Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
Sidney Sussex College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. The college was founded in 1596 under the terms of the will of Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex and named after its foundress, it was from its inception an avowedly Protestant foundation. In her will, Lady Sussex left the sum of £5,000 together with some plate to found a new college at Cambridge University "to be called the Lady Frances Sidney Sussex College", her executors Sir John Harington and Henry Grey, 6th Earl of Kent, supervised by Archbishop John Whitgift, founded the college seven years after her death. While the college's geographic size has changed little since 1596, an additional range was added to the original E-shaped buildings in the early 17th century and the appearance of the whole college was changed in the 1820s and 1830s, under the leadership of the Master at the time, William Chafy. By the early 19th century, the buildings' original red brick was unfashionable and the hall range was suffering serious structural problems.
The opening up of coal mines on estates left to the College in the 18th century provided extra funds which were to be devoted to providing a new mathematical library and accommodation for Mathematical Exhibitioners. As a result, the exterior brick was covered with a layer of cement, the existing buildings were heightened and the architectural effect was heightened, under the supervision of Sir Jeffry Wyatville. In the late nineteenth century, the college's finances received a further boost from the development of the resort of Cleethorpes on College land on the Lincolnshire coast, purchased in 1616, following a bequest for the benefit of scholars and fellows by Peter Blundell, a merchant from Tiverton, Devon. A new wing added in 1891, to the designs of John Loughborough Pearson, is stylistically richer than the original buildings and has stone staircases whereas the stairs in the older buildings are made of timber. In the early twentieth century, a High Church group among the Fellows were instrumental in the rebuilding and enlargement of the chapel, provided with a richly carved interior in late seventeenth-century style, designed by T. H. Lyon, somewhat at odds with the college's original Puritan ethos.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, E. H. Griffiths wrote a ten verse song dedicated to Sidney Sussex; each verse systematically identifies dismisses other Cambridge colleges for their faults, before settling on Sidney as the best college of all. The chorus exhorts the audience:'Go travel round the town, my friend, whichever way you please, From Downing up to Trinity, from Peterhouse to Caius: Then seek a little College just beside a busy street, Its name is Sidney Sussex, you'll find it Bad to Beat.' Sidney Sussex is recognised as one of the more classical Cambridge colleges. Its current student body consists of 350 undergraduate students and 190 graduates. Academically, Sidney Sussex has tended towards a mid-table position in the unofficial Tompkins Table. However, the college has traditionally excelled in certain subjects, notably Mathematics, History and Law, it is known for the high standard of pastoral support from the Tutorial team, a sense of mutual support from students doing the same subject.
The college ranks fourth highest amongst Cambridge colleges in Nobel Prizes won by alumni. The Choir of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge was nominated for a 2013 Gramophone Award in recognition of their disc of the music of Thomas Weelkes; the choir tours most to the United States, in July 2018. In the television show University Challenge, Sidney Sussex had a winning team in both 1971 and 1978–79; the 1978 team, comprising John Gilmore, John Adams, David Lidington, Nick Graham, went on to win the "Champion of Champions" University Challenge reunion competition in 2002. The college last appeared on the television show in 2018, it is known for producing a well-regarded May Ball for a smaller college. Notably, students created an artificial lake and canal in 2010, when the ball had a Venetian theme, to enable punting at the landlocked college. Recent themes have included'Light' and'Beyond'; as with many of the smaller colleges, Sidney Sussex does not run a May Ball every year, instead running a biennial May Ball, on numbered years.
On odd numbered years, the college hosted an Arts Festival, which welcomed anyone in Cambridge, town or gown, to attend. Notable guest speakers at the Sidney Arts Festival include Stephen Fry, in 2015. However, for 2017 it was decided instead to hold a June Event. June Events are similar to a May Ball, but are smaller with a lower ticket price, shorter running time; the Confraternitas Historica, or Confraternitas Historica Dominae Franciscae Comitis Sussexiae, is the history society of Sidney Sussex College and is reputed to be the longest-running student history society in Europe, having existed since 1910. In fact, no meetings were held from 1914 to 1919 but since, during the First World War, "the University itself ceased to function... the hiatus of 1914-19 is not counted as a break in the continuity of the society". The Latin name of the society reflects the tastes of Jack Reynolds, the High Church Fellow who presided over its creation, who "endowed the Society with an elaborate Latin initiation ceremony".
Rather than being led by a President, the student in charge of the society is instead'Princeps'. Other society roles include the'Magister,"Tribune,"Pontifex Maximus,' and'Comes'. Furthermore, during society meetings all attendees are referred to in an ega
Robinson College, Cambridge
Robinson College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. Founded in 1977, Robinson is one of the newest Oxbridge colleges and is unique in having been intended, from its inception, for both undergraduate and graduate students of both sexes. Despite this, it retains many of the same traditions and institutions of other Cambridge colleges, including formal hall, Latin grace, a chapel and porters' lodge, it was founded through a significant donation from the 20th century British businessman and philanthropist, Sir David Robinson. The college was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1981 with both undergraduate and graduate students in attendance; the college was founded after the British philanthropist Sir David Robinson offered the university £17 million to establish a new college in Cambridge. Robinson gave his college another £1 million on the occasion of its official opening; the first graduate students and fellows joined the college in 1977. Undergraduates were first admitted in 1979, but significant numbers only began arriving the following year.
The college was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II in May 1981. Despite maintaining many Cambridge traditions, such as Formal Hall, the college has avoided others: for example, it is one of the few colleges that allows its students to walk on the grass in the college gardens. Robinson is less formal and traditional than other Cambridge colleges like St. John's College, Emmanuel College, Selwyn College, Trinity College; the arms of the college are described as follows:'Azure in base two Bars wavy Argent over all a Pegasus rampant Or gorged with a Crown rayonny Gules.' The Latin grace is read before the start of formal hall. Latin: Benedic, nobis et donis tuis, per Jesum Christum dominum nostrum. Amen. Lord, bless your gifts, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. Designed by the Scottish architectural firm Gillespie, Kidd & Coia, Robinson's main buildings are distinctive for the use of red bricks in their construction. In November 2008 the college was included in the "50 most inspiring buildings in Britain" by The Daily Telegraph.
Of particular note are the library and chapel, the latter with stained-glass windows designed by John Piper. The college is located a ten-minute walk west of the city centre, behind the University Library, near the science buildings in West Cambridge and the arts faculties on the university's Sidgwick Site, it stands on a 12.5-acre wooded site noted for its horticultural interest. Within its grounds are Thorneycreek House and Cottage, the Crausaz Wordsworth Building, the Maria Björnson outdoor theatre and gardens through which flows Bin Brook, which once supplied water to the Hospital of St John. Robinson owns a number of houses on Adams Road and Sylvester Road adjoining the main college site, which it uses for student accommodation. A number of graduate students live in college-owned accommodation elsewhere in Cambridge, consisting of a terrace of six houses off the city's Mill Road as well as a single house on Mill Road itself; the main entrance to the college is via a drawbridge-like ramp, accessible to wheelchair users, there are some special facilities for those with physical or visual disabilities.
The Needham Research Institute is located within the college grounds. As one of Cambridge's most important conference centres, Robinson hosts a number of conferences during the summer vacation when the undergraduate students are absent. Robinson has a purpose-built conference centre, twenty miles west of Cambridge at Wyboston on the border with Bedfordshire, used both for occasional and regular events such as the annual conference of the Association of Business Psychologists. Students of the college are represented by the Robinson College Students' Association, or RCSA, headed by a President, with members of the college elected into positions on the RCSA committee every year. Politically, Robinson is seen as liberal. Robinson has supplied a large number of Green Officers to the Cambridge University Students' Union in recent years and in 2008 was judged the most environmentally friendly college in Cambridge. Like other colleges, Robinson provides its students with recreational facilities such as a JCR, MCR, TV room, art room, café and bar.
As a result of its other role as a conference centre, the college is equipped with two auditoria that are available for student use during term. There is a purpose-built party room, dedicated to hosting weekly college "bops" and other entertainment. Musical talents are catered for by CD library and chapel. There are several sports teams, covering most major sports: everything from water polo and cricket to rowing and rugby union. Robinson have become successful in hockey winning the Cambridge colleges league and colleges varsity match against Oriel College, Oxford, in 2009/10, in addition to becoming mixed cuppers champions by beating Churchill College, Cambridge. Joe Ansbro, Scottish international rugby union player Morwenna Banks, actress Matt Brittin, Vice-president at Google Nick Clegg, former Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and former Leader of the Liberal Democrats Adrian Davies, Welsh international rugby union player Greg Hands, former Chief Secretary to the Treasury Charles Hart and musician Marko Attila Hoare, historian Konnie Huq, television presenter Rebecca John, television presenter and journalist Tim Lenton, climate scientist Anthony Lowe, chi
Murray Edwards College, Cambridge
Murray Edwards College is a women-only constituent college of the University of Cambridge. It was founded as "New Hall" in 1954 but, unlike many other colleges, it was founded without a significant endowment and thus did not bear a benefactor's name; this situation changed in 2008 following a donation of £30 million by alumna Ros Edwards and her husband Steve Edwards to secure the future of the College as a college at the University of Cambridge in perpetuity. In recognition of this, New Hall was renamed Murray Edwards College - honouring the first President, Dame Rosemary Murray and the donors. New Hall was founded in 1954, housing sixteen students in Silver Street where Darwin College now stands; this was at a time when Cambridge had the lowest proportion of women undergraduates of any university in the United Kingdom, when only two other colleges admitted female students. In 1962, members of the Darwin family gave "The Orchard", to the College; this new site was located on Huntingdon Road, about a mile from the centre of Cambridge.
The architects chosen were Chamberlin and Bon, who are known for their design of the Barbican in London, fundraising commenced. The building work began in 1964 and was completed by W. & C. French in 1965; the new college could house up to 300 students. In 1967, one of the College's PhD students, Jocelyn Bell Burnell, a researcher in the university radio astronomy group, discovered the first four pulsars, leading to a Nobel Prize for her supervisor, for Jocelyn Bell-Burnell herself a position as a Research Professor at the University of Oxford. In 1975, the College's President Dame Rosemary Murray became the first woman to hold the post of Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. Since two subsequent presidents, Anne Lonsdale and Jennifer Barnes, have become Pro-Vice-Chancellors of the University of Cambridge. Men-only Cambridge colleges were converted into mixed-sex colleges in the 1980s. Since the 2006 announcement that Oxford University's last remaining women-only college, St Hilda's, will admit men, Cambridge is the only university in the United Kingdom that maintains a female-only student admissions policy, represented by Newnham College, Murray Edwards College, Lucy Cavendish College.
The fellowship and staff at Murray Edwards College are recruited from both sexes. New Hall received its Royal Charter in 1972; the Arms of the college are emblazoned as follows: Sable a Dolphin palewise head downwards to the dexter in chief three Mullets fesswise a Bordure embattled ArgentIn plain English, this means: on a black background, place the following features in silver. Vertically in the centre, place a dolphin with head downwards to the left. On top, place three stars horizontally across. Bordering the arms, place a square wave representing the battlements of a castle; the black castellation round. The three stars are borrowed from the Murray coat of arms, while the heraldic dolphin symbolises a youthful spirit of exploration and discovery, a kindly intelligence; the college had designed a new logo to mark its transition from New Hall to Murray Edwards College. It was based on the design of the interior of the dining hall and was called the'spark'. However, on consultation with its alumnae, the college decided to continue to use its arms in official materials.
Like many of the other Cambridge colleges, Murray Edwards College was not built all at one time but expanded as the need arose, over several time periods. The College therefore has several accommodation blocks of differing styles. In order of construction: Orchard Court recalls the original name of the grounds now occupied by the College, known as The Orchard, a large house part-owned by Norah Barlow, granddaughter of Charles Darwin, it is divided into the Wolfson and Spooner Wings, named after donors to the College during its first few decades. Part of the original structure was designed in the 1960s and completed in 1965. In 2009, part of this block was refurbished to improve fire living standards. Pearl House, named after Dr Valerie Pearl, the second President of the College; the building was constructed with funding from the Kaetsu Foundation. All rooms are en suite. Wheelchair access is available to each floor via the central lift. Opened in 1994. First year undergraduates are accommodated in this block.
Buckingham House. The current building was a replacement for another building of the same name that stood on this site, was opened in 2001. All rooms are en suite; the building has a lift. Contains a 142-seat auditorium, used for lectures, film festivals and concerts. Canning and Eliza Fok House is named after the Hong Kong entrepreneur Canning Fok and his wife Eliza Fok, who donated the funds for constructing this accommodation block. All rooms are en suite; the building has a lift. Opened in 2008. Canning and Eliza Fok House is built to accommodate the growing population of graduate students at Murray Edwards, has a large shared kitchen/living area between 8 bedrooms; the first buildings of the College on Huntingdon Road were designed by the architects, Chamberlin and Bon, are listed Grade II*. This includes: The Dome The Fountain Court The Library Orchard Court The College gardens have an informal style planned and planted by the first president, Dame Rosemary Murray; the gardens include a greenhouse belonging to the estate of the Darwin family, where banana plants are now grown during the winter months.
In 2007, Murray
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867 including 24,506 students. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age; the first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not conferred until 1951. The world-renowned University of Cambridge was founded in 1209; the buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital and St John's College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, which evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology has its main campus in the city.
Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies born out of the university. More than 40% of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average; the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to house premises of AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. The first game of association football took place at Parker's Piece; the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fair are held on Midsummer Common, the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the A14 roads. Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station. Settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times; the earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3,500-year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College.
Archaeological evidence of occupation through the Iron Age is a settlement on Castle Hill from the 1st century BC relating to wider cultural changes occurring in southeastern Britain linked to the arrival of the Belgae. The principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village; the fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street. The eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettle's Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill, it was converted to civilian use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads and a village in the Cambridge district of Newnham. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the location may have been abandoned by the Britons, although the site is identified as Cair Grauth listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons.
Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement – on and around Castle Hill – became known as Grantebrycge. Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands. By the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a "little ruined city" containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement expanded on both sides of the river; the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as St Bene't's Church, merchant houses and a mint, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant".
In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill. Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies; the first town charter was granted by Henry I between 1120 and 1131. It recognised the borough court; the distinctive Round Church dates from this period. In 1209, Cambridge University was founded by students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford; the oldest existing college, was founded in 1284. In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the Black Death. Few records survive; the town north of the river was affected being wiped out. Following further depopulation after a second national epidemic in 1361, a letter from the Bishop of Ely suggested that two parishes in Cambridge be merged as there were not enough people to fill one church. With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi and Clare.
In 1382 a revised town charter effects a "diminution of the liberties that the community had enjoyed", due to Cambridge's pa
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge
Corpus Christi College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. It is notable as the only college founded by Cambridge townspeople: it was established in 1352 by the Guild of Corpus Christi and the Guild of the Blessed Virgin Mary, making it the sixth-oldest college in Cambridge. With around 250 undergraduates and 200 postgraduates, it has the second smallest student body of the traditional colleges of the University; the College has traditionally been one of the more academically successful colleges in the University of Cambridge. In the unofficial Tompkins Table, which ranks the colleges by the class of degrees obtained by their undergraduates, Corpus's 2012 position was 3rd, with 32.4% of its undergraduates achieving first-class results. The college's average position between 2003 and 2012 was 9th, in the most recent rankings, it was placed 10th. Corpus ranks among the wealthiest Cambridge colleges in terms of fixed assets, being exceptionally rich in silver; the College's endowment was valued at £90.9M at the end of June 2017, while its net assets were valued at £227.4M.
The guild of Corpus Christi was founded in Cambridge in 1349 by William Horwode, Henry de Tangmere, John Hardy in response to the Black Death. They determined to found a new college in the University of Cambridge, the sixth in the University's history; the same year the new guild merged with an older guild, the Guild of the Blessed Virgin Mary, decimated by the Plague. The united guilds acquired land in the centre of town and their patron, the Duke of Lancaster, applied to King Edward III for a licence to found a new college, granted in 1352. Construction began of a single modest court near the parish church and in 1356 it was ready to house the Master and two fellows; the college's statutes were drawn up in 1356. The united guild merged its identity with the new college, which acquired all the guild's lands and revenues; the grandest of these ceremonies was the annual Corpus Christi procession: a parade through the streets to Magdalene Bridge, the host carried by a priest and several of the college's treasures carried by the Master and fellows, before returning for an extravagant dinner.
The parade continued until the English Reformation, when the Master, William Sowode, put a stop to it in 1535. The college continues to have a grand dinner on the feast day of Corpus Christi, the Thursday after Trinity Sunday; the newly constructed court could house 22 students. The statutes laid down the rules governing the behaviour of fellows only. Students were not part of the foundation at this stage and would not come within the scope of the statutes for another 200 years. In its early centuries, the college was poor and so could not construct new buildings, it had no chapel, so the members worshipped in St Bene't's Church next door. From the late 14th century through to the 19th century during the Reformation when Catholic references were discouraged, Corpus was known as St Benet's College. By 1376 it possessed 55 books, many more would be donated or bequeathed over the succeeding centuries, most those donated in the 16th century by Archbishop Matthew Parker, celebrated by the college as its greatest benefactor.
During the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, the college was sacked by a mob of townspeople led by the mayor which, according to the college, carried away its plate as well as its charter to be burned while gutting the rest of the college buildings. Corpus was the only University college, although by no means the only University building, to be attacked; the revolt, which took place during the Corpus Christi week, focused on the college as centre of discontent due to its rigid collection of "candle rents". The college claimed £80 in damages. In 1460 during the Wars of the Roses, the college paid for armaments including artillery and arrows, protective clothing to defend the college's treasures from a "tempestuous riot". Elizabeth, Duchess of Norfolk, her sister Lady Eleanor Botelar née Talbot, believed by some to have been secretly married to Edward IV, endowed the college with scholarships in the 1460s and financed repairs to the college buildings; as a monument a'talbot', the heraldic supporter of the Talbot family, was placed on the gable of Old Court and can still be seen today.
At the same time the Master, Thomas Cosyn, built the college's first chapel and a passageway between Old Court and St Bene't's Church. Over the next few centuries, garret rooms were added in Old Court increasing student numbers. Although spared the worst of the religious tumult that the Reformation brought to England, the college produced adherents and indeed martyrs to both traditions. Notable are William Sowode who cancelled the Corpus Christi procession, St Richard Reynolds, martyred by Henry VIII and Thomas Dusgate and George Wishart who were both burned as Protestants, it was during this time. He donated his unrivalled library to much silver plate and its symbol, the pelican. In order to ensure the safety of his collection Parker inserted into the terms of his endowment one which stated that if any more than a certain number of books were lost, the rest of the collection would pass first to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge and to Trinity Hall, Cambridge; every few years, representatives from both of those colleges ceremonially inspect the collection for any losses.
Parker placed a similar condition on the silv
Pembroke College, Cambridge
Pembroke College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. The college is the third-oldest college of the university and has over seven hundred students and fellows. Physically, it is one of the university's larger colleges, with buildings from every century since its founding, as well as extensive gardens, its members are termed "Valencians". Pembroke has selective admissions rate and a level of academic performance among the highest of all the Cambridge colleges. Pembroke is home to the first chapel designed by Sir Christopher Wren and is one of the six Cambridge colleges to have educated a British prime minister, in Pembroke's case William Pitt the Younger; the college library, with a Victorian neo-gothic clock tower, is endowed with an original copy of the first encyclopaedia to contain printed diagrams. The college's current master is Baron Smith of Finsbury. Marie de St Pol, Countess of Pembroke founded Cambridge. On Christmas Eve 1347, Edward III granted Marie de St Pol, widow of the Earl of Pembroke, the licence for the foundation of a new educational establishment in the young university at Cambridge.
The Hall of Valence Mary, as it was known, was thus founded to house a body of students and fellows. The statutes were notable in that they both gave preference to students born in France who had studied elsewhere in England, that they required students to report fellow students if they indulged in excessive drinking or visited disreputable houses; the college was renamed Pembroke Hall, became Pembroke College in 1856. Marie was involved with College affairs in the thirty years up to her death in 1377, she seems to have been something of a disciplinarian: the original Foundation documents had strict penalties for drunkenness and lechery, required that all students’ debts were settled within two weeks of the end of term, gave strict limits on numbers at graduation parties. In 2015, the college received a bequest of £34 million from the estate of American inventor and Pembroke alumnus Ray Dolby, thought to be the largest single donation to a college in the history of Cambridge University; the first buildings comprised a single court containing all the component parts of a college – chapel, hall and buttery, master's lodgings, students' rooms – and the statutes provided for a manciple, a cook, a barber and a laundress.
Both the founding of the college and the building of the city's first college Chapel required the grant of a papal bull. The original court was the university's smallest at only 95 feet by 55 feet, but was enlarged to its current size in the nineteenth century by demolishing the south range; the college's gatehouse is the oldest in Cambridge. The original Chapel now forms the Old Library and has a striking seventeenth-century plaster ceiling, designed by Henry Doogood, showing birds flying overhead. Around the Civil War, one of Pembroke's fellows and Chaplain to the future Charles I, Matthew Wren, was imprisoned by Oliver Cromwell. On his release after eighteen years, he fulfilled a promise by hiring his nephew Christopher Wren to build a great Chapel in his former college; the resulting Chapel was consecrated on St Matthew's Day, 1665, the eastern end was extended by George Gilbert Scott in 1880, when it was consecrated on the Feast of the Annunciation. An increase in membership over the last 150 years saw a corresponding increase in building activity.
The Hall was rebuilt in 1875–6 to designs by Alfred Waterhouse after he had declared the medieval Hall unsafe. As well as the Hall, Waterhouse designed a new range of rooms, Red Buildings, in French Renaissance style, designed a new Master's Lodge on the site of Paschal Yard, pulled down the old Lodge and the south range of Old Court to open a vista to the Chapel, designed a new Library in the continental Gothic style; the construction of the new library was undertaken by Kett. Waterhouse was dismissed as architect in 1878 and succeeded by George Gilbert Scott, after extending the Chapel, provided additional accommodation with the construction of New Court in 1881, with letters on a series of shields along the string course above the first floor spelling out the text from Psalm 127:1, "Nisi Dominus aedificat domum…". Building work continued into the 20th century with W. D. Caröe as architect, he added Pitt Building between Ivy Court and Waterhouse's Lodge, extended New Court with the construction of O staircase on the other side of the Lodge.
He linked his two buildings with an arched stone screen, Caröe Bridge, along Pembroke Street in a late Baroque style, the principal function of, to act as a bridge by which undergraduates might cross the Master's forecourt at first-floor level from Pitt Building to New Court without leaving the College or trespassing in what was the Fellows' Garden. In 1926, as the Fellows had become disenchanted with Waterhouse's Hall, Maurice Webb was brought in to remove the open roof, put in a flat ceiling and add two storeys of sets above; the wall between the Hall and the Fellows' Parlour was taken down, the latter made into a High Table dais. A new Senior Parlour was created on the ground floor of Hitcham Building; the remodelling work was completed in 1949 when Murray Easton replaced the Gothic tracery of the windows with a simpler design in the style of the medieval Hall. In 1933 Maurice Webb built a new Master's Lodge in the south-east corner of the College gardens
Christ's College, Cambridge
Christ's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college includes the Master, the Fellows of the College, about 450 undergraduate and 170 graduate students; the college was founded by William Byngham in 1437 as God's House. In 1505, the college was granted a new royal charter, was given a substantial endowment by Lady Margaret Beaufort, changed its name to Christ's College, becoming the twelfth of the Cambridge colleges to be founded in its current form; the college is renowned for educating some of Cambridge's most famous alumni, including Charles Darwin and John Milton. Within Cambridge, Christ's has a reputation for highest academic standards and strong tutorial support, it has averaged 1st place on the Tompkins Table from 1980–2006 and third place from 2006 to 2013, returning to first place in 2018. Christ's College was founded by William Byngham in 1437 as God's House, on land, soon after sold to enable the enlargement of King's College. Byngham obtained the first royal licence for God's House in July 1439.
The college was founded to provide for the lack of grammar-school masters in England at the time, the college has been described as "the first secondary-school training college on record". The original site of Godshouse was surrendered in 1443 to King's College, about three quarters of King's College Chapel stands on the original site of God's House. After the original royal licence of 1439, three more licences, two in 1442 and one in 1446, were granted before in 1448 God's House received the charter upon which the college was in fact founded. In this charter, King Henry VI was named as the founder, in the same year the college moved to its current site. In 1505, the college was endowed by Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII, was given the name Christ's College at the suggestion of her confessor, the Bishop John Fisher; the expansion in the population of the college in the seventeenth century led to the building, in the 1640s, of the Fellows' Building in what is now Second Court.
The original 15th/16th century college buildings now form part of First Court, including the chapel, Master's Lodge and Great Gate tower. The gate itself is disproportionate: the bottom has been cut off to accommodate a rise in street level, which can be seen in the steps leading down to the foot of L staircase in the gate tower; the college hall built at the start of the 16th century, was restored in 1875–1879 by George Gilbert Scott the younger. The lawn of First Court is famously round, a wisteria sprawls up the front of the Master's lodge. Second Court is built up on only three sides, one of, formed by the 1640s Fellows' Building; the fourth side backs onto the Master's garden. The Stevenson Building in Third Court was designed by J. J. Stevenson in the 1880s and was extended in 1905 as part of the College's Quadcentenary. In 1947 Professor Albert Richardson designed a new cupola for the Stevenson building, a second building, the neo-Georgian Chancellor's Building, completed in 1950. Third Court's Memorial Building, a twin of the Chancellor's building by Richardson, was completed in 1953 at a cost of £80,000.
Third Court is noted for its display of irises in May and June, a gift to the college in 1946. The controversial tiered concrete New Court was designed in the Modernist style by Sir Denys Lasdun in 1966–70, was described as "superb" in Lasdun's obituary in the Guardian. Design critic Hugh Pearman comments "Lasdun had big trouble relating to the street at the overhanging rear", it appears distinctively in aerial photographs, forming part of the northern boundary of the college. An assortment of neighbouring buildings have been absorbed into the college, of which the most notable is The Todd Building Cambridge's County Hall. Through an arch in the Fellows' Building is the Fellows' Garden, it includes two mulberry trees, of which the older was planted in 1608, the same year as Milton's birth. Both trees have toppled sideways, the younger tree in the Great Storm of 1987, are now earthed up round the trunks, but continue to fruit every year. Christ's College is one of only 5 colleges in Cambridge to have its own swimming pool.
It is fed by water from Hobson's Conduit. Refurbished, it is now known as the'Malcolm Bowie Bathing Pool', is thought to be the oldest outdoor swimming pool in the UK, dating from the mid 17th century; the other four swimming pools within colleges belong to Girton College, Corpus Christi College, Emmanuel College and Clare Hall. With a deserved reputation within Cambridge for the highest academic standards, Christ's came first in the Tompkins Table's twentieth anniversary aggregate table, between 2001 and 2007, it had a mean position of third. Academic excellence continues at Christ's, with 91% of students in 2013 gaining a first class degree or an upper second; this is higher than the University average of 70%. Christ's is noted for educating two of Cambridge's most famous alumni, the poet John Milton and the naturalist Charles Darwin, during the celebrations for the 800th anniversary of the University, were both placed at the foreground as two of the four most iconic individuals in the University's history.
The college has educated Nobel Laureates including Martin Evans, James Meade, Alexander R. Todd, Baron Todd and Duncan Haldane, it is the University's 6th largest producer of Nobel Prize winners. Some of the college's other famous alumni include comedians Sacha Baron Cohen, John Oliver and Andy Parsons, Lord Louis Mountbatten of Burma, South African Prime Minister Jan Smuts, historian Simon S