, whose bequest to the nation included the 55,000 volume nucleus of the current collection.
It is charged under the Act to:'Preserve, protect and make accessible for all the people of New Zealand the collections of that library in perpetuity and in a manner consistent with their status as documentary heritage and taonga'.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
In library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places and concepts are authorized, i.e. they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references; each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers. Catalogers assign each subject—such as author, series, or corporation—a particular unique identifier or heading term, used uniquely, unambiguously for all references to that same subject, which obviates variations from different spellings, pen names, or aliases.
The unique header can guide users to all relevant information including related or collocated subjects. Authority records can be combined into a database and called an authority file, maintaining and updating these files as well as "logical linkages" to other files within them is the work of librarians and other information cataloguers. Accordingly, authority control is an example of controlled vocabulary and of bibliographic control. While in theory any piece of information is amenable to authority control such as personal and corporate names, uniform titles, series names, subjects, library cataloguers focus on author names and titles of works. Subject headings from the Library of Congress fulfill a function similar to authority records, although they are considered separately; as time passes, information changes, prompting needs for reorganization. According to one view, authority control is not about creating a perfect seamless system but rather it is an ongoing effort to keep up with these changes and try to bring "structure and order" to the task of helping users find information.
Better researching. Authority control helps researchers get a handle on a specific subject with less wasted effort. A well-designed digital catalog/database enables a researcher to query a few words of an entry to bring up the established term or phrase, thus improving accuracy and saving time. Makes searching more predictable, it can be used in conjunction with keyword searching using "and" or "not" or "or" or other Boolean operators on a web browser. It increases chances. Consistency of records. Organization and structure of information. Efficiency for cataloguers; the process of authority control is not only of great help to researchers searching for a particular subject to study, but it can help cataloguers organize information as well. Cataloguers can use authority records when trying to categorize new items, since they can see which records have been catalogued and can therefore avoid unnecessary work. Maximises library resources. Easier to maintain the catalog, it enables cataloguers to correct errors.
In some instances, software programs support workers tasked with maintaining the catalog to do ongoing tasks such as automated clean-up. It helps users of metadata. Fewer errors, it can help catch errors caused by typos or misspellings which can sometimes accumulate over time, sometimes known as quality drift. For example, machines can catch misspellings such as "Elementary school techers" and "Pumpkilns" which can be corrected by library staff. Sometimes within a catalog there are different spellings for only one person or subject; this can bring confusion. Authority control is used by cataloguers to collocate materials that logically belong together but which present themselves differently. Records are used to establish uniform titles which collocate all versions of a given work under one unique heading when such versions are issued under different titles. With authority control, one unique preferred name represents all variations and will include different variations and misspellings, uppercase versus lowercase variants, differing dates, so forth.
For example, in Wikipedia, the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales is described by an article Diana, Princess of Wales as well as numerous other descriptors, e.g. Princess Diana, but both Princess Diana and Diana, Princess of Wales describe the same person. In an online library catalog, various entries might look like the following: Diana. Diana, Princess of Wales. Diana, Princess of Wales, 1961–1997 Diana, Princess of Wales 1961–1997 Diana, Princess of Wales, 1961–1997 DIANA, PRINCESS OF WALES, 1961–1997; these different terms describe the same person. Accordingly, authority control reduces these entries to one unique entry or official authorized heading, sometimes termed an access point: Diana, Princess of Wales, 1961–1997 Generally there are different authority file headings and identifiers used by different libraries in different countries inviting confusion, but there are different approaches internationally to try to lessen the confusion. One international effort to prevent such confusion is the Virtual International Authority File, a collaborative attempt to provide a single heading for a particular subject.
It is a way to standardize information from different authority files around the world such as the Integrated Authority File maintained and used cooperatively by many libraries in German-speaki
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued. It is estimated to contain 150–200 million+ items from many countries; as a legal deposit library, the British Library receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK. The Library is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport; the British Library is a major research library, with items in many languages and in many formats, both print and digital: books, journals, magazines and music recordings, play-scripts, databases, stamps, drawings. The Library's collections include around 14 million books, along with substantial holdings of manuscripts and historical items dating back as far as 2000 BC. In addition to receiving a copy of every publication produced in the UK and Ireland, the Library has a programme for content acquisitions.
The Library adds some three million items every year occupying 9.6 kilometres of new shelf space. There is space in the library for over 1,200 readers. Prior to 1973, the Library was part of the British Museum; the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997. The Library is now located in a purpose-built building on the north side of Euston Road in St Pancras and has a document storage centre and reading room near Boston Spa, near Wetherby in West Yorkshire; the Euston Road building is classified as a Grade I listed building "of exceptional interest" for its architecture and history. The British Library was created on 1 July 1973 as a result of the British Library Act 1972. Prior to this, the national library was part of the British Museum, which provided the bulk of the holdings of the new library, alongside smaller organisations which were folded in.
In 1974 functions exercised by the Office for Scientific and Technical Information were taken over. In 1983, the Library absorbed the National Sound Archive, which holds many sound and video recordings, with over a million discs and thousands of tapes; the core of the Library's historical collections is based on a series of donations and acquisitions from the 18th century, known as the "foundation collections". These include the books and manuscripts of Sir Robert Cotton, Sir Hans Sloane, Robert Harley and the King's Library of King George III, as well as the Old Royal Library donated by King George II. For many years its collections were dispersed in various buildings around central London, in places such as Bloomsbury, Chancery Lane and Holborn, with an interlibrary lending centre at Boston Spa, 2.5 miles east of Wetherby in West Yorkshire, the newspaper library at Colindale, north-west London. Initial plans for the British Library required demolition of an integral part of Bloomsbury – a seven-acre swathe of streets in front of the Museum, so that the Library could be situated directly opposite.
After a long and hard-fought campaign led by Dr George Wagner, this decision was overturned and the library was instead constructed by John Laing plc on a site at Euston Road next to St Pancras railway station. From 1997 to 2009 the main collection was housed in this single new building and the collection of British and overseas newspapers was housed at Colindale. In July 2008 the Library announced that it would be moving low-use items to a new storage facility in Boston Spa in Yorkshire and that it planned to close the newspaper library at Colindale, ahead of a move to a similar facility on the same site. From January 2009 to April 2012 over 200 km of material was moved to the Additional Storage Building and is now delivered to British Library Reading Rooms in London on request by a daily shuttle service. Construction work on the Newspaper Storage Building was completed in 2013 and the newspaper library at Colindale closed on 8 November 2013; the collection has now been split between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites.
The British Library Document Supply Service and the Library's Document Supply Collection is based on the same site in Boston Spa. Collections housed in Yorkshire, comprising low-use material and the newspaper and Document Supply collections, make up around 70% of the total material the library holds; the Library had a book storage depot in Woolwich, south-east London, no longer in use. The new library was designed specially for the purpose by the architect Colin St John Wilson in collaboration with his wife MJ Long, who came up with the plan, subsequently developed and built. Facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi and Antony Gormley, it is the largest public building constructed in the United Kingdom in the 20th century. In the middle of the building is a six-storey glass tower inspired by a similar structure in the Beinecke Library, containing the King's Library with 65,000 printed volumes along with other pamphlets and maps collected by King George III between 1763 and 1820.
In December 2009 a new storage building at Boston Spa was opened by Rosie
Autocomplete, or word completion, is a feature in which an application predicts the rest of a word a user is typing. In graphical user interfaces, users can press the tab key to accept a suggestion or the down arrow key to accept one of several. Autocomplete speeds up human-computer interactions when it predicts the word a user intends to enter after only a few characters have been typed into a text input field, it works best in domains with a limited number of possible words, when some words are much more common, or writing structured and predictable text. Many autocomplete algorithms learn new words after the user has written them a few times, can suggest alternatives based on the learned habits of the individual user; the original purpose of word prediction software was to help people with physical disabilities increase their typing speed, as well as to help them decrease the number of keystrokes needed in order to complete a word or a sentence. The need to increase speed is noted by the fact that people who use speech-generating devices produce speech at a rate, less than 10% as fast as people who use oral speech.
But the function is very useful for anybody who writes text people–such as medical doctors–who use long, hard-to-spell terminology that may be technical or medical in nature. Autocomplete or word completion works so that when the writer writes the first letter or letters of a word, the program predicts one or more possible words as choices. If the word he intends to write is included in the list he can select it, for example by using the number keys. If the word that the user wants is not predicted, the writer must enter the next letter of the word. At this time, the word choice is altered so that the words provided begin with the same letters as those that have been selected; when the word that the user wants appears it is selected, the word is inserted into the text. In another form of word prediction, words most to follow the just written one are predicted, based on recent word pairs used. Word prediction uses language modeling, where within a set vocabulary the words are most to occur are calculated.
Along with language modeling, basic word prediction on AAC devices is coupled with a recency model, where words that are used more by the AAC user are more to be predicted. Word prediction software also allows the user to enter their own words into the word prediction dictionaries either directly, or by "learning" words that have been written; some search returns related to genitals or other vulgar terms are omitted from autocompletion technologies, as are morbid terms There are standalone tools that add autocomplete functionality to existing applications. These programs monitor user suggests a list of words based on first typed letter. Examples are Letmetype. LetMeType, freeware, is no longer developed, the author has published the source code and allows anybody to continue development. Typingaid freeware, is developed. Intellicomplete, both a freeware and payware version, works only in certain programs which hook into the intellicomplete server program. Many Autocomplete programs can be used to create a Shorthand list.
The original autocomplete software was Smartype, which dates back to the late 1980s and is still available today. It was developed for medical transcriptionists working in WordPerfect for MS/DOS, but it now functions for any application in any Windows or Web-based program. Shorthand called Autoreplace, is a related feature that involves automatic replacement of a particular string with another one one, longer and harder to type, as "myname" with "Lee John Nikolai François Al Rahman"; this can quietly fix simple typing errors, such as turning "teh" into "the". Several Autocomplete programs, standalone or integrated in text editors, based on word lists include a shorthand function for used phrases. Context completion is a text editor feature, similar to word completion, which completes words based on the current context and context of other similar words within the same document, or within some training data set; the main advantage of context completion is the ability to predict anticipated words more and with no initial letters.
The main disadvantage is the need of a training data set, larger for context completion than for simpler word completion. Most common use of context completion is seen in advanced programming language editors and IDEs, where training data set is inherently available and context completion makes more sense to the user than broad word completion would. Line completion is a type of context completion, first introduced by Juraj Simlovic in TED Notepad, in July 2006; the context in line completion is the current line, while current document poses as training data set. When user begins a line which starts with a used phrase, the editor automatically completes it, up to the position where similar lines differ, or proposes a list of common continuations. Action completion in applications are standalone tools that add autocomplete functionality to an existing applications or all existing applications of a OS, based on the current context; the main advantage of Action completion is the ability to predict anticipated actions.
The main disadvantage is the need of a data set. Most common use of Action completion is seen in IDEs, but there are action completion tools that work globally, in parallel, across all applications of the entire PC without hindering the action completion of the respective a