Emmett Louis Till was an African-American teenager who was lynched in Mississippi at the age of 14 after being falsely accused of flirting with a white woman. The brutality of his murder and the fact that his killers were acquitted drew attention to the history of violent persecution of African Americans in the United States. Till posthumously became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement, near Chicago, and was visiting relatives in Money, a small town in the Mississippi Delta region. He spoke to 21-year-old Carolyn Bryant, the proprietor of a small grocery store there. Several nights later, Bryants husband Roy and his half-brother J. W. Milam went armed to Tills great-uncles house and they took him away and beat and mutilated him before fatally shooting him and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Three days later, Tills body was discovered and retrieved from the river, Tills body was returned to Chicago. His mother, who had raised him, insisted on a public funeral service with an open casket to show the world the brutality of the killing.
The open-coffin funeral held by Mamie Till Bradley exposed the world to more than her son Emmett Tills bloated, mutilated body and her decision focused attention not only on American racism and the barbarism of lynching but on the limitations and vulnerabilities of American democracy. S. Intense scrutiny was brought to bear on the lack of civil rights in Mississippi. In September 1955, Bryant and Milam were acquitted by a jury of Tills kidnapping. Protected against double jeopardy and Milam publicly admitted in an early 1956 interview with Look magazine that they had killed Till, problems identifying Till had affected the trial, possibly contributing to Bryants and Milams acquittals. In 2004 the case was reopened by the United States Department of Justice. As part of the investigation, the body was exhumed and autopsied and he was reburied in a new casket, which is the standard practice in cases of body exhumation. His original casket was donated to the Smithsonian Institution and it is displayed in the National Museum of African American History, the trial of Bryant and Milam attracted a vast amount of press attention.
Tills murder is noted as a pivotal catalyst to the phase of the Civil Rights Movement. In December 1955, the Montgomery Bus Boycott began in Alabama and lasted more than a year, in a 2008 interview, first made public in 2017, Carolyn Bryant disclosed that she had fabricated her testimony that Till had made verbal or physical advances towards her. Events surrounding Emmett Tills life and death, according to historians, some writers have suggested that almost every story about Mississippi returns to Till, or the Delta region in which he died, in some spiritual, homing way. An Emmett Till Memorial Commission was established in the early 21st century, the Sumner County Courthouse was restored and includes the Emmett Till Interpretive Center
Brown v. Board of Education
The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Handed down on May 17,1954, the Warren Courts unanimous decision stated that educational facilities are inherently unequal. As a result, de jure segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This ruling paved the way for integration and was a victory of the Civil Rights Movement. For much of the sixty years preceding the Brown case, race relations in the United States had been dominated by racial segregation, racial segregation in education varied widely from the 17 states that required racial segregation to the 16 in which it was prohibited. Brown was influenced by UNESCOs 1950 Statement, signed by a variety of internationally renowned scholars. This declaration denounced previous attempts at scientifically justifying racism as well as morally condemning racism, another work that the Supreme Court cited was Gunnar Myrdals An American Dilemma, The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy.
Myrdal had been a signatory of the UNESCO declaration, the research performed by the educational psychologists Kenneth B. Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark influenced the Courts decision. The Clarks doll test studies presented substantial arguments to the Supreme Court about how segregation affected black schoolchildrens mental status, the plaintiffs were thirteen Topeka parents on behalf of their 20 children. The suit called for the district to reverse its policy of racial segregation. The plaintiffs had been recruited by the leadership of the Topeka NAACP, notable among the Topeka NAACP leaders were the chairman McKinley Burnett, Charles Scott, one of three serving as legal counsel for the chapter, and Lucinda Todd. The named plaintiff, Oliver L. Brown, was a parent, a welder in the shops of the Santa Fe Railroad, an assistant pastor at his church. He was convinced to join the lawsuit by Scott, a childhood friend, as directed by the NAACP leadership, the parents each attempted to enroll their children in the closest neighborhood school in the fall of 1951.
They were each refused enrollment and directed to the segregated schools, linda Brown Thompson recalled the experience in a 2004 PBS documentary. Like I say, we lived in a neighborhood and I had all of these playmates of different nationalities. And so when I found out that day that I might be able to go to their school, I was just thrilled, you know. And I remember walking over to Sumner school with my dad that day and going up the steps of the school, and I remember going inside and my dad spoke with someone and he went into the inner office with the principal and they left me out. To sit outside with the secretary, and while he was in the inner office, I could hear voices and hear his voice raised, you know, as the conversation went on
Lyndon B. Johnson
A Democrat from Texas, he previously served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961. He spent six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader, and two more as Senate Majority Whip, Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election. Although unsuccessful, he was chosen by then-Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate and they went on to win a close election over Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. Johnson was sworn in as Vice President on January 20,1961. Two years and ten months later, on November 22,1963 and he successfully ran for a full term in the 1964 election, winning by a landslide over Republican opponent Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona. He is one of four people who have served as President, Vice President, Senator. Johnson was renowned for his personality and the Johnson treatment. Assisted in part by an economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during his administration.
With the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to use force in Southeast Asia without having to ask for an official declaration of war. The number of American military personnel in Vietnam increased dramatically, from 16,000 advisors in non-combat roles in 1963 to 550,000 in early 1968, American casualties soared and the peace process bogged down. Growing unease with the war stimulated a large, angry antiwar movement based especially on university campuses in the U. S. and abroad. Johnson faced further troubles when summer riots broke out in most major cities after 1965, while he began his presidency with widespread approval, support for Johnson declined as the public became upset with both the war and the growing violence at home. In 1968, the Democratic Party factionalized as antiwar elements denounced Johnson, Republican Richard Nixon was elected to succeed him, as the New Deal coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years collapsed.
After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch, historians argue that Johnsons presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism in the United States after the New Deal era. Johnson is ranked favorably by some historians because of his policies and the passage of many major laws, affecting civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation. Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27,1908, near Stonewall, Texas, in a farmhouse on the Pedernales River. Johnson had one brother, Sam Houston Johnson, and three sisters, Rebekah and Lucia, the nearby small town of Johnson City, was named after LBJs cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Oglethorpe County, Georgia. Johnson had English and Ulster Scots ancestry and he was maternally descended from pioneer Baptist clergyman George Washington Baines, who pastored eight churches in Texas, as well as others in Arkansas and Louisiana
This includes treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated. Discriminatory traditions, ideas and laws exist in countries and institutions in every part of the world. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but have sometimes been called reverse discrimination, the term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the English language. It is from the Latin discriminat- distinguished between, from the verb discriminare, from discrimen distinction, from the verb discernere, Discrimination derives from Latin, where the verb discrimire means to separate, to distinguish, to make a distinction. Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous treatment or consideration, an individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated against.
They just need to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason, in addition to this discrimination develops into a source of oppression. It is similar to the action of recognizing someone as different so much that they are treated inhumanly, social competition is driven by the need for self-esteem and is aimed at achieving a positive social status for the in-group relative to comparable out-groups. Consensual discrimination is driven by the need for accuracy and reflects stable, the United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement, Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection. International bodies United Nations Human Rights Council work towards helping ending discrimination around the world, important UN documents addressing discrimination include, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948. The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is a United Nations convention, the Convention commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination.
The convention was adopted and opened for signature by the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 1965, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as a bill of rights for women, it came into force on 3 September 1981. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a human rights instrument treaty of the United Nations. Parties to the Convention are required to promote and ensure the full enjoyment of human rights by persons with disabilities, the text was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 2006, and opened for signature on 30 March 2007. Following ratification by the 20th party, it came into force on 3 May 2008, ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someones age. It is a set of beliefs and values used to justify discrimination or subordination based on a persons age.
Ageism is most often directed towards old people, or adolescents, Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. In Europe, Stijn Baert, Jennifer Norga, Yannick Thuy and Marieke Van Hecke, researchers at Ghent University, they found that age discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational years
Gebhart v. Belton
Gebhart v. Belton,33 Del. Ch.144,87 A. 2d 862, affd,91 A. 2d 137, was a case decided by the Delaware Court of Chancery in 1952 and affirmed by the Delaware Supreme Court in the same year. In the remaining Brown cases, Federal District Courts all found segregation constitutional, the unusual status of Gebhart arose in large part because of Delawares unique legal and historical position. At the time of the litigation, Delaware was one of 17 states with a school system. Furthermore, a 1935 state education law required, The schools provided shall be of two kinds, those for children and those for colored children. The State Board of Education shall establish schools for children of people called Moors or Indians, despite this optimistic language, African-American schools in Delaware were generally decrepit, with poor facilities, substandard curricula, and shoddy construction. Without substantial financial support provided by Wilmingtons Du Pont family of chemical fame, as opposed to legal remedies, which usually involve awarding money as damages, equity—as expressed in the maxims of equity, regards as done that which ought to be done.
As a result, cases brought in equity generally seek relief which cannot be awarded as a sum of money, Gebhart involved two separate actions which were consolidated for the purposes of trial. Belton v. Gebhart was brought by Ethel Belton and six other parents of eight African-American high-school students who lived in Claymont, howard High School was Delawares sole business and college-preparatory school for African-American students, and served the entire state of Delaware. Bulah v. Gebhart was brought by Sarah Bulah, a resident of the town of Hockessin. Mrs. Bulahs daughter, had been denied admission to the modern,29, and instead was compelled to attend a one-room colored school, Hockessin School No. 107, though very near School No,29, had vastly inferior facilities and construction. Moreover, Shirley Bulah was required to walk to every day. Mrs. Bulah had attempted to obtain transportation for Shirley on that bus, Redding was the first African-American attorney in the history of Delaware and had developed a notable civil-rights practice in his years before the bar.
Frequently, he would be out by families unable to afford his services. Presiding over the Gebhart trial was Chancellor Collins J. Seitz, in 1946, at the age of 35, Seitz had been appointed to the Court of Chancery, making him the youngest judge in the history of Delaware. For example, the school in Hockessin was valued at only $6,250.00. Initially, Chancellor Seitz noted that the separate but equal law had already adopted by the United States Supreme Court in Plessy v. That, however. The answer to question is often much more difficult than appears, because many of the factors to be compared are just not susceptible of mathematical evaluation
90th United States Congress
It met in Washington, DC from January 3,1967 to January 3,1969, during the last two years of the second administration of U. S. President Lyndon Johnson. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Eighteenth Census of the United States in 1960, both chambers had a Democratic majority. April 4,1967, Supplemental Defense Appropriations Act, Pub. L, 90–8,81 Stat.8 November 7,1967, Public Broadcasting Act, Pub. L. 90–129,81 Stat.365 December 15,1967, Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 90–202,81 Stat.602 December 18,1967, National Park Foundation Act, Pub. L. 90–209,81 Stat.6561968, Bilingual Education Act, 90–247 March 1,1968, Fire Research and Safety Act of 1968, Pub. L. 90–259,82 Stat.34 April 11,1968, Civil Rights Act of 1968,73, including Title II, Indian Civil Rights Act,82 Stat.77 May 29,1968, Truth in Lending Act, Pub. L. 90–321 June 19,1968, Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, 90–351,82 Stat.197 July 21,1968, Aircraft Noise Abatement Act, Pub. L.
90–411 October 2,1968, Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, 90–542,82 Stat.906 October 2,1968, National Trails System Act, Pub. L. 90–543,82 Stat.919 October 15,1968, Health Services and Facilities Amendments of 1968,1006, including Title III, Alcoholic and Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Amendments of 1968 October 18,1968, Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Pub. L. 90–602,82 Stat.1173 October 22,1968, Foreign Military Sales Act of 1968, 1320-2 October 22,1968, Gun Control Act of 1968, Pub. L. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the Changes in membership section, kirwan Minority Leader, Gerald Ford Minority Whip, Leslie C. Arends Conference Chair, Melvin Laird Policy Committee Chairman, John Jacob Rhodes House Democratic Caucus This list is arranged by chamber, senators are listed by their classes, and Representatives are listed by district. Senators are popularly elected every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, the count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.
George Stewart Attending Physician of the United States Congress, Rufus Pearson Comptroller General of the United States, the Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives, Congressional History U. S. Senate and Lists House of Representatives Session Calendar for the 90th Congress. Congressional Pictorial Directory for the 90th Congress, official Congressional Directory for the 90th Congress, 1st Session. Official Congressional Directory for the 90th Congress, 2nd Session
Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American clergyman and civil rights leader who was fatally shot at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4,1968. King was rushed to St. Josephs Hospital, where he was pronounced dead at 7,05 p. m. that evening and he was a prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who was known for his use of nonviolence and civil disobedience. James Earl Ray, a fugitive from the Missouri State Penitentiary, was arrested on June 8,1968, in London at Heathrow Airport, extradited to the United States, and charged with the crime. On March 10,1969, Ray entered a plea of guilty and was sentenced to 99 years in the Tennessee State Penitentiary. Ray made attempts to withdraw his guilty plea and be tried by a jury. The King family and others believe that the assassination was carried out by a conspiracy involving the U. S. government, as alleged by Loyd Jowers in 1993, in 1999 the King family filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Jowers for the sum of $10 million.
During closing arguments, the Kings attorney asked the jury to award damages of $100, during the trial both the family and Jowers presented evidence alleging a government conspiracy. The government agencies accused could not defend themselves or respond because they were not named as defendants, based on the evidence, the jury concluded that Jowers and others were part of a conspiracy to kill King and awarded the Kings $100. The allegations and the finding of the Memphis jury were rejected by the United States Department of Justice in 2000 due to lack of evidence, King received frequent death threats due to his prominence in the Civil Rights Movement. He had confronted the risk of death and made that part of his philosophy. He taught that murder could not stop the struggle for equal rights, after the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, King told his wife Coretta, This is what is going to happen to me also. I keep telling you, this is a sick society, King traveled to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of striking African American city sanitation workers.
The workers had staged a walkout on February 11,1968, to protest unequal wages, at the time, Memphis paid black workers significantly lower wages than whites. Several sanitation workers had been killed on the job due to working conditions. In addition, unlike workers, black workers received no pay if they stayed home during bad weather, most blacks were compelled to work even in driving rain. On April 3, King returned to Memphis to address a gathering at the Mason Temple and his airline flight to Memphis was delayed by a bomb threat but he made his planned speech. King delivered the speech, now known as the Ive Been to the Mountaintop address, as he neared the close, he referred to the bomb threat, And I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out
Disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, intellectual, physical, sensory, or some combination of these. It substantially affects a persons activities and may be present from birth or occur during a persons lifetime. Disabilities is a term, covering impairments, activity limitations. Disability is thus not just a health problem and it is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Disability is a concept, with different meanings for different communities. It may be used to refer to physical or mental attributes that some institutions, particularly medicine and it may refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society. Or the term may serve to refer to the identity of people with disabilities, debates about proper terminology and their implied politics continue in disability communities and the academic field of disability studies. In some countries, the law requires that disabilities are documented by a provider in order to assess qualifications for disability benefits.
During the Middle Ages and other conditions were thought to be caused by demons and they were thought to be part of the natural order, especially during and in the fallout of the Plague, which wrought impairments throughout the general population. Contemporary concepts of disability are rooted in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century developments, foremost among these was the development of clinical medical discourse, which made the human body visible as a thing to be manipulated and transformed. These worked in tandem with scientific discourses that sought to classify and categorize and, in so doing, became methods of normalization. The concept of the norm developed in time period, and is signaled in the work of the French statistician Alphonse Quetelet. Quetelet postulated that one could take the sum of all attributes in a given population and find their average. Disability, as well as other concepts including, non-normal, the circulation of these concepts is evident in the popularity of the freak show, where showmen profited from exhibiting people who deviated from those norms.
With the rise of eugenics in the part of the nineteenth century. With disability viewed as part of a persons biological make-up and thus their genetic inheritance, various metrics for assessing a persons genetic fitness, which were used to deport, sterilize, or institutionalize those deemed unfit. In the early 1970s, disability activists began to challenge how society treated people with disabilities, due to this work, physical barriers to access were identified. These conditions functionally disabled them, and what is now known as the model of disability emerged