Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Trisakti University is Indonesia's largest private university located in Jakarta, Indonesia. Founded on 29 November 1965, the university has more than 20,000 active students and has produced more than 100,000 alumni. Trisakti University employs 742 tenured faculty members and the 160 part-time lecturers. In 1958, Res Publica University was established as Baperki University by Baperki, an organization of Indonesians of Chinese descent; the name "University Res Publica" was taken from a presidential address delivered by President Sukarno, means "for the public interest". The school was destroyed after the attempted coup in Indonesia, Baperki banned, Trisakti University established to replace the destroyed university. Many former students were banned over allegations of ties to the Indonesian Communist Party. There were five faculties at Trisakti University: Faculty of Engineering with five departments Faculty of Dentistry Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Economics with two subjects Faculty of Law and Knowledge SocietySince 1980, several additional faculties were established to cope with fast technological development in Indonesia.
The university has nine faculties. Trisakti has several campuses around Jabodetabek. A Campus is the main campus, located at Jl. Kyai Tapa no. 1 Grogol Jakarta Barat 11440. Administrative Center, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Economics, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Faculty of Mineral Technology, Faculty of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Technology, Faculty of Arts and Design, Graduate School Programs. B Campus, located at Jl. Kyai Tapa Kav 262 Grogol Jakarta Barat 11440. Faculty of Medical Sciences and Faculty of Dentistry. C Campus, located at Jl. A. Yani Kav. 85, Jakarta Timur 13210. Sekolah Tinggi Manajemen Asuransi Trisakti dan Sekolah Tinggi Media Komunikasi Trisakti. D Campus, located at Jl. IKPN Tanah Kusir Bintaro Jakarta Selatan 12330; this is the main campus of Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Trisakti. F Campus, located at Jl. Jenderal Ahmad Yani No 107 By Pass, Jakarta Timur 13210; this campus has another part of Faculty of Economics. G Campus, located at Jl.
Kyai Tapa no. 100 Grogol Jakarta Barat 11440. Trisakti Medical Center and some lecture halls for Faculty of Medical Sciences. Nagrak campus is the largest campus, located at Jl. KH. Rafei-Alternatif Cibubur, Km 6, Bogor 16968. Temporary Management Office, Center of Science Technology and Community Development; the university has nine faculties: Department of Accounting Department of Management Department of Economics Department of Civil Engineering Department of Architecture Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Industrial Engineering Department of Informatics and Information Systems Department of Petroleum Engineering Department of Geology Engineering Department of Mining Engineering Department of Landscape Architecture Department of Environmental Engineering Department of Regional and City Planning Department of Photography Department of Interior Design Department of Product Design Department of Cinematography Trisakti University has achieved world recognition in general, for the quantity and quality level of the job uptake for graduates.
International recognition of the visible courses from Trisakti University has held: Double Degree Bachelor Program on 12 courses with Indiana-Purdue University Indianapolis, USA. Double Degree Master of Management at the Maastricht School of Management, the Netherlands, Markfield Institute of Higher Education UK, La Trobe University in Australia, Prince of Songkla University Thailand, United Emirates University, the Asian Institute of Management in the Philippines. International Class Doctoral Program with the Maastricht School of Management Netherlands, Colorado State University, USA, Markfield Institute of Higher Education UK, La Trobe University in Australia. In addition, international recognition is characterized by the presence of a number of foreign students from more than five countries. Whereas recognition of the quality nationally marked by the increasing quality of accreditation. In the academic year 2013/2014 of 45 study programs held by Trisakti University were accredited. In addition, the Faculty of Medicine of Trisakti University, the result of Indonesia physician competency test is good, with a passing grade to 90% equal with other faculty of medicine in leading universities.
The Faculty of Medicine Trisakti University is the only faculty of medicine which the graduates own certificate from the Center of Work Development and Hiperkes, so that the graduates of the Faculty of Medicine Trisakti University can directly work in the companies. Next is that the 23 lecturers have national achievement by gaining trust to be a team / resource / jury nationally. Trisakti University lecturers are trusted from the National Accreditation of University Board - Ministry of National Education is marked by the appointment of 15 tenured faculties of the faculty of the Trisakti University to become national assessors; some lecturers earn the trust as Assessor of Certification Expertise. The uptake of the working world can be measured with the alumni p
Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
Kompas Gramedia Group
Kompas Gramedia is the largest media conglomerate in Indonesia. After the success of the magazine Intisari, P. K. Ojong and Jakob Oetama launched a national newspaper called Kompas; the newspaper's first issue was released on 28 June 1965. Their aim was to breach the huge gap in daily news and information that, lacking at that time. Kompas has since become a large circulation newspaper with an audited circulation in 2005 of 600,000 copies a day; the KGG operates the largest printing plants in Indonesia. Kompas began its first issue on 28 June 1965 and was based in Central Jakarta with a circulation of 4,800 copies. Since 1969, Kompas newspaper has dominated sales nationwide. In 2004, daily circulation reached 530,000 copies, its special Sunday edition reaching 610,000 copies. Readership is expected to reach 2.25 million people in Indonesia. Kompas Daily Print had an average circulation of 500,000 copies per day, reaching an average of 1,850,000 people per day; the newspaper is distributed to all parts of Indonesia.
Kompas is not just the largest circulating printed media in Indonesia, but is the largest circulating newspaper in southeast Asia. Since the introduction of the iPad, Kompas Newspaper was the first printed media in southeast Asia to make a digital newspaper version for the iPad, but until early 2014, Kompas News Portal is still the second after Detik.com. PT Indopersda Primamedia, one of KGG other business units, has been publishing regional newspapers since 1988. At present, the company publishes 18 regional newspapers, including: Gramedia Bookstore in Jakarta was first established on 2 February 1970. Gramedia Bookstores is owned and managed by PT Gramedia Asri Media, a wholly owned subsidiary of KGG. GAM is the retail distribution channel for KGG which handles foreign publishers and partners; the first Toko Buku Gramedia is Jalan Gajah Mada, in West Jakarta. KGG went on to set up PT Gramedia, a printing plant in Jakarta in 1972 in order to meet the ever-increasing needs of the newspapers and magazines.
Toko Buku Gramedia offers books, office supplies, sport supplies, high-technology products, others. In 1973 KGG began publishing its first titles; this company today publishes more than 600 titles a year. Beside its own original titles, GPU has foreign copyright arrangements for Indonesia. GPU has 60 % of foreign books published in Indonesia. Collectively, GPU handles around 4,000 active titles, distributed through Gramedia Bookstores as well as others; the group has met demands for technological as well as educational publications. PT Elex Media Komputindo, founded in 1985, publishes books on electronics. EMK publishes technology related business and management books, educational books, computer software. Annually EMK publishes 51 % of which are translations from foreign works. PT Prima Info Sarana Media issues computer magazine Infokomputer and Tabloid PC Plus as well as home and interior design tabloid Rumah. In 1990 PT Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia, popularly known as Grasindo, was started to concentrate on school textbooks and other educational materials for kindergarten and secondary schools.
It now publishes around 300 new titles a year. 1973 saw the inception of PT Radio Sonora which broadcast into metropolitan Jakarta. Now RS has other radio stations in cities like Surabaya, Pangkalpinang, Palembang, Cirebon, Solo, Bali, PAlangkaraya, Lampung and Medan. Intisari Magazine, the first publication by Gramedia Magazine in 1963, is still in circulation today; this business unit handles 43 tabloids and magazines titles as well as successful comic series and other books titles such as: Licensed magazine titles include To complete its core business alignment, KGG founded Duta Visual Nusantara, popularly known as TV7, in 2001. TV7 provides family entertainment programmes and reaches a 125 million audience viewership throughout Indonesia.. In 2006, Trans Corporation the owner of Trans TV, bought TV7 and changing its name to Trans7. On 9 September 2011, KGG launched the television network Kompas TV. In 2009, KGG launched the local TV station Karawang Citra Televisi, they have a satellite television services provider.
It holds licenses to broadcast the 2018 FIFA World Cups. Since 1981, Kompas Gramedia Group spread to the hospitality business, under the Grahawita Santika Ltd; the owning and management company Hotel Santika opened its first hotel in Bandung. Upon its success, Santika constructed new hotels around Indonesia’s big cities. All of the four-star Santika hotels are categorized in Santika Premiere and the remaining hotels are still listed as Hotel Santika. In 2006, Grahawita Santika Ltd. launched the new branch of hospitality in a form of boutique villas known as The Royal Collection. Another addition to the hospitality business by Kompas Gramedia Group is the Amaris Brand; this brand will serve a wide range of customers, from two-star hotels to luxurious villa properties. Kompas Gramedia group has another division to help journalists and reporter to back up their mind while finding a story, called Pusat Informasi Kompas. Pusat Informasi Kompas is a Kompas data warehouse, it is used for journalists and reporter to find the chronology or sources to flashback and prepare their mind before cover a story.
KGG's core business enterprises remain in the information and education business. Th
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though novelists write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, while others aspire to support themselves in this way or write as an avocation. Most novelists struggle to get their debut novel published, but once published they continue to be published, although few become literary celebrities, thus gaining prestige or a considerable income from their work. Novelists come from a variety of backgrounds and social classes, this shapes the content of their works. Public reception of a novelist's work, the literary criticism commenting on it, the novelists' incorporation of their own experiences into works and characters can lead to the author's personal life and identity being associated with a novel's fictional content. For this reason, the environment within which a novelist works and the reception of their novels by both the public and publishers can be influenced by their demographics or identity.
Some novelists have creative identities derived from their focus on different genres of fiction, such as crime, romance or historical novels. While many novelists compose fiction to satisfy personal desires and commentators ascribe a particular social responsibility or role to novel writers. Many authors use such moral imperatives to justify different approaches to novel writing, including activism or different approaches to representing reality "truthfully". Novelist is a term derivative from the term "novel" describing the "writer of novels"; the Oxford English Dictionary recognizes other definitions of novelist, first appearing in the 16th and 17th centuries to refer to either "An innovator. However, the OED attributes the primary contemporary meaning of "a writer of novels" as first appearing in the 1633 book "East-India Colation" by C. Farewell citing the passage "It beeing a pleasant observation to note the order of their Coaches and Carriages.. As if it had bin the spoyles of a Tryumph leading Captive, or a preparation to some sad Execution" According to the Google Ngrams, the term novelist first appears in the Google Books database in 1521.
The difference between professional and amateur novelists is the author's ability to publish. Many people take up novel writing as a hobby, but the difficulties of completing large scale fictional works of quality prevent the completion of novels. Once authors have completed a novel, they will try to get it published; the publishing industry requires novels to have accessible profitable markets, thus many novelists will self-publish to circumvent the editorial control of publishers. Self-publishing has long been an option for writers, with vanity presses printing bound books for a fee paid by the writer. In these settings, unlike the more traditional publishing industry, activities reserved for a publishing house, like the distribution and promotion of the book, become the author's responsibility; the rise of the Internet and electronic books has made self publishing far less expensive and a realistic way for authors to realize income. Novelists apply a number of different methods to writing their novels, relying on a variety of approaches to inspire creativity.
Some communities encourage amateurs to practice writing novels to develop these unique practices, that vary from author to author. For example, the internet-based group, National Novel Writing Month, encourages people to write 50,000-word novels in the month of November, to give novelists practice completing such works. In the 2010 event, over 200,000 people took part – writing a total of over 2.8 billion words. Novelists don't publish their first novels until in life. However, many novelists begin writing at a young age. For example, Iain Banks began writing at eleven, at sixteen completed his first novel, "The Hungarian Lift-Jet", about international arms dealers, "in pencil in a larger-than-foolscap log book". However, he was thirty before he published his first novel, the controversial The Wasp Factory in 1984; the success of this novel enabled Banks to become a full-time novelist. An important writers' juvenilia if not published, is prized by scholars because it provides insight into an author's biography and approach to writing.
Novelists publish as early as their teens. For example, Patrick O'Brian published his first novel, Caesar: The Life Story of a Panda-Leopard, at the age of 15, which brought him considerable critical attention. Barbara Newhall Follett's The House Without Windows, was accepted and published in 1927 when she was 13 by the Knopf publishing house and earned critical acclaim from the New York Times, the Saturday Review, H. L. Mencken; these works will achieve popular success as well. For example, though Christopher Paolini's Eragon, was not a great critical success, but its popularity among readers placed it on the New York Times Children's Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks. First-time novelists of any age find themselves unable to get works published, because of a number of reasons reflecting the inexperience of the author and the economic realities of publishers. Authors mus