Fair division is the problem of dividing a set of resources among several people who have an entitlement to them, such that each person receives their due share. This problem arises in various real-world settings, such as: division of inheritance, partnership dissolutions, divorce settlements, electronic frequency allocation, airport traffic management, exploitation of Earth observation satellites; this is an active research area in mathematics, game theory, dispute resolution, more. The central tenet of fair division is that such a division should be performed by the players themselves, maybe using a mediator but not an arbiter as only the players know how they value the goods; the archetypal fair division algorithm is choose. It demonstrates that two agents with different tastes can divide a cake such that each of them believes that he got the best piece; the research in fair division can be seen as an extension of this procedure to various more complex settings. There are many different kinds of fair division problems, depending on the nature of goods to divide, the criteria for fairness, the nature of the players and their preferences, other criteria for evaluating the quality of the division.
Formally, a fair division problem is defined by a group of n players. A division is a partition of X into n disjoint subsets: X = X 1 ⊔ X 2 ⊔ ⋯ ⊔ X n, one subset per player; the set X can be of various types: X may be a finite set of indivisible items, for example: X =, such that each item should be given to a single person. X may be an infinite set representing a divisible resource, for example: a cake. Mathematically, a divisible resource is modeled as a subset of a real space, for example, the section may represent a long narrow cake, that has to be cut into parallel pieces; the unit disk may represent an apple pie. Additionally, the set to be divided may be: homogeneous – such as money, where only the amount matters, or heterogeneous – such as a cake that may have different ingredients, different icings, etc, it is common to make some assumptions about whether the items to be divided are: goods – such as a car or a cake, or bads – such as house chores. Based on these distinctions, several general types of fair division problems have been studied: Fair item assignment - dividing a set of indivisible and heterogeneous goods.
Fair resource allocation - dividing a set of divisible and homogeneous goods. A special case is fair division of a single homogeneous resource. Fair cake-cutting - dividing a divisible, heterogeneous good. A special case is. Fair chore division - dividing a divisible, heterogeneous bad. Combinations and special cases are common: Rental harmony - dividing a set of indivisible heterogeneous goods, a homogeneous divisible bad. Fair river sharing - dividing waters flowing in an international river among the countries along its stream. Fair random assignment - dividing lotteries over divisions - is common when allocating indivisible goods. Most of what is called a fair division is not considered so by the theory because of the use of arbitration; this kind of situation happens quite with mathematical theories named after real life problems. The decisions in the Talmud on entitlement when an estate is bankrupt reflect some quite complex ideas about fairness, most people would consider them fair; however they are the result of legal debates by rabbis rather than divisions according to the valuations of the claimants.
According to the Subjective theory of value, there cannot be an objective measure of the value of each item. Therefore, objective fairness is not possible, as different people may assign different values to each item. Empirical experiments on how people define the concept of fairness lead to inconclusive results. Therefore, most current research on fairness focuses on concepts of subjective fairness; each of the n people is assumed to have a personal, subjective utility function or value function, V i, which assigns a numerical value to each subset of X. The functions are assumed to be normalized, so that every person values the empty set as 0, the entire set of items as 1 if the items are desirable, -1 if the items are undesirable. Examples are: If X is the set of indivisible items Alice may assign a value of 1/3 to each item, which means that each item is important to her just the same as any other item. Bob may assign the value of 1 to the set, the value 0 to all other sets except X.
Verallia North America the North American division of Verallia, is a glass packaging brand of the multinational company Ardagh Group. It produces more than nine billion glass bottles and jars per year, from thirteen plants located throughout the United States and is headquartered in Muncie, Indiana. Verallia North America can trace its roots in the United States back to 1842 when Joseph Foster started a glass factory in Stoddard, New Hampshire; this factory grew into the Foster-Forbes Glass Company. In 1886 the Ball Brothers Glass Manufacturing Company became the Ball Corporation. In 1995, the two U. S. glass companies merged to become Ball-Foster Glass Container Company and formed a joint venture with Saint-Gobain. Within one year, Saint-Gobain had acquired the remaining interest in the joint venture. Ball-Foster Glass Container Company was renamed Saint-Gobain Containers in 2000. In 2010, Saint-Gobain Packaging launched the Verallia brand name worldwide. In April 2014, Ardagh Group purchased Verallia North America from Saint-Gobain.
All divisions of Verallia combine to produce 25 billion glass bottles and jars annually, from 58 industrial sites in 14 different counties. These locations employ 15,500 people. Verallia North America accounts for 4,400 of these employees, 9 billion glass containers, 13 manufacturing plants. Dunkirk Indiana, 1889 Port Allegany Pennsylvania, 1900 Sapulpa Oklahoma, 1912 Seattle Washington, 1931 Lincoln Illinois, 1942 Dolton Illinois, 1954 Henderson North Carolina, 1960 Burlington Wisconsin, 1965 Ruston Louisiana, 1968 Madera California, 1970 Milford Massachusetts, 1973 Wilson North Carolina, 1977 Pevely Missouri, 1981 Glass is 100% recyclable and can be recycled without loss in quality or purity. Recycled glass is referred to as cullet and is used in production of glass to reduce the amount of other materials used and reduce the amount of energy required. Cullet makes up 25% to 60% of the batch. Verallia North America has set a goal to make cullet account for 50% of all batches used in their production by 2013.
Verallia North America has started the Captain Cullet and little Gob O'Glass campaign to spread awareness of glass recycling to children. This is an interactive project to educate the younger generation about the importance of recycling and includes activities such as a Virtual Education Program and animated cartoons
Callander was a railway station located in Callander, in the council area of Stirling, Scotland. The first station was a terminus opened by the Dunblane and Callander Railway on 1 July 1858, it was closed on 1 June 1870 when the second station was opened along with the first section of the Callander and Oban Railway, between Callander and Glenoglehead. The original terminal station of the Dunblane and Callander Railway become a goods yard; the station underwent expansion in 1882. Closure came on 1 November 1965, when the service between Callander and Dunblane ended as part of the Beeching Axe; the section between Callander and Crianlarich had been closed on 27 September that year following a landslide at Glen Ogle. The track through the station was lifted in late 1968 and some demolition work was carried out; the station building itself was demolished in Spring 1973, the station site is now a car park, though a small section of the down platform still exists. The cast iron road bridge to the east of the station was infilled in 2012.
The impressive iron-work on the bridge was refurbished at the same time as the infilling. The site of the original Dunblane and Callander terminal station is now occupied by housing; the enlarged layout of 1882 was controlled from two signal boxes that opened on 1 August of that year. Both boxes stood on the north side of the line; the East box had 45 levers, while the West box had 27. Both signal boxes closed on 30 October 1965. Callander & Oban Junction was situated three quarters of a mile east of Callander station; this location marked the beginning of the Callander and Oban Railway, being where it diverged from the older Dunblane and Callander Railway. Callander & Oban Junction signal box opened on 1 June 1870; the box was replaced on 2 November 1902. The replacement box had 27 levers. On 10 April 1938, the double track line between Callander station and C&O Junction was converted to two single lines. One line became the main single line, the other was retained as a siding for access to the goods yard.
All connections between the two lines at C&O Junction were severed and the signal box there was closed. All the mileposts on the C&OR were measured from Callander & Oban Junction, including the branch line to Ballachulish and the surviving section of the line, between Crianlarich and Oban. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. RAILSCOT on Dunblane and Callander Railway RAILSCOT on Callander and Oban Railway Callander station on navigable 1925 map
For other uses, see The Eternal Mother. The Eternal Mother, a Burmese film created by Sin Yaw Mg Mg is based on the true story novel, "Mother and I", by Dr. Khin Maung Win; this is the first cooperated film between Sin Yaw Mg Mg and May Than Nu who did not work together since their separation 12 years ago. Their son, Min Thant Mg Mg, work as a deputy director for this film; this film was aired in Singapore. Khin Maung Win is the son of a police officer. After his father retires from the police department, they moved to Wundwin, his mother, Daw Khin Khin, worked hard so. Among her children, only Khin Mg Win passed the matriculation exam with three distinctions, he attended the University of Medicine, Mandalay, he met with Khin Lay Yee. Not long after he became a professor, his mother died. Nay Toe as Khin Maung Win Wutt Hmone Shwe Yi as Khin Lay Yi May Than Nu as Daw Khin Khin Ye Aung as Khin Maung Win's father Htun Ko Ko as Khin Maung Win's deputy Zin Aung as Khin Maung Win's elder brother Mandalay Yangon Wundwin Pyin Oo Lwin Singapore London
Charbonneau is a private planned community within the city limits of Wilsonville in Clackamas County, United States. It is on the opposite side the Willamette River from the main area of the city; the development was named for the son of Sacagawea. Charbonneau began in 1972 as 228 town homes. There is a small commercial district with about 10 shops including a grocery store and restaurant; as one of the oldest communities of its type in Oregon, its construction helped lead to the adoption of land-use planning and an urban growth boundary to attempt to prevent urban sprawl. Charbonneau's 200 primary and secondary students are served by the Canby School District. Charbonneau Homeowners Association Charbonneau Together
Szidi Tobias is a Slovak actress and musician of Hungarian ancestry. While in her native country she developed an acting career, in the Czech Republic Tobias established herself as a singer of urban chanson. Studio albums 2001: Divý mak 2003: Punto Fijo 2008: Pod obojím 2010: Do vetra 2011: Ať se dobré děje 2014: JolankaEPs 2011: Vánoční koleda Notes A ^ Denotes a televised theatre. B ^ Denotes a TV series. NotesC ^ Slovak LitFond Rewards are given to a large number of actors and/or directors at the same time, each calendar year. D ^ With difference of only point won Edita Borsová for her role of Bety in Beta. Tobias received 15 points, while Jana Oľhová accumulated 10 points for her role of Arsinoé in Mizantrop. List of Slovak submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film List of Czech submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Szidi Tobias Szidi Tobias on IMDb Szidi Tobias images by Google Images