London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo
Dover is a major ferry port in Kent, South East England. It faces France across the Strait of Dover, the narrowest part of the English Channel, lies south-east of Canterbury and east of Maidstone; the town is the administrative centre of the Dover District and home of the Dover Calais ferry through the Port of Dover. The surrounding chalk cliffs are known as the White Cliffs of Dover. Archaeological finds have revealed that the area has always been a focus for peoples entering and leaving Britain; the name derives from the River Dour. The Port of Dover provides much of the town's employment. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters (dwfr in Middle Welsh; the same element is present in the town's French and Modern Welsh forms, as well as the name of the river Dour and is evident in other English towns such as Wendover. The current name was in use at least by the time of Shakespeare's King Lear, in which the town and its cliffs play a prominent role.
Archaeological finds have shown that there were Stone Age people in the area, that some Iron Age finds exist. During the Roman period, the area became part of the Roman communications network, it was connected by road to Canterbury and Watling Street and it became Portus Dubris, a fortified port. Dover has a preserved Roman lighthouse and the remains of a villa with the only preserved Roman wall painting outside Italy. Dover figured in the Domesday Book. Forts were built above the port and lighthouses were constructed to guide passing ships, it is one of the Cinque Ports. and has served as a bastion against various attackers: notably the French during the Napoleonic Wars and Germany during the Second World War. Dover is in the south-east corner of Britain. From South Foreland, the nearest point to the European mainland, Cap Gris Nez is 34 kilometres away across the Strait of Dover; the site of its original settlement lies in the valley of the River Dour, sheltering from the prevailing south-westerly winds.
This has led to the silting up of the river mouth by the action of longshore drift. The town has been forced into making artificial breakwaters to keep the port in being; these breakwaters have been extended and adapted so that the port lies entirely on reclaimed land. The higher land on either side of the valley – the Western Heights and the eastern high point on which Dover Castle stands – has been adapted to perform the function of protection against invaders; the town has extended up the river valley, encompassing several villages in doing so. Little growth is possible along the coast; the railway, being tunnelled and embanked, skirts the foot of the cliffs. Dover has an oceanic climate similar to the rest of the United Kingdom with mild temperatures year-round and a light amount of rainfall each month; the warmest recorded temperature was 31 °C and the coldest was −8 °C, but the temperature is between 3 °C and 21.1 °C. There is evidence. In 1800, the year before Britain's first national census, Edward Hasted reported that the town had a population of 10,000 people.
At the 2001 census, the town of Dover had 28,156 inhabitants, while the population of the whole urban area of Dover, as calculated by the Office for National Statistics, was 39,078 inhabitants. With the expansion of Dover, many of the outlying ancient villages have been incorporated into the town; the parishes of Dover St. Mary's and Dover St. James, since 1836 Buckland and Charlton have become part Dover, Maxton, Kearsney, Temple Ewell, Whitfield, all to the north of the town centre, are within its conurbation; the Dover Harbour Board is the responsible authority for the running of the Port of Dover. The English Channel, here at its narrowest point in the Straits of Dover, is the busiest shipping lane in the world. Ferries crossing between here and the Continent have to negotiate their way through the constant stream of shipping crossing their path; the Dover Strait Traffic Separation Scheme allots ships separate lanes when passing through the Strait. The Scheme is controlled by the Channel Navigation Information Service based at Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre Dover.
MRCC Dover is charged with co-ordination of civil maritime search and rescue within these waters. The Port of Dover is used by cruise ships; the old Dover Marine railway station building houses one passenger terminal, together with a car park. A second, purpose built, terminal is located further out along the pier; the ferry lines using the port are: to Calais: P&O Ferries, DFDS Seaways. to Dunkirk: DFDS Seaways. These services have been cut in recent years: P&O Ferries sailings to Boulogne were withdrawn in 1993 and Zeebrugge in 2002. SNCF withdrew their three train ferry sailings on the opening of the Channel Tunnel. Regie voor Maritiem Transport moved their Ostend service of three sailings daily to Ramsgate in 1994. Stena Line merged their 20 Calais sailings into the current P&O operation in 1998. Hoverspeed withdrew their 8 daily sailings. SpeedFerries withdrew their 5 daily sailings. LD Lines ceased the Dover-Dieppe service on
Cowardice is a trait wherein fear and excessive self-concern override doing or saying what is right, of help to others or oneself in a time of need—it is the opposite of courage. As a label, "cowardice" indicates a failure of character in the face of a challenge. One who succumbs to cowardice is known as a coward. Many military codes of justice proscribe cowardice in combat as a crime punishable by death; as the opposite of an action or trait that many existing and extant cultures demand, cowardice rates as a character flaw that many societies and their representatives stigmatize and/or punish. According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word coward came into English from the Old French word coart, a combination of the word for "tail" and an agent noun suffix, it would therefore have meant "one with a tail", which may conjur an image of an animal displaying its tail in flight of fear, or a dog's habit of putting its tail between its legs when it is afraid. Like many other English words of French origin, this word was introduced in the English language by the French-speaking Normans, after the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
The English surname Coward, has the same origin and meaning as the word "cowherd". Acts of cowardice have long been punishable by military law, which defines a wide range of cowardly offenses, including desertion in face of the enemy and surrendering to the enemy against orders; the punishment for such acts is severe, ranging from corporal punishment to the death sentence. Cowardly conduct is mentioned within the United States Uniform Code of Military Justice, in Article 99. Cowardice was punishable by execution during World War I, those who were caught were court-martialed and, in many cases, executed by firing squad. British men executed for cowardice were not commemorated on war memorials, their families did not receive benefits and had to endure social stigma. However, many decades those soldiers all received posthumous pardons in the Armed Forces Act 2006 and have been commemorated with the Shot at Dawn Memorial. Unlike British, French and Soviet/Russian forces, the United States forces tried soldiers for cowardice but never followed through with execution while German commanders were less inclined to use execution as a form of punishment.
Considerable controversy was generated by military historian S. L. A. Marshall, who claimed that 75% of U. S. combat troops in World War II never fired at the enemy for the purpose of killing while under direct threat. Author Dave Grossman attempted to explain these findings in his book On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society. Marshall's findings were challenged as mistaken or fabricated, were not replicated in a more rigorous study of Canadian troops in World War II. Anxiety Fear Sissy Virtue Weakness Quotations related to Cowardice at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of cowardice at Wiktionary
Southwold is a small town and civil parish on the English North Sea coast in the East Suffolk district of Suffolk. It lies at the mouth of the River Blyth within the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the town is about 11 miles south of Lowestoft, 29 miles north-east of Ipswich and 97 miles north-east of London, within the parliamentary constituency of Suffolk Coastal. The "All Usual Residents" 2011 Census figure gives a total of 1,098 persons for the town; the 2012 Housing Report by the Southwold and Reydon Society concluded that 49 per cent of the dwellings in the town are used as second homes and let to holiday-makers. Southwold was mentioned in Domesday Book as a fishing port, after the "capricious River Blyth withdrew from Dunwich in 1328, bringing trade to Southwold in the 15th century", it received its town charter from Henry VII in 1489. Over the following centuries, however, a shingle bar built up across the harbour mouth, preventing the town from becoming a major Early Modern port: "The shingle at Southwold Harbour, the mouth of the Blyth, is shifting," William Whittaker observed in 1887.
Southwold was the home of a number of Puritan emigrants to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 1630s, notably a party of 18 assembled under Rev. Young, which travelled in the Mary Ann in 1637. Richard Ibrook, born in Southwold and a former bailiff of the town, emigrated to Hingham, along with Rev. Peter Hobart, son of Edmund Hobart of Hingham, Norfolk. Rev. Hobart had been an assistant vicar of St Edmund's Church, after graduating from Magdalene College, Cambridge. Hobart married in daughter of his fellow Puritan Richard Ibrook; the migrants to Hingham were led by Robert Peck, vicar of St Andrew's Church in Hingham and a native of Beccles. A fire in 1659 devastated most of the town and damaged St Edmund's Church, whose original structure dated from the 12th century; the fire created a number of open spaces within the town. Today this "series of varied and delightful village greens" and the restriction of expansion by the surrounding marshes, have preserved the town's genteel appearance. On the green just above the beach, descriptively named Gun Hill, the six 18-pounder cannon commemorate the Battle of Sole Bay, fought in 1672 between English and French fleets on one side and the Dutch on the other.
The battle was bloody but indecisive and many bodies were washed ashore. Southwold Museum has a collection of mementos of the event, it has been said that these cannon were captured from the Scots at Culloden and given to the town by the Duke of Cumberland, who had landed at Southwold in October 1745 having been recalled from Europe to deal with the Jacobite threat, but they are much larger than those used by Charles Edward Stuart's army in that campaign. During World War I, it was thought that these cannon were one reason why this part of the coast was bombarded by the German Fleet as a "fortified coast". In World War II the cannon were prudently removed, reputedly buried for safety, returned to their former position after hostilities. On 15 May 1943 low-flying German fighter-bombers killed eleven people. Up to 1 April 2019, Southwold was part of the Southwold and Reydon electoral ward, in the Waveney District Council area; the population of this ward, taken at the 2011 census, was 3,680. Although the town lost its independent Municipal Borough status in the Local Government reforms of 1974 and consequent incorporation in Waveney District, it continues to have an elected, non-partisan Town Council and Mayor.
With the 1 April 2019 amalgamation of the Waveney and Suffolk Coastal district councils to form a new East Suffolk "super council", Southwold is now in an expanded ward with Reydon and Walberswick. Where once the Southwold and Reydon ward, under Waveney District, elected two councillors, the new Southwold ward will be represented at East Suffolk district by one councillor only. Although once home to a number of different industries, Southwold's economy nowadays is based on services, hotels, holiday accommodation and tourism. With the surrounding areas given over to agriculture, the town is an important commercial centre for the area, with a number of independent shops, cafés and restaurants. However, there has been a marked trend in recent years for retailing chains, including food and beverages and stationery shops, to take over independent retail premises. Adnams Brewery is located in Southwold, is the town's largest single employer. Although the fishing fleet and the industry is much diminished, Southwold Harbour remains one of the main fishing ports on the Suffolk coastline.
In 2012, additional facilities for the fleet were constructed there, as part of the repair and reinstatement of the Harbour's North Wall. Southwold Primary School, adjacent to St. Edmund's Church caters for children aged 2 to 11 years; as a member of the Yox Valley Partnership of Schools, it works in partnership with Yoxford and Peasenhall Primary School in Yoxford and Middleton Primary School, near Dunwich. Until it closed in 1990, the nearest secondary school for Southwold children was Reydon High School. Thereafter, most pupils were bused to either the Sir John Leman High School in Beccles or to Bungay High School; these schools have been joined by Beccles Free School, opened in 2012 and catering for pupils aged 11–16. Following a decision by Suffolk County Council on changes to free school transport, the default 11–16 secondary school for Southwold and Reydon stude
Edward Barnes (Upstairs, Downstairs)
Edward Barnes, is a fictional character in the British television series, Downstairs. He was portrayed by Christopher Beeny, he replaced Alfred as footman in 1906, but Alfred Harris in Rose's Pigeon returns to the house Eaton Place. Alfred is on the run from the police having murdered his previous employer, with holding Edward hostage at knifepoint and taking Edward hostage in the coal cellar. In The Bolter Edward goes as James Bellamy's footman for a weekend visit to Somerby, the country house of James' school-friend Lord "Bunny" Newbury. During his visit to Somerby Edward sees Lord Lady Tewkesbury together. In What the Footman Saw he claims that he saw Gilmour and the married Lady Tewkesbury sleeping together; that leads to the scandalous divorce case of Lady Tewkesbury. Edward stays until he leaves having just married Daisy. Edward is a high-spirited and happy fellow and the source of happy banter, but suffers from severe shell shock after returning from the front. After the war, following a short period in which he and Daisy leave service, he becomes chauffeur and under butler to the Bellamys, in 1930 becomes butler to Lord and Lady Stockbridge
Historical period drama
The term historical period drama refers to a work set in a past time period used in the context of film and television. It is an informal crossover term that can apply to several genres and is heard in the context of historical fiction and romances, adventure films, swashbucklers. A period piece may be set in a vague or general era such as the Middle Ages or a specific period such as the Roaring Twenties. A religious work can qualify as period drama but not as historical drama; some works attempt to portray historical events or persons, to the degree that the available historical research and the length of the work will allow. These types of works are known as docudrama, examples being Cinderella Man, Schindler's List, Lincoln. Other works are fictionalized stories based on actual people or events, such as Braveheart and Les Misérables. Film and television examples of period pieces include Marie Antoinette, The Leopard, Barry Lyndon, The Age of Innocence, Last Man Standing, Shakespeare in Love, The Young Victoria, Darkest Hour and The Favourite.
Examples of television series include Robin Hood, Middlemarch and Prejudice, The Tudors, Mad Men, Boardwalk Empire, Call the Midwife, Downton Abbey, Deadwood and Catch Fire, Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, Father Brown, Stranger Things, The Americans, Little House on the Prairie, That'70s Show, The Get Down, Another Period, Better Call Saul and The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel. List of films about the American Revolution List of films and television shows about the American Civil War Historical fiction Sword-and-sandal List of films set in ancient Rome Western films Asian historical period drama films Jidaigeki Wuxia Sageuk Phim lịch sử Middle Ages in film War film