A loft can be an upper storey or attic in a building, directly under the roof or just a storage space under the roof accessed by a ladder. A loft apartment refers to large adaptable open space converted for residential use from some other use light industrial. Adding to the confusion, some converted lofts include upper open loft areas. Within certain upper loft areas exist further lofts, which may contain loft areas of their own, so forth. In US usage a loft is an upper room or story in a building in a barn, directly under the roof, used either for storage. In this sense it is synonymous with attic, the major difference being that an attic constitutes an entire floor of the building, while a loft covers only a few rooms, leaving one or more sides open to the lower floor. In British usage, lofts are just a roof space accessed via a hatch and loft ladder, while attics tend to be rooms under the roof accessed via a staircase. Lofts may have a specific purpose, e.g. an "organ loft" in a church. In barns a hayloft is larger than the ground floor as it would contain a year's worth of hay.
An attic or loft can be converted to form functional living accommodation. Loft apartments are apartments that are built from former industrial buildings; when industrial developments are developed into condominiums instead of apartments, they may be called loft condominiums. The general term warehouse-to-loft conversions may sometimes be used for development of industrial buildings into apartments and condominiums. "Loft-style" may refer to developments where a street-level business occupies the first floor while apartment "lofts" are placed above the first floor. Sometimes, loft apartments are one component of municipal urban renewal initiatives that include renovation of industrial buildings into art galleries and studio space as well as promotion of a new part of the city as an "arts district". Popular with artists, they are now sought-after by other bohemians and hipsters, the gentrification of the former manufacturing sectors of medium to large cities is now a familiar pattern. One such sector is Manhattan's Meatpacking District.
The adoption of the Adaptive Reuse Ordinance in the City of Los Angeles is another example of such legislation to encourage the conversion of no longer economically viable industrial and commercial buildings to residential loft communities. Such is the demand for these spaces that real estate developers have taken to creating ready-made "lofts" in urban areas that are gentrifying or that seem primed to do so. While some of these units are created by developers during the renovation of old buildings, a number of them are included in the floor plans of brand new developments. Both types of pre-fab loft offer buyers or renters proximity to urban amenities afforded by traditional lofts, but without perceived safety risks of living in economically depressed industrial areas. Real estate industry distinguishes between two kinds of lofts. "Hard lofts" are former industrial buildings converted to live/work use. "Soft lofts" are loft-style residential buildings built anew. They are open-concept spaces with high ceilings, large windows and cement ceilings.
Soft lofts lack the history of hard lofts. A commercial loft refers to upper storey space in a commercial or industrial building with higher ceilings; such adaptation of loft space, can result in better operating efficiencies for ongoing light industrial and work/live use. A Live/work loft is a residential unit located in a commercially zoned building that has either been issued a certificate of residential occupancy or meets specific criteria making it eligible for the protection of loft laws, which vary state by state. In New York State, a live/work loft must meet the following criteria: The building was used for manufacturing or commercial purposes. Loft Law was designed to protect other entrepreneurs working from home. To qualify for the Loft Law protection, the unit must be residential with the commercial purpose being incidental to the residential use. Loft residents consisted of artists and other artisans taking advantage of cheap rents, large spaces and load-bearing floors. Loft residences were illegal and loft dwellers resided under commercial leases, forgoing basic residential rights such as hot water and sanitation.
To relieve their plight, many state legislatures enacted loft laws. A long building at a shipyard with a considerable floor area on which the lines produced by a naval architect can be laid off in their full dimensions. After that the full-size drawings can be copied with the aid of wooden moulds to which, in turn, the steel frames or, in the case of wooden vessels, the hull moulds, are fashioned
A closet is an enclosed space used for storage that of clothes. "Fitted closet" are built into the walls of the house so that they take up no apparent space in the room. Closets are built under stairs, thereby using awkward space that would otherwise go unused. A "walk-in closet" is a a small windowless room attached to a bedroom, used for clothes storage. A piece of furniture such as a cabinet or chest of drawers serves the same function of storage, but is not a closet. A closet always has space for hanging, whereas a cupboard may consist only of shelves for folded garments; the word "wardrobe" can refer to a free-standing piece of furniture, but according to the Oxford English Dictionary, a wardrobe can be a "large cupboard or cabinet for storing clothes or other linen", including "built-in wardrobe, fitted wardrobe, walk-in wardrobe, etc." In Elizabethan and Middle English, closet referred to a small private room, an inner sanctum within a much larger house, used for prayer, reading, or study.
The use of "closet" for "toilet" dates back to 1662. In Indian English, this use continues. Related forms include water closet. "Privy" meaning an outhouse derives from "private", making the connection with the Middle English use of "closet", above. Airing cupboard: A closet containing a water heater, with slatted shelves to allow air to circulate around the clothes or linen stored there. Broom closet: A closet with top-to-bottom space used for storing cleaning items, like brooms, vacuum cleaners, cleaning supplies, etc. Coat closet: A closet located near the front door. Used to store coats, hoodies, gloves, hats and boots/shoes; this kind of closet sometimes has shelving. It only has some bottom space used for clothes stored in boxes or drawers; some may have a top shelf for storage above the rod. Custom closet: A closet, made to meet the needs of the user. Linen-press or linen closet: A tall, narrow closet. Located in or near bathrooms and/or bedrooms, such a closet contains shelves used to hold items such as toiletries and linens, including towels, washcloths, or sheets.
Pantry: A closet or cabinet in a kitchen used for storing food, dishes and provisions. The closet may have shelves for putting food on. Utility closet: A closet most used to house appliances and cleaning supplies Walk-in closet: A storage room with enough space for someone to stand in it while accessing stored items. Larger ones used for clothes shade into dressing room. Wall closet: A closet in a bedroom, built into the wall, it may be closed by curtains or folding doors. Wardrobe: A small closet used for storing clothes. Though some sources claim that colonial American houses lacked closets because of a "closet tax" imposed by the British crown, others argue that closets were absent in most houses because their residents had few possessions. Closet organizers are integrated shelving systems. Different materials have advantages and disadvantages: Wire shelving: Moderately difficult to install, wire shelves cannot hold much weight without giving in but are cheap. Wood shelving: Difficult to install, wood shelving is more expensive than wire.
Tube shelving: Easy to install, tube shelving involves few pieces and requires no cutting or measuring. Cubby-hole, one name for the cupboard under the stairs
The phrase common room is used in British and Canadian English to describe a type of shared lounge, most found in dormitories, at universities, military bases, rest homes and minimum-security prisons. It is connected to several private rooms, may incorporate a bathroom. However, they may be found in day schools and sixth forms. Regular features include couches, coffee tables, other generic lounge furniture for socializing. Depending on its location and purpose of use, a common room may be known by another name. For instance, in mental hospitals, where access is restricted to the daytime hours, this type of room is called a "day room". In Singapore, the term refers to a bedroom without attached bathroom in an HDB apartment unit. Common rooms are mentioned in the Harry Potter series. Common Room Student lounge Media related to Common rooms at Wikimedia Commons
A dress code is a set of rules written, with regards to clothing. Dress codes are created out of social perceptions and norms, vary based on purpose and occasions. Different societies and cultures are to have different dress codes. Dress codes are symbolic indications of different social ideas, including social class, cultural identity, attitude towards comfort and political or religious affiliations. In seventh through the 9th centuries the European royalty and nobility used a dress code to differentiate themselves from other classes of people. All classes wore the same clothing, although distinctions among the social hierarchy began to become more noticeable through ornamented garments. Common pieces of clothing worn by peasants and the working class included plain tunics, jackets and shoes. According to rank, embellishments adorned the collar of the waist or border. Examples of these decorations included, as James Planché states, “gold and silver chains and crosses, bracelets of gold, silver or ivory and jeweled belts, strings of amber and other beads, brooches, buckles”.
The nobility tended to wear longer tunics than the lower social classes. While dress codes of modern-day Europeans are less strict, there are some exception, it is possible to ban certain types of clothing in the workplace, as exemplified by the European Court of Justice's verdict that "a ban on Islamic headscarves at work can be lawful". The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast had a complex social hierarchy which consisted of slaves and nobles, with dress codes indicating these social distinctions. John R. Jewitt, an Englishman who wrote a memoir about his years as a captive of the Nuu-chah-nulth people in 1802-1805, describes how, after some time living there and the chiefs decided that he must now be "considered one of them, conform to their customs". Jewitt resented the imposition of this dress code, finding the loose untailored garments cold, attributed to them a subsequent illness of which he died, he was not allowed to cut his hair, had to paint his face and body as a Nootka would.
Different cultures lead to different cultural norms as to what a woman should wear. For example, in Indonesia, both men and women wear the sarong, a length of cloth wrapped to form a tube; the wrapper, a rectangular cloth tied at the waist, is worn by both sexes in parts of West Africa. The Scottish kilt, still worn at many social gatherings to establish a social and cultural identity, represents the height of masculinity. In many societies, particular clothing may be a status symbol, reserved or affordable to people of high rank. For example, in Ancient Rome only senators were permitted to wear garments dyed with Tyrian purple. In China before the establishment of the republic, only the emperor could wear yellow. Military and firefighters wear uniforms, as do workers in many industries. School children wear school uniforms, while college and university students sometimes wear academic dress. Members of religious orders may wear uniforms known as habits. Sometimes a single item of clothing or a single accessory can declare one's occupation or rank within a profession.
In many regions of the world, national costumes and styles in clothing and ornament declare membership in a certain village, religion, etc. A Scotsman declares his clan with his tartan. A French woman identified her village with her coif. A Palestinian woman identifies her village with the pattern of embroidery on her dress. See also: Religious clothing Different religions have a certain clothing that are symbolic of their religion. A Jewish or Muslim man may display his religious affiliation by wearing a cap and other traditional clothing. A Jewish man may indicate his observance of Judaism by wearing a kippah. Many Muslim women wear head or body coverings that proclaim their status as respectable women and cover their beauty. Traditionally, Hindu women wear sindoor, a red powder, in the parting of their hair to indicate their married status. However, this is not true of all Hindu women. In many Orthodox Jewish circles, married women wear head coverings such as snood, or wig. Additionally, after their marriage, Jewish men of Ashkenazi descent begin to wear a talit during prayer.
Men and women of the Western world may wear wedding rings to indicate their married status, women may wear engagement rings when they are engaged. Each country has its own set of cultural norms. Wherever you go these norms and laws regarding clothing are subject to change depending on the region and culture. For example nudity is something. In New Guinea and Vanuatu, there are areas where it is customary for the men to wear nothing but penis sheaths in public. Women wear. In remote areas of Bali, women may go topless; this is uncommon in more western countries. Although in America and some parts of Europe, there are nude beaches. In the United States, The Gender Nondiscrimination Act, prohibits employers, health care providers, housing authorities from discriminating against people on the basis of gender. Many place have their own private dress code; such as for weddings, religious gatherings, etc. Employees are sometimes req
A bedroom is a room of a house, castle, hotel, apartment, duplex or townhouse where people sleep. A typical western bedroom contains as bedroom furniture one or two beds (ranging from a crib for an infant, a single or twin bed for a toddler, teenager, or single adult to bigger sizes like a full, queen, king or California king, a clothes closet, a nightstand, a dresser. Except in bungalows, ranch style homes, or one-storey motels, bedrooms are on one of the floors of a dwelling, above ground level. In larger Victorian houses it was common to have accessible from the bedroom a boudoir for the lady of the house and a dressing room for the gentleman. Attic bedrooms exist in some houses; the slope of the rafters supporting a pitched roof makes them inconvenient. In houses where servants were living in they used attic bedrooms. In the 14th century the lower class slept on mattresses that were stuffed with broom straws. During the 16th century mattresses stuffed with feathers started to gain popularity, with those who could afford them.
The common person was doing well. In the 18th century cotton and wool started to become more common; the first coil spring mattress was not invented until 1871. The most common and most purchased mattress is the innerspring mattress, though a wide variety of alternative materials are available including foam, latex and silk; the variety of firmness choices range from soft to a rather firm mattress. A bedroom may have bunk beds. A chamber pot kept under the bed or in a nightstand was usual in the period before modern domestic plumbing and bathrooms in dwellings. Furniture and other items in bedrooms vary depending on taste, local traditions and the socioeconomic status of an individual. For instance, a master bedroom may include a bed of a specific size. Built-in closets are less common in Europe than in North America. An individual’s bedroom is a reflection of their personality, as well as social class and socioeconomic status, is unique to each person. However, there are certain items. Mattresses have a bed set to raise the mattress off the floor and the bed provides some decoration.
There are many different types of mattresses. Night stands are popular, they are used to put various items such as an alarm clock or a small lamp. In the times before bathrooms existed in dwellings bedrooms contained a washstand for tasks of personal hygiene. In the 2010s, having a television set in a bedroom is common as well. 43% of American children from ages 3 to 4 have a television in their bedrooms. Along with television sets many bedrooms have computers, video game consoles, a desk to do work. In the late 20th century and early 21st century the bedroom became a more social environment and people started to spend a lot more time in their bedrooms than in the past. Bedding used in northern Europe is different from that used in North America and other parts of Europe. In Japan futons are common. In addition to a bed, a child's bedroom may include a small closet or dressers, a toy box or computer game console, bookcase or other items. Many houses in North America have at least two bedrooms—usually a master bedroom and one or more bedrooms for either the children or guests.
In some jurisdictions there are basic features that a room must have in order to qualify as a bedroom. In many states, such as Alaska, bedrooms are not required to have closets and must instead meet minimum size requirements. A closet by definition is a small space used to store things. In a bedroom, a closet is most used for clothes and other small personal items that one may have. Walk in closets are more popular today and vary in size. However, in the past wardrobes have been the most prominent. A wardrobe is a tall rectangular shaped cabinet that clothes can be hung in. Clothes are kept in a dresser. Nicer clothes are kept in the closet because they can be hung up while leisure clothing and undergarments are stored in the dresser. In buildings with multiple self-contained housing units, the number of bedrooms varies widely. While many such units have at least one bedroom—frequently, these units have at least two—some of these units may not have a specific room dedicated for use as a bedroom.
Sometimes, a master bedroom is connected to a dedicated bathroom called an ensuite. Bedrooms have a door for privacy and a window for ventilation. In larger bedrooms, a small desk and chair or an upholstered chair and a chest of drawers may be used. In Western countries, some large bedrooms, called master bedrooms, may contain a bathroom. Where space allows bedrooms may have televisions and / or video players, in some cases a personal computer. Cabin Comforter Laundry room Nursery
A shrine is a holy or sacred place, dedicated to a specific deity, hero, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped. Shrines contain idols, relics, or other such objects associated with the figure being venerated. A shrine at which votive offerings are made is called an altar. Shrines are found in many of the world's religions, including Christianity, Hinduism, Chinese folk religion and Asatru as well as in secular and non-religious settings such as a war memorial. Shrines can be found in various settings, such as churches, cemeteries, museums, or in the home, although portable shrines are found in some cultures. A shrine may become a focus of a cult image. Many shrines are located within buildings and in the temples designed for worship, such as a church in Christianity, or a mandir in Hinduism. A shrine here is the centre of attention in the building, is given a place of prominence. In such cases, adherents of the faith assemble within the building in order to venerate the deity at the shrine.
In classical temple architecture, the shrine may be synonymous with the cella. In Hinduism and Roman Catholicism, in modern faiths, such as Neopaganism, a shrine can be found within the home or shop; this shrine is a small structure or a setup of pictures and figurines dedicated to a deity, part of the official religion, to ancestors or to a localised household deity. Small household shrines are common among the Chinese and people from South and Southeast Asia, whether Hindu, Buddhist or Christian. A small lamp and small offerings are kept daily by the shrine. Buddhist household shrines must be on a shelf above the head. Small outdoor yard shrines are found at the bottom of many peoples' gardens, following various religions, including Christianity. Many consist of a statue of Christ or a saint, on a pedestal or in an alcove, while others may be elaborate booths without ceilings, some include paintings and architectural elements, such as walls, glass doors and ironwork fences, etc. In the United States, some Christians have small yard shrines.
Religious images in some sort of small shelter, placed by a road or pathway, sometimes in a settlement or at a crossroads. Shrines are found in many religions; as distinguished from a temple, a shrine houses a particular relic or cult image, the object of worship or veneration. A shrine may be constructed to set apart a site, thought to be holy, as opposed to being placed for the convenience of worshippers. Shrines therefore attract the practice of pilgrimage. Shrines are found in many, forms of Christianity. Roman Catholicism, the largest denomination of Christianity, has many shrines, as do Orthodox Christianity and Anglicanism. In the Roman Catholic Code of Canon law, canons 1230 and 1231 read: "The term shrine means a church or other sacred place which, with the approval of the local Ordinary, is by reason of special devotion frequented by the faithful as pilgrims. For a shrine to be described as national, the approval of the Episcopal Conference is necessary. For it to be described as international, the approval of the Holy See is required."Another use of the term "shrine" in colloquial Catholic terminology is a niche or alcove in most – larger – churches used by parishioners when praying in the church.
They were called Devotional Altars, since they could look like small Side Altars or bye-altars. Shrines were always centered on some image of Christ or a saint – for instance, a statue, mural or mosaic, may have had a reredos behind them. However, Mass would not be celebrated at them. Side altars, where Mass could be celebrated, were used in a similar way to shrines by parishioners. Side altars were dedicated to The Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph as well as other saints. A nativity set could be viewed as a shrine, as the definition of a shrine is any holy or sacred place. Islam's holiest structure, the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, though an ancient temple, may be seen as a shrine due to it housing a venerated relic called the Hajar al-Aswad and being the focus of the world's largest pilgrimage practice, the Hajj. A few yards away, the mosque houses the Maqam Ibrahim shrine containing a petrosomatoglyph associated with the patriarch and his son Ishmael's building of the Kaaba in Islamic tradition; the Green Dome sepulcher of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in Medina, housed in the Masjid an-Nabawi, occurs as a venerated place and important as a site of pilgrimage among Muslims.
Two of the oldest and notable Islamic shrines are the Dome of the Rock and the smaller Dome of the Chain built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The former was built over the rock that marked the site of the Jewish Temple and according to Islamic tradition, was the point of departure of Muhammad's legendary ascent heavenwards. More than any other shrines in the Muslim world, the tomb of Muhammad is considered a source of blessings for the visitor. Among sayings attributed to