Fasces is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging. The fasces had its origin in the Etruscan civilization and was passed on to ancient Rome, where it symbolized a magistrate's power and jurisdiction; the axe associated with the symbol, the Labrys the double-bitted axe from Crete, is one of the oldest symbols of Greek civilization. To the Romans, it was known as a bipennis; the symbol was associated with female deities, from prehistoric through historic times. The image has survived in the modern world as a representation of magisterial or collective power and governance; the fasces occurs as a charge in heraldry: it is present on the reverse of the U. S. Mercury dime coin and behind the podium in the United States House of Representatives. During the first half of the 20th century both the fasces and the swastika became identified with the authoritarian/fascist political movements of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. During this period the swastika became stigmatized, but the fasces did not undergo a similar process.
The fact that the fasces remained in use in many societies after World War II may have been due to the fact that prior to Mussolini the fasces had been adopted and incorporated within the governmental iconography of many governments outside Italy. As such, its use persists as an accepted form of governmental and other iconography in various contexts; the fasces is sometimes confused with the related term fess, which in French heraldry is called a fasce. A few artifacts found showing a thin bundle of rods surrounding a two-headed axe point to a possible Etruscan origin for fasces, but little is known about the Etruscans themselves. Fasces symbolism might be derived via the Etruscans from the eastern Mediterranean, with the labrys, the Anatolian, Minoan double-headed axe incorporated into the praetorial fasces. There is little archaeological evidence for precise claims. By the time of the Roman Republic, the fasces had developed into a thicker bundle of birch rods, sometimes surrounding a single-headed axe and tied together with a red leather ribbon into a cylinder.
On certain special occasions, the fasces might be decorated with a laurel wreath. The symbolism of the fasces could suggest strength through unity; this symbolism occurs in Aesop's fable "The Old Man and his Sons". A similar story is told about the Bulgar Khan Kubrat, giving rise to the Bulgarian national motto "Union gives strength". However, bundled birch twigs could symbolise corporal punishment; the fasces lictoriae symbolised power and authority in ancient Rome, beginning with the early Roman Kingdom and continuing through the republican and imperial periods. By republican times, use of the fasces was surrounded with protocol. A corps of apparitores called lictors each carried fasces before a magistrate, in a number corresponding to his rank. Lictors preceded consuls, dictators, curule aediles and the Flamen Dialis during Roman triumphs. According to Livy, it is that the lictors were an Etruscan tradition, adopted by Rome; the highest magistrate, the dictator, was entitled to twenty-four lictors and fasces, the consul to twelve, the proconsul eleven, the praetor six, the propraetor five, the curule aediles two.
Another part of the symbolism developed in Republican Rome was the inclusion of just a single-headed axe in the fasces, with the blade projecting from the bundle. The axe indicated. Fasces carried within the Pomerium—the boundary of the sacred inner city of Rome—had their axe blades removed. During times of emergency, the Roman Republic might choose a dictator to lead for a limited time period, the only magistrate to be granted capital punishment authority within the Pomerium. Lictors attending the dictator kept the axes in their fasces inside the Pomerium—a sign that the dictator had the ultimate power in his own hands. There were exceptions to this rule: in 48 BC, guards holding bladed fasces guided Vatia Isauricus to the tribunal of Marcus Caelius, Vatia Isauricus used one to destroy Caelius's magisterial chair. An occasional variation on the fasces was the addition of symbolizing victory; this occurred during the celebration of a Triumph - a victory parade through Rome by a returning victorious general.
All Republican Roman commanding generals had held high office with imperium, so were entitled to the lictors and fasces. The modern Italian word fascio, used in the twentieth century to designate peasant cooperatives and industrial workers' unions, is related to fasces. Numerous governments and other authorities have used the image of the fasces as a symbol of power since the end of the Roman Empire, it has been used to hearke
Faggots are meatballs made from minced off-cuts and offal pork together with herbs for flavouring and sometimes added bread crumbs. It is a traditional dish in the United Kingdom South and Mid Wales and the English Midlands. Faggots originated as a traditional cheap food consumed by ordinary country people in Western England west Wiltshire and the West Midlands, their popularity spread from there to South Wales in the mid-nineteenth century, when many agricultural workers left the land to work in the expanding industry and mines of that area. Faggots are known as "ducks" in Yorkshire and Lancashire as "savoury ducks"; the first use of the term in print was in the Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser of Saturday 3 June 1843, a news report of a gluttonous man who ate twenty of them. The first use of the term in print, as cited in the Oxford English Dictionary, dates from 1851, in a piece by Henry Mayhew in which he describes a dish identical to the modern product with chopped liver and lights in an outer wrapper of caul.
This was in London. A faggot consists of minced pork liver and heart, wrapped in bacon, with onion and breadcrumbs; the faggot is cooked in a crock with gravy and served with peas and mashed potato. The mixture is shaped by hand into small balls, wrapped with caul fat, baked. Faggots may be made with beef. Another variation of the faggot is pig's fry wrapped in pig's caul: the pig's fry and boiled onions are minced together mixed with breadcrumbs or cold boiled potatoes, seasoned with sage, mixed herbs and pepper, all beaten together and wrapped in small pieces of caul to form a ball, they are baked in the oven and are served cold. The dish gained in popularity during the rationing in World War II, but declined over the following decades; the "nose-to-tail eating" trend has resulted in greater demand for faggots in the 21st century. Faggots are homemade and are to be found in traditional butchers' shops and market stalls, though larger supermarkets stock the Mr Brain's brand of mass-produced faggot.
These differ from traditional faggots, which have a coarser texture and contain far less water. A popular dish is peas; this combination is common in the Black Country area of the West Midlands. It is still common to see small butchers' shops in the area selling faggots cheaply, made to their own recipe; the use of the word "faggot" has caused controversy due to its additional meaning as a pejorative term for a homosexual man in American English. In 2004, a radio commercial for the UK supermarket chain Somerfield, in which a man rejects his wife's suggested dinner saying "I've got nothing against faggots, I just don't fancy them" was found to have breached the Advertising and Sponsorship Code and was banned by the industry regulator Ofcom. In November 2013, it was reported that British Facebook users had been blocked temporarily for using the word, in its culinary sense, on the website. Facebook said that the word had been "misinterpreted." Meatball Rissole
The term dyke or dike is a slang noun meaning lesbian. It originated as a misogynistic slur for a masculine, tomboyish, or butch woman; the origin of the term is obscure and many theories have been proposed. The Oxford English Dictionary notes the first attestation as Berrey and Van den Bark's 1942 American Thesaurus of Slang. There, dike was the more common term. From the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, dike had been American slang for a well-dressed man, with "diked out" and "out on a dike" indicating a young man was in his best clothes and ready for a night on the town; the etymology of that term is obscure, but may have originated as a Virginian variant of deck and decked out. However, the term bulldyker preceded dyke in print, appearing in Harlem Renaissance novels in the 1920s. Claude McKay's 1928 Home to Harlem includes the passage that lesbians are "what we calls bulldyker in Harlem... I don't understan'... a bulldyking woman." From the context in the novel, the word was considered pejorative at the time.
This may be related to the late-19th-century slang use of dike for the vulva. Bull being used in the sense of "masculine" and "aggressive", a bulldyke would have implied a "masculine cunt". Other theories include that bulldyker derived from morphadike, a dialect variant of hermaphrodite, used for homosexuals in the early 20th century. In an investigative study, Julia Stanley theorizes that the source of these varying definitions stems from gender-determined sub-dialects. Homosexuality in America is a “subculture with its own language.” As such, a special vocabulary is developed by its members. Male homosexuals defined dyke as lesbian without derogation. A bull dyke was defined as a lesbian without further distinction. For female homosexuals of the community, however, a dyke is an masculine identified lesbian, given to indiscretion. Bull dyke is an extension of this term, with the addition of this person described as nasty, obnoxiously aggressive, overly demonstrative of her hatred of men. In an alternative investigation, Susan Krantz discusses the etymology of bulldyke, with derivations of the Middle English “falsehood” for bull and dick for dyke.
Therefore, a possible origin for a masculine lesbian comes from bulldicker that could mean “fake penis,” denoting a “false man.” Further speculation talks of the synonymous term bulldagger. Here, dagger alludes to the male genitalia and bull referring to "false" rather than "man"; the earliest account of dagger in this context stems from an account in 1348 by Henry Knighton. In the 1950s, the word dyke was used as a derogatory term used by straight people and lesbians who were most to be able to move up in social class, they used this term to identify rough bar lesbians. In the 1970s, a poem called; this empowered the lesbian community because they had never heard the term dyke used because it was only used as a derogatory term against them. Because of the exposure of the word to the public, the term dyke was taken up by the lesbian community in the 1970s; the meaning of dyke has positively changed over time. Most members of the community have dropped bull from the term to use it as a positive identifier of one who displays toughness, or as a simple, generic term for all lesbians.
This abbreviation does not carry the negative connotations of the full phrase as it did. Scholar Paula Blank, in an article on lesbian etymology, calls for taking ownership of lesbian and similar words. In the late 20th and early 21st century, the term dyke was claimed by many lesbians as a term of pride and empowerment. In 1983, Alison Bechdel named her new comic strip Dykes to Watch Out For. Depicting the lives of a lesbian community, it is one of the earliest representations of lesbians in popular culture and ran until 2008, it has been described "as important to new generations of lesbians as landmark novels like Rita Mae Brown's Rubyfruit Jungle and Lisa Alther's Kinflicks were to an earlier one."In her 2011 article The Only Dykey One, Lucy Jones argues that consideration of lesbian culture is core to an understanding of lesbian identity construction. Matters came to a head when the United States Patent and Trademark Office denied the lesbian motorcycle group Dykes on Bikes a trademark for its name, on the grounds dyke was offensive and disparaging to lesbians.
However, the office reversed itself and permitted the group to register its name after lawyers appealed and submitted hundreds of pages to show the slang word does not disparage lesbians in the way it once did. Dykes on Bikes declared victory on December 8, 2005 and gained international recognition for leading the city’s gay parade. Much of the gay slang, used today was once seen by the public as self-destructive and demeaning when it was used within the LGBTQ+ community. In 1969, people in the gay community began to march in the streets to demand civil rights. If used, terms such as dyke and faggot were used to identify people as political activists for the gay community. During this time, dyke referred to a woman committed to the most radical position. A surge of feminism in the lesbian commun
Fred Waldron Phelps Sr. was the American minister of the Westboro Baptist Church and a civil rights attorney who became known for his extreme views on homosexuality and protests near the funerals of gay people, military veterans, disaster victims, whose deaths, he believed, were the result of God punishing the U. S. for having "bankrupt values" and tolerating gay people. The Westboro Baptist Church, a Topeka, Kansas-based independent fundamentalist ministry that Phelps founded in 1955, has been called "arguably the most obnoxious and rabid hate group in America." Its signature slogan, remains the name of the group's principal website. In addition to funerals and his followers—mostly his own immediate family members—picketed gay pride gatherings, high-profile political events, university commencement ceremonies, live performances of The Laramie Project, functions sponsored by mainstream Christian groups with which he had no affiliation, arguing it was their sacred duty to warn others of God's anger.
He continued doing so in the face of numerous legal challenges—some of which reached the U. S. Supreme Court—and near-universal opposition and contempt from other religious groups and the general public. Laws enacted at both the federal and state levels for the specific purpose of curtailing his disruptive activities were limited in their effectiveness due to the Constitutional protections afforded to Phelps under the First Amendment. Although Phelps died in 2014, the Westboro Baptist Church remains in operation, it continues to conduct regular demonstrations outside movie theaters, government buildings, other facilities in Topeka and elsewhere, is still characterized as a hate group by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center. Fred Waldron Phelps Sr. was born on November 13, 1929 in Meridian, the elder of two children of Catherine Idalette and Fred Wade Phelps. His father was a railroad policeman for a devout Methodist. In 1935, Catherine Phelps succumbed to esophageal cancer at the age of 28.
Her aunt, Irene Jordan, helped care for Fred and his younger sister Martha Jean until December 1944, when the elder Phelps married Olive Briggs, a 39-year-old divorcee. Fred was an Eagle Scout, he was a member of Phi Kappa, a high school social fraternity, president of the Young Peoples Department of Central United Methodist Church and was honored as the best drilled member of the Mississippi Junior State Guard, a unit similar to the Reserve Officer Training Corps. He graduated high school at 16 years old, ranking sixth in his graduating class of 213 students, was the class orator at his commencement. After graduating from high school he received an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point. On September 8, 1947, at the age of 17, he was ordained a Southern Baptist minister and moved to Cleveland, Tennessee, to attend Bob Jones College. A combination of Phelps' failure to retain the West Point appointment, his abandonment of his father's beloved Methodist faith, his father's remarriage to a divorcee precipitated a lifelong estrangement from his father and stepmother—and by some accounts, from his sister as well.
Phelps never spoke to his family members again, returned all of their letters, birthday cards, Christmas gifts for his children, unopened. Phelps dropped out of Bob Jones College in 1948, he became a street preacher while attending John Muir College in Pasadena. The June 11, 1951 issue of Time magazine included a story on Phelps, who lectured fellow students about "sins committed on campus by students and teachers", including "promiscuous petting, evil language, cheating, teachers' filthy jokes in classrooms, pandering to the lusts of the flesh." When the college ordered him to stop, citing a Californian law that forbade the teaching of religion on any public school campus, he moved his sermons across the street. In October 1951, Phelps met Margie Marie Simms and married her in May 1952. In 1954, his pregnant wife, their newborn son moved to Topeka, where he was hired by the East Side Baptist Church as an associate pastor; the following year, the church's leadership opened Westboro Baptist Church on the other side of town, Phelps became its pastor.
Although the new church was ostensibly nondenominational, Phelps preached a doctrine similar to that of the Primitive Baptists, who believe in scriptural literalism. Thus Christian biblical scripture is true and a predetermined number of people, who were selected for redemption before the world was created, will be saved on Judgment Day, his vitriolic preaching alienated church leaders and most of the original congregation, leaving him with a small following consisting entirely of his own relatives and close friends. Phelps was forced to support himself selling vacuum cleaners, baby strollers, insurance. In 1972, two companies sued Westboro Baptist for failing to pay for the candy being resold by the children. Phelps earned a law degree from Washburn University in 1964, founded the Phelps Chartered law firm; the first notable cases were related to civil rights. "I systematically brought down the Jim Crow laws of this town", he claimed. Phelps' daughter was quoted as saying, "We took on the Jim Crow establishment, Kansas did not take tha
Yiddish is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages. Yiddish is written with a vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet; the earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז or טײַטש, a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German. Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון, distinguishing it from לשון־קודש, meaning Hebrew and Aramaic; the term "Yiddish", short for Yidish Taitsh, did not become the most used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was more called "Jewish" in non-Jewish contexts, but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation today. Modern Yiddish has two major forms. Eastern Yiddish is far more common today.
It includes Southeastern and Northeastern dialects. Eastern Yiddish differs from Western both by its far greater size and by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin. Western Yiddish is divided into Southwestern and Northwestern dialects. Yiddish is used in a number of Haredi Jewish communities worldwide; the term "Yiddish" is used in the adjectival sense, synonymously with "Jewish", to designate attributes of Yiddishkeit. Prior to the Holocaust, there were 11–13 million speakers of Yiddish among 17 million Jews worldwide. 85% of the 6 million Jews who died in the Holocaust were Yiddish speakers, leading to a massive decline in the use of the language. Assimilation following World War II and aliyah, immigration to Israel, further decreased the use of Yiddish both among survivors and among Yiddish-speakers from other countries. However, the number of speakers is increasing in Hasidic communities; the established view is that, as with other Jewish languages, Jews speaking distinct languages learned new co-territorial vernaculars, which they Judaized.
In the case of Yiddish, this scenario sees it as emerging when speakers of Zarphatic and other Judeo-Romance languages began to acquire varieties of Middle High German, from these groups the Ashkenazi community took shape. What German base lies behind the earliest form of Yiddish is disputed. In Max Weinreich's model, Jewish speakers of Old French or Old Italian who were literate in either liturgical Hebrew or Aramaic, or both, migrated through Southern Europe to settle in the Rhine Valley in an area known as Lotharingia extending over parts of Germany and France. Both Weinreich and Solomon Birnbaum developed this model further in the mid-1950s. In Weinreich's view, this Old Yiddish substrate bifurcated into two distinct versions of the language and Eastern Yiddish, they retained the Semitic vocabulary and constructions needed for religious purposes and created a Judeo-German form of speech, sometimes not accepted as a autonomous language. Linguistic research has finessed the Weinreich model or provided alternative approaches to the language's origins, with points of contention being the characterization of its Germanic base, the source of its Hebrew/Aramaic adstrata, the means and location of this fusion.
Some theorists argue. The two main candidates for the germinal matrix of Yiddish, the Rhineland and Bavaria, are not incompatible. There may have been parallel developments in the two regions, seeding the Western and Eastern dialects of Modern Yiddish. Dovid Katz proposes that Yiddish emerged from contact between speakers of High German and Aramaic-speaking Jews from the Middle East; the lines of development proposed by the different theories do not rule out the others. In more recent work, Wexler has argued that Eastern Yiddish is unrelated genetically to Western Yiddish. Wexler's model has met with little academic support, strong critical challenges among historical linguists. By the 10th century, a distinctive Jewish culture had formed in Central Europe which came to be called אַשכּנזי Ashkenazi, "Ashkenazi Jews, from Hebrew: אַשכּנז Ashkenaz, the medieval Hebrew name for northern Europe and Germany. Ashkenaz was centered on the Rhineland and the Palatinate, in what is now the westernmost part of Germany.
Its geographic extent did not
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Death by burning
Death by burning is an execution method involving deliberately causing death through the effects of combustion or exposure to extreme heat. It has a long history as a form of capital punishment, many societies have employed it for activities considered criminal such as treason, rebellious actions by slaves, witchcraft and sexual transgressions, such as incest or homosexuality; the best known executions of this type are those where the condemned is bound to a large wooden stake and a fire lit beneath them. This is called burning at the stake, or in some cases, auto-da-fé. For burnings at the stake, if the fire was large, death came from carbon monoxide poisoning before flames caused lethal harm to the body. If the fire was small, the condemned would burn for some time until death from hypovolemia, heatstroke or the simple thermal decomposition of vital body parts. Other forms of death resulting from exposure to extreme heat are known. For example, pouring substances such as molten metal onto a person, as well as enclosing persons within, or attaching them to, metal contraptions subsequently heated.
Immersion in a heated liquid as a form of execution is considered distinct from death by burning, classified as death by boiling. The 18th century BC law code promulgated by Babylonian king Hammurabi specifies several crimes in which death by burning was thought appropriate. Looters of houses on fire could be cast into the flames, priestesses who abandoned cloisters and began frequenting inns and taverns could be punished by being burnt alive. Furthermore, a man who began committing incest with his mother after the death of his father could be ordered by courts to be burned alive. In Ancient Egypt, several incidents of burning alive perceived rebels are attested. For example, Senusret I is said to have rounded up the rebels in campaign, burnt them as human torches. Under the civil war flaring under Takelot II more than a thousand years the Crown Prince Osorkon showed no mercy, burned several rebels alive. On the statute books, at least, women committing adultery might be burned to death. Jon Manchip White, did not think capital judicial punishments were carried out, pointing to the fact that the pharaoh had to ratify each verdict.
Furthermore, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus asserts that the Egyptians had a terrible punishment for children who murdered their parents: With sharpened reeds, bits of flesh the size of a finger were cut from the criminal's body. He was placed on a bed of thorns and burnt alive. In the Middle Assyrian period, paragraph 40 in a preserved law text concerns the obligatory unveiled face for the professional prostitute, the concomitant punishment if she violated that by veiling herself: A prostitute shall not be veiled. Whoever sees a veiled prostitute shall seize her... and bring her to the palace entrance.... They shall pour hot pitch over her head. For the Neo-Assyrians, mass executions seem to have been not only designed to instill terror and to enforce obedience, but as proof of their might. For example, Neo-Assyrian King Asuhurnasirpal II was evidently proud enough of his bloody work that he committed it to monument and eternal memory as follows:I cut off their hands, I burned them with fire, a pile of the living men and of heads over against the city gate I set up, men I impaled on stakes, the city I destroyed and devastated, I turned it into mounds and ruin heaps, the young men and the maidens in the fire I burned.
In Genesis 38, Judah orders Tamar—the widow of his son, living in her father's household—to be burned when she is believed to have become pregnant by an extramarital sexual relation. Tamar saves herself by proving. In the Book of Jubilees, the same story is told, with some intriguing differences, according to Caryn A. Reeder. In Genesis, Judah is exercising his patriarchal power at a distance, whereas he and the relatives seem more involved in Tamar's impending execution. In Hebraic law, death by burning was prescribed for ten forms of sexual crimes: The imputed crime of Tamar, namely that a married daughter of a priest commits adultery, nine versions of relationships considered as incestuous, such as having sex with one's own daughter, or granddaughter, but for example, to have sex with one's mother-in-law or with one's wife's daughter. In the Mishnah, the following manner of burning the criminal is described: The obligatory procedure for execution by burning: They immersed him in dung up to his knees, rolled a rough cloth into a soft one and wound it about his neck.
One pulled it one the other until he opened his mouth. Thereupon one ignites the wick and throws it in his mouth, it descends to his bowels and sears his bowels; that is, the person dies from being fed molten lead. The Mishnah is, however, a late collections of laws, from about the 3rd century AD, scholars believe it replaced the actual punishment of burning in the old biblical texts. In the 6th century AD collection of the sayings and rulings of the pre-eminent jurists from earlier ages, the Digest, a number of crimes are regarded as punishable by death by burning; the 3rd century jurist Ulpian, for example, says that enemies of the state, deserters to the enemy are to be burned alive. His rough contemporary, the juristical w