Shreveport is a city in the U. S. state of Louisiana. It is the most populous city in the Shreveport-Bossier City metropolitan area. Shreveport ranks third in population in Louisiana after New Orleans and Baton Rouge and 126th in the U. S; the bulk of Shreveport is in Caddo Parish. Shreveport extends along the west bank of the Red River into neighboring Bossier Parish; the population of Shreveport was 199,311 as of the 2010 U. S. Census; the United States Census Bureau's 2017 estimate for the city's population decreased to 192,036. Shreveport was founded in 1836 by the Shreve Town Company, a corporation established to develop a town at the juncture of the newly navigable Red River and the Texas Trail, an overland route into the newly independent Republic of Texas. Prior to Texas becoming independent, this trail entered Mexico; the city grew throughout the 20th century and, after the discovery of oil in Louisiana, became a national center for the oil industry. Standard Oil of Louisiana and United Gas Corporation were headquartered in the city until the 1960s and 1980s.
After the loss of jobs in the oil industry, the close of Shreveport Operations, other economic problems the city struggled with a declining population, poverty and violent crime. Since Cedric Glover's tenure as mayor of Shreveport, the city has revitalized its neighborhoods and roads to end its population decline, revive the economy through diversification, lower crime. Shreveport is the educational and cultural center of the Ark-La-Tex region, where Arkansas and Texas meet, it is the location of Centenary College of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Louisiana Tech University Shreveport, Southern University at Shreveport, Louisiana Baptist University. Its neighboring city Bossier is the location of Bossier Parish Community College; the city forms part of the I-20 Cyber Corridor linking Shreveport, Bossier and Monroe to Dallas and Tyler and Atlanta, Georgia. Companies with significant operations or headquarters in Shreveport are AT&T, Chase Bank, Capital One, Regions Financial Corporation, SWEPCO, UPS, General Electric, UOP LLC, Calumet Specialty Products Partners, APS Payroll.
Shreveport was established to launch a town at the meeting point of the Brown Bricks and the Texas Trail. The Red River was made navigable by Captain Henry Miller Shreve, who led the United States Army Corps of Engineers effort to clear the Red River. A 180-mile-long natural log jam, the Great Raft, had obstructed passage to shipping. Shreve used the Heliopolis, to remove the log jam; the company and the village of Shreve Town were named in Shreve's honor. Shreve Town was contained within the boundaries of a section of land sold to the company in 1835 by the indigenous Caddo Indians. In 1838 Caddo Parish was created from the large Natchitoches Parish, Shreve Town became its parish seat. On March 20, 1839, the town was incorporated as Shreveport; the town consisted of 64 city blocks, created by eight streets running west from the Red River and eight streets running south from Cross Bayou, one of its tributaries. Shreveport soon became a center of steamboat commerce, carrying cotton and agricultural crops from the plantations of Caddo Parish.
Shreveport had a slave market, though slave trading was not as widespread as in other parts of the state. Steamboats plied the Red River, stevedores loaded and unloaded cargo. By 1860, Shreveport had a population of 1,300 slaves within the city limits. During the American Civil War, Shreveport was the capital of Louisiana from 1863 to 1865, having succeeded Baton Rouge and Opelousas after each fell under Union control; the city was a Confederate stronghold throughout the war and was the site of the headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederate Army. Fort Albert Sidney Johnston was built on a ridge northwest of the city; because of limited development in that area, the site is undisturbed in the 21st century. Isolated from events in the east, the Civil War continued in the Trans-Mississippi theater for several weeks after Robert E. Lee's surrender in April 1865, the Trans-Mississippi was the last Confederate command to surrender, on May 26, 1865. "The period May 13-21, 1865, was filled with great uncertainly after soldiers learned of the surrenders of Lee and Johnston, the Good Friday assassination of President Abraham Lincoln and the rapid departure of their own generals."
In the confusion there was a breakdown of military rioting by soldiers. They destroyed buildings containing service records, a loss that made it difficult for many to gain Confederate pensions from state governments. Throughout the war, women in Shreveport did much to assist the soldiers fighting far to the east. Historian John D. Winters writes of them in The Civil War in Louisiana: "The women of Shreveport and vicinity labored long hours over their sewing machines to provide their men with adequate underclothing and uniforms. After the excitement of Fort Sumter, there was a great rush to get the volunteer companies ready and off to New Orleans... Forming a Military Aid Society, the ladies of Shreveport requested donations of wool and cotton yarn for knitting socks. Joined by others, the Society collected blankets for the wounded and gave concerts and tableaux to raise funds. Tickets were sold for a diamond ring given by the mercantile house of Hyams and Brothers..."A Confederate minstrel show gave two performances to raise mon
Northwestern State Demons and Lady Demons
The Northwestern State University athletic teams go by the Demons, with women's athletic teams called the Lady Demons, its mascot is Vic the Demon. Once a member of the SIAA conference, the school now competes in the Southland Conference. "Fork'em" is a hand gesture and slogan used by students at Northwestern State University in their celebration of sports teams. The gesture is performed by curling the ring and middle fingers under the thumb against the palm, extending the pinky and index fingers – identical in fashion to the University of Texas "Hook'em Horns" gesture. On March 17, 2006, NSU's 14th-seeded basketball team shocked the college basketball world by defeating 3rd-seeded, 11th-ranked, Big Ten Conference tournament champion Iowa in the first round of the 2006 NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament on a late three-pointer by Jermaine Wallace. NSU was the lowest-seeded team to advance to the second round in 2006. NSU's men's basketball team won the inaugural play-in game, beating the Winthrop University Eagles 71–67 in 2001 NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament to advance to the 16th-seeded spot.
In doing so, the Demons became the first #16 seed to earn a victory in the NCAA Tournament. NSU has the distinction of being the only NCAA division IAA/FCS member to have 2 NFL rookies of the year. In 1981, running back for the Kansas City Chiefs, was awarded the AFC Rookie of the year by UPI. In 1988, another former Demon running back, of the New England Patriots, was named Offensive/AFC Rookie of the year. No other 4-year institution in the state of Louisiana has more than one; the pair of awards is more than won by Ohio State, Texas A&M and UCLA. The Northwestern State Demons baseball team represents Northwestern State University in Natchitoches, Louisiana; the team is a member of the Southland Conference, part of the NCAA Division I. The team plays its home games at H. Alvin Brown–C. C. Stroud Field; the Northwestern State Demons basketball team represents Northwestern State University in Natchitoches, Louisiana. The school's team competes in the Southland Conference, part of the NCAA Division I.
The team plays its home games at Prather Coliseum. The Northwestern State Lady Demons basketball team represents Northwestern State University in Natchitoches, Louisiana; the school's team competes in the Southland Conference, part of the NCAA Division I. The team plays its home games at Prather Coliseum; the Northwestern State Demons football team represents Northwestern State University located in Natchitoches, Louisiana. The team competes in the Southland Conference, part of Division I FCS; the team plays its home games at Harry Turpin Stadium. The Northwestern State Lady Demons softball team represents Northwestern State University located in Natchitoches, Louisiana; the team competes in the Southland Conference, part of the NCAA Division I. The team plays its home games at Lady Demon Diamond; each season, Stephen F. Austin State University of Nacogdoches and Northwestern State play for the country's largest football trophy. In 1961, longtime rivals SFA and Northwestern State decided to award the winner of the game a trophy, the game was won by Northwestern State University.
According to the stipulations of that particular match, the loser would have to present the winner with a tree chopped down from a nearby forest. In March 1962, the Lumberjacks of SFA in Nacogdoches, presented NSU with a black gum tree trunk from the SFA campus from which a statue was to be carved; the black gum tree was thirty inches in diameter. An Indian statue, Chief Caddo, was chosen because of the historic founding of Natchitoches and Nacogdoches, Texas by Indian tribes. Natchitoches means chinquapin Nacogdoches means persimmon eaters, it was required over 200 hours of labor. The name “Chief Indian Caddo” was selected in honor of the ancient federation of Caddo Indian tribes, which once inhabited the northern Louisiana area; the final painting of the statue was done at Northwestern. The finished product weighs about 320 pounds; the first game for Chief Caddo was September 15, 1962. Northwestern won 23–6. Tradition has it that the winner of the annual NSU and SFA football game keeps Chief Caddo on their respective campus.
Chief Caddo is the largest college football trophy in the nation. On November 23, 2013, the NSU Demons brought home the Chief Caddo trophy after a 40 to 27 win over the Stephen F. Austin Lumberjacks. Kenta Bell, U. S. Olympian LaMark Carter, U. S. Olympian Joe Delaney, former Kansas City Chiefs running back George Doherty, former head football coach of the Demons. NSU athletic offices are housed in the George Doherty Wing. Mark Duper, Miami Dolphins wide receiver D'or Fischer, American-Israeli basketball player Bobby Hebert, former New Orleans Saints quarterback Charlie Hennigan, former Houston Oilers wide receiver Jeremy Lane, former Seattle Seahawks cornerback Brian Lawrence, MLB pitcher Terrence McGee, former Buffalo Bills cornerback and Pro Bowl kickoff returner Ed Orgeron, LSU Tigers head football coach Don Shows, Demons offensive line coach in 1988 season, won conference championship.
Independence Stadium (Shreveport)
Independence Stadium is a stadium owned by the city of Shreveport, Louisiana and is the home of the Independence Bowl. Known as State Fair Stadium and Fairgrounds Stadium, it is the site of the annual Independence Bowl post-season college football game the Bicentennial Bowl. Before that, it was the home venue of the Shreveport Steamer of the short-lived World Football League, it served as a neutral site for the annual Arkansas–LSU football rivalry from 1924 to 1936. The 1924 game featured a silver football trophy as part of the dedication ceremonies for the new stadium; the stadium is host to numerous high school football games and soccer matches, since many schools in Shreveport lack an on-campus facility. Independence Stadium hosted the LHSAA state football championship games in 2005 after the Louisiana Superdome suffered heavy damage from Hurricane Katrina. In 1994–95, Independence Stadium was home to the Shreveport Pirates of the Canadian Football League, undergoing U. S. expansion at the time.
In the late 1990s, the stadium capacity was expanded from 40,000 to 50,832. In 2005, to meet accommodations of the upcoming Independence Bowl in 2006, the stadium went through a renovation to extend the capacity from 52,000 to 59,000. In 2008, the City of Shreveport created an entire new section of the stadium; this portion would allow the stadium capacity to be expanded. This expansion would put the total capacity at 63,000; this was part of a grand upgrading plan that improved all aspects of the facility, from concourses to playing surface. In 2001, Independence Stadium hosted the inaugural year of the annual Port City Classic—an NCAA college football competition featuring Southern University of Baton Rouge, Louisiana—in an effort to revive the old State Fair Classic game; the classic became an early September game. It hosted a contest between Louisiana Tech University of Ruston and Grambling State University of Grambling, Louisiana. Independence Stadium was considered as a possible playing site for the New Orleans Saints during the 2005 National Football League season due to Hurricane Katrina, but Shreveport lost out to the Alamodome in San Antonio and Louisiana State University's Tiger Stadium in Baton Rouge.
However, Independence Stadium was chosen to host the Saints' first preseason home game for the 2006 season while the Louisiana Superdome prepared for its grand re-opening. Field Turf was installed as the stadium's playing surface in 2010. In 2010, a Texas University Interscholastic League playoff game was played featuring Mesquite Horn high school and the technical host Longview. Longview won, 28–14; the first time Texas teams met in Louisiana for a playoff game was in 2006 when Texas High School from Texarkana topped Dallas Highland Park with quarterback Ryan Mallett. That game was hosted at Independence Stadium; the stadium hosts concerts and other events. The south end zone of the stadium borders Interstate 20. List of soccer stadiums in the United States Independence Stadium
Interstate 20 is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States. I‑20 runs 1,535 miles beginning near Kent, Texas, at I-10 to Florence, South Carolina, at I-95. Between Texas and South Carolina, I‑20 runs through northern Louisiana, Mississippi and Georgia; the major cities that I-20 connects to includes Texas. From its terminus at I‑95, the highway continues about 2 miles eastward into the city of Florence as Business Spur 20. I-20 begins 10 miles east of Kent at a fork with I-10. From there, the highway travels east-northeastward through Odessa and Abilene before turning eastward towards Dallas/Fort Worth; the La Entrada al Pacifico corridor runs along I-20 between U. S. Route 385 and Farm to Market Road 1788. Between Monahans and I-10, I-20 has an 80 miles per hour speed limit. From the highway's opening in the 1960s through 1971, I-20 went through the heart of the Metroplex via the Dallas-Fort Worth Turnpike; this old route is now signed I-30, US 80 and Texas Spur 557. In 1977, I-20 was rerouted to go through the southern sections of Fort Worth, Grand Prairie and Mesquite before rejoining its original route at Terrell.
Part of I-20 in Dallas is named the Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway and used to be signed as I-635. I-20 continues eastward from Terrell, bypassing Tyler and Marshall before crossing the Louisiana border near Waskom. In Louisiana, I-20 parallels U. S. Route 80 through the northern part of the state. Entering the state from near Waskom, the highway enters the Shreveport-Bossier City metropolitan area, intersecting I-49 near downtown Shreveport and passing close to Barksdale Air Force Base in Bossier City. From that area, the highway traverses rural, hilly terrain, bypassing Minden and Grambling before reaching Monroe. From Monroe, I-20 enters flatter terrain. Before crossing the Mississippi, the highway passes Tallulah. At the Mississippi River, I-20 enters Vicksburg, Mississippi. Upon entering Mississippi by crossing the Mississippi River, I-20 enters Vicksburg. Between Edwards and Clinton, the highway follows the original two-lane routing of US 80. In Jackson, I-20 sees a short concurrency with both I-55 and US 49.
In Jackson is an unusually expansive stack interchange, at the junction of I-20, I-55 North and US 49 South. The interchange replaces a former directional interchange at I-55 North and a cloverleaf at Highway 49. From the Stack, I-20 continues eastward to Meridian, where it begins the nearly 160-mile overlap with I-59; the route of the Mississippi section of I-20 is defined in Mississippi Code § 65-3-3. I-20 crosses the Alabama state line near York, it stays conjoined as it passes through western Alabama and Tuscaloosa. At Birmingham, the two highways pass through downtown together before splitting at Exit 130 just east of the Birmingham airport. I-20 continues eastward through Oxford/Anniston and the Talladega National Forest, passing by the Talladega Superspeedway in the process, visible from the highway. In Birmingham, the intersection of I-20 / I-59 and I-65 is known as a Malfunction Junction because of the interchange's somewhat-confusing design, the number of traffic accidents that occur there.
This section of the Interstate is undergoing construction to reconfigure the interchanges. I-20 enters Georgia near Tallapoosa and after passing through western Georgia, it enters the Atlanta metropolitan area. On clear days, eastbound motorists get their first view of downtown Atlanta as they come over the top of the Six Flags Hill; the Six Flags Over Georgia amusement park is visible off exit 46 eastbound. The highway passes through the center of Atlanta, meeting with I-75 and I-85, which share a common expressway, it continues through Metropolitan Atlanta eastward and through the eastern half of Georgia until it exits the state, crossing the Savannah River at Augusta. Throughout the state, I-20 is conjoined with unsigned State Route 402. I-20 from the Alabama state line to I-285 in Atlanta is named the "Tom Murphy Freeway", but it is called the "Ralph David Abernathy Freeway" within I-285; the Interstate Highway is named the Purple Heart Highway from I-285 in DeKalb County to US 441 in Madison, it is called the Carl Sanders Highway from US 441 to the South Carolina state line.
Upon leaving Augusta, I-20 crosses the Savannah River and enters the Palmetto State and heads northeastward, bypassing Aiken and Lexington before reaching the state capital of Columbia, which can be reached most directly by taking I-26 east at Exit 64 almost I-126 / US 76. At Columbia, I-20 bypasses the city to the north and again turns northeastward, bypassing Fort Jackson and Camden. After crossing the Wateree River, it turns due east, passes by tiny Bishopville, before reaching the Florence area, it is near Florence where I-20 sees its eastern terminus at Interstate 95. However, for about two miles, the highway continues into Florence as Business Spur 20. I-20 in the Palmetto State is known as either the J. Strom Thurmond Freeway or John C. West Freeway; the first section to be completed was the bridge over the Savannah River in 1965. It was built in 19
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
LSU Tigers baseball
The LSU Tigers baseball team represents Louisiana State University in NCAA Division I college baseball. The team participates in the West Division of the Southeastern Conference, it is one of the elite college baseball programs in the nation, ranking seventh all-time with 18 College World Series appearances and second all-time with six national championships. The Tigers play home games on LSU's campus at Alex Box Stadium, Skip Bertman Field, they are coached by Paul Mainieri. During the program's first thirty seasons, LSU had a total of 15 head coaches. No coach's tenure lasted longer than two seasons, with the exception of C. C. Stroud, head coach for eight seasons. Stroud coached LSU from 1914–1921 and had an overall record of 73–58–5; the program won at least ten games during four of his eight seasons as head coach. In 1927, Harry Rabenhorst became head baseball coach and became the longest tenured head baseball coach in LSU history. Rabenhorst began his career at LSU in 1925 as the head coach of the men's basketball team and two years in 1927, he added head baseball coach to his duties.
As baseball coach, he won two SEC baseball titles and was named SEC Coach of the Year in 1939 and 1946. Rabenhorst coached the baseball team from 1927 until 1942 when he left to serve in World War II; when he returned, he again coached the baseball team from 1946 until 1956. He finished his baseball coaching career with a record of 220–226–3; as an athletic department administrator, he became the school's athletic director in 1967. In 1938, LSU's new baseball stadium, referred to as either LSU Diamond or LSU Varsity Baseball Field, opened; the stadium was renamed Alex Box Stadium for Simeon Alex Box, an LSU letterman, killed in North Africa during World War II. A. L. Swanson During Rabenhorst's absence serving in World War II, A. L. Swanson served as head coach from 1943 to 1945; the Tigers won the 1943 SEC Championship under Swanson. Raymond "Ray" Didier was head coach at LSU for 7 seasons from 1957–1963, he had an overall record of 104–79. He coached the 1961 team to the SEC championship, he left LSU to become Athletic head baseball coach at Nicholls State University.
From 1964–1983, LSU was led by three head coaches. From 1964 -- 1965, Jim Waldrop had a 17 -- 24 record. Jim Smith was head coach for thirteen seasons from 1966–1978, he finished with an overall record of 238–251. When he left LSU after the 1978 season, he had the most wins of any head coach in program history, his 1975 team was LSU's first NCAA Tournament team. From 1979–1983, Jack Lamabe was head coach at LSU for five seasons and had a record of 134–115. After playing college baseball at Miami, coaching high school baseball, serving as an assistant at Miami, Skip Bertman became LSU's head coach for the start of the 1984 season. In Bertman's second season, 1985, the Tigers qualified for postseason play for the first time in ten years. In his third season, LSU made its first appearance in the College World Series in Omaha, the first of 11 appearances during Bertman's eighteen-year career. LSU returned to Omaha during the 1987 season failed to make the NCAA Tournament in 1988, despite having a 39–21 record.
Bertman's 1989 team returned to the postseason, an appearance that started a streak of 17 consecutive postseason appearances. The 1989 team defeated Texas A&M in a regional final to qualify for the College World Series; the program made the College World Series in 1990. The program won its first national championship in 1991, defeating Wichita State in the College World Series final; the program won its second national championship in 1993, again defeating Wichita State in the College World Series final. In 1996, the Tigers entered the NCAA Tournament on a two-game losing streak, after being eliminated from the SEC Tournament by consecutive losses to Florida and Kentucky. However, based on the team's regular season performance, LSU was selected as one of the eight regional host sites for the NCAA tournament; the Tigers defeated Austin Peay, UNLV, New Orleans before defeating Georgia Tech, 29–13, in the regional final. In the game, LSU broke multiple NCAA records, two of which still stand today: 13 hits in an inning and 8 doubles in an inning.
In the College World Series, the team defeated its first opponent, Wichita State, 9–8. LSU faced Florida, which had beaten them three times in the regular season and once in the SEC Tournament, won, 9–4. Florida came out of the losers' bracket to face LSU again, LSU won, 2–1, to advance to the national championship game against Miami. In the game, LSU defeated 9 -- 8, on a walk-off home run by Warren Morris. In the bottom of the 9th inning with two outs and the tying run on third base, Morris hit a home run to right field off of Miami freshman Robbie Morrison; the home run was Morris's first of the season, it won the 1997 Showstopper of the Year ESPY Award. LSU entered the 1997 season attempting to become the first team to win consecutive national championships since Stanford won championships in 1987 and 1988; the Tigers began the season with 19 consecutive wins, giving them 27 straight wins starting with the 1996 regional. The team's lineup was led by shortstop Brandon Larson, a junior college transfer who set the LSU and SEC single-season record for home runs with 40, one less than the national leader, Rice's Lance Berkman.
LSU finished the season with 188 home runs, breaking the old record of 161 set by Brigham Young in 1988. In its final regular season series, the team played Alabama for the SEC championship; the Tigers lost the second game 28 -- the worst loss in the program's history. The Tigers re