Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Moose Creek, Alaska
Moose Creek is a census-designated place in Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population of the CDP was 747, up from 542 in 2000, it is part of the'Fairbanks, Alaska Metropolitan Statistical Area'. Moose Creek is located south of Alaska along the Richardson Highway. Moose Creek is bordered by Eielson Air Force Base to the south, the Tanana River to the west, the Chena River Flood Control Project to the north. Moose Creek is located at 64°42′45″N 147°9′40″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.7 square miles, of which, 1.6 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. It is located beside the Moose Creek Bluff, a medium size hill with a rocky cliff facing the Richardson Highway. Moose Creek gets 13 inches of rain per year. On average, there are 154 sunny days per year; the January low is -40. The temperature is comparable to Alaska. Moose Creek first appeared on the 1980 U. S. Census as a census-designated place.
As of the census of 2000, there were 542 people, 223 households, 128 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 342.7 people per square mile. There were 280 housing units at an average density of 177.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 88.38% White, 3.69% Black or African American, 2.21% Native American, 1.29% Asian, 0.37% Pacific Islander, 0.92% from other races, 3.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.95% of the population. There were 223 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.2% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.06. In the CDP the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 16.8% from 18 to 24, 35.4% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 3.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 143.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 146.1 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $44,375, the median income for a family was $44,018. Males had a median income of $24,643 versus $19,583 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,980. About 11.0% of families and 9.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.8% of those under age 18 and 33.3% of those age 65 or over. Coordinates: 64°43'30"N, 147°13'05"W Chugwater is a large site on the east summit of Moose Creek Bluff near the town of North Pole, Alaska 25 km southeast of Fairbanks. Samples of charcoal and sedimentary organics obtained from this site demonstrate human occupation going back before 13,000 years ago; the site is located between the Tanana Rivers. Moose Creek Bluff contains the only pictographs documented in interior Alaska. "Strata in some areas contain artifacts diagnostic of much of the past 11,000 years of prehistory in sediments averaging 30cm deep, exceeding 50cm.
Lively identified three separate components: Component 1, a basal non-microblade level with teardrop-shaped bifaces and small endscrapers similar to Nenana Valley assemblages antedating 10,600 BP. Maitland attributed several artifacts in the upper levels to an incursion or influence by Norton peoples." Obsidian used at Moose Creek came from the Wiki Peak source near the Canada–United States border. Such obsidian was recovered at the Broken Mammoth site, it dates to before 13,000 cal BP. Dry Creek Archeological Site Denali National Park and Preserve Tanana Athabaskans
Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska
Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area is a census area in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,588, it has the largest area of any county-equivalent in the United States. It therefore has no borough seat, its largest communities are the cities of Galena, in the west, Fort Yukon, in the northeast. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the census area has 147,805 square miles, of which 145,505 square miles is land and 2,300 square miles is water; the area is the same size as the U. S. state of Montana or the country of Germany. The area is bigger than 47 of the 50 states, with only California and Alaska itself being bigger than the county size, its population density, at 0.0449 inhabitants per square mile, is the lowest in the United States. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,551 people, 2,309 households, 1,480 families residing in the census area; the population density was 22.3 square miles per person. It is the least densely populated county-equivalent of all 3,141 county-equivalents of the United States.
There were 3,917 housing units at an average density of 0.027 per square mile. The racial makeup of the census area was 24.27% White, 0.09% Black or African American, 70.89% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, 3.91% from two or more races. 1.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 12.95% reported speaking an Athabaskan language at home. There were 2,309 households out of which 38.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.90% were married couples living together, 16.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.90% were non-families. 30.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.53. In the census area the population was spread out with 35.00% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 7.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years.
For every 100 females there were 118.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 122.60 males. Galena City School District operates public schools serving Galena. Nenana City School District operates public schools serving Nenana. Yukon–Koyukuk School District and Yukon Flats School District operate public schools serving rural areas. List of airports in Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area Crow Lake U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area "Census Area map: Alaska Department of Labor"
Alaska's at-large congressional district
Since becoming a U. S. state in 1959, Alaska has been entitled to one member in the United States House of Representatives, elected in the State's sole, at-large congressional district. Based on area, Alaska's congressional district is by far the largest congressional district in the United States, is one of the largest electoral districts in the world. Since March 6, 1973, Republican Don Young has been the member for the district; the district was created when Alaska achieved statehood on January 3, 1959, to elect Alaska's single member. Since Alaska has had a single congressional district. Election results from presidential races: This district is considered safely Republican because no Democrat has been elected since 1972 and because incumbent Don Young has faced a serious challenge since 1992 when he beat Mayor John Devens by 4%. Although allegations of corruption against Young led Democrats to target this seat in 2008, Young retained his seat. Source: "Election Statistics". Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
Archived from the original on 30 July 2008. Retrieved August 8, 2008. Since the death of Howard Wallace Pollock on January 9, 2011, there have been no living former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Alaska's at-large congressional district; the most serving Representative to die was Nick Begich, who disappeared in a plane crash on October 16, 1972, while in office. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
University of Alaska Fairbanks
The University of Alaska Fairbanks is a public research university in College, Alaska. It is a flagship campus of the University of Alaska system and a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant institution. UAF was established in 1917 and opened for classes in 1922. Named the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, it became the University of Alaska in 1935. Fairbanks-based programs became the University of Alaska Fairbanks in 1975. UAF is home to several major research units, including the Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. Located just 200 miles south of the Arctic Circle, the Fairbanks campus' unique location favors Arctic and northern research. UAF's research specialties are renowned worldwide, most notably Arctic biology, Arctic engineering, geophysics and Alaska Native studies; the University of Alaska Museum of the North is on the Fairbanks campus. In addition to the Fairbanks campus, UAF encompasses six rural and urban campuses: Bristol Bay Campus in Dillingham. UAF is the home of eLearning and Distance Education, an independent learning and distance delivery program.
In fall 2017, UAF enrolled 8,720 students. Of those students, 58% were female and 41% were male; as of May 2018, 1,352 students had graduated during the preceding summer and spring semesters. The University of Alaska Fairbanks was established in 1917 as the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, but its origins lie in the creation of a federal agricultural experiment station in Fairbanks in 1906; the station set the tone for the research-oriented university that developed later. In the spring of 1915, the U. S. Congress approved legislation that reserved about 2,250 acres of land for a campus around the research station, it allowed the federal government to give the college land, surveyed and unclaimed in the Tanana Valley. However, because most of the land in Tanana Valley remained unsurveyed for years, the college only received 12,000 acres. In 1929, Congress attempted to remedy the situation by granting the college an additional 100,000 acres anywhere in Alaska, but those rights were extinguished in 1959 when Alaska became a state.
Four months after Congress approved the legislation for the campus land in 1915, a cornerstone for the college was laid by Territorial Delegate James Wickersham on a bluff overlooking the lower Chena River valley. The ridge, which the indigenous Athabaskan people called Troth Yeddha', soon became known as College Hill. Charles E. Bunnell was appointed the university’s chief executive and served the university for 28 years. Classes began at the new institution on September 18, 1922, it offered 16 different courses to a student body of six on opening day. In 1923, the first commencement produced John Sexton Shanly. In 1935, the Alaska Legislature passed a bill that changed the name of the college to the University of Alaska; when William R. Wood became the university’s president in 1960, he divided the academic departments of the university into six select colleges: Arts and Letters. From that point on, both the university’s student population and research mission grew tremendously. With the appointment of Chancellor Howard A. Cutler in 1975, the University of Alaska became the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
The two other primary UA institutions are the University of Alaska Anchorage and the University of Alaska Southeast in Juneau. The Alaska Constitutional Convention was held in the freshly constructed Student Union Building on the Fairbanks campus from November 1955 to February 1956. While the convention progressed, the building became known as Constitution Hall, where the 55 delegates drafted the legal foundation of the 49th state; the campus’ old library and gymnasium was renamed Signers’ Hall after the Alaska Constitution was signed there in February 1956. UAF has nine academic schools and colleges: College of Engineering and Mines College of Liberal Arts College of Natural Science and Mathematics College of Rural and Community Development Graduate School School of Education College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences School of Management School of Natural Resources and Extension There are 190 different degree and certificate programs available in more than 120 disciplines; the UAF Honors Program was created in 1983 and provides additional opportunities for students to prepare for professional school admission.
Students complete core curriculum courses for their degrees in the Honors Program, maintain at least a 3.25 grade-point average in all courses, complete a thesis project. Elmer E. Rasmuson Library The Alaska Film Archives, housed in the library's Alaska and Polar Regions Collections and Archives, holds the largest collection of film-related material about Ala
College is a census-designated place in Fairbanks North Star Borough, United States. It is part of Alaska Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 12,964 as of the 2010 census. This community lies adjacent to the city of Fairbanks; the University of Alaska Fairbanks serves as its core. The area is referred to as part of Fairbanks, not as a separate entity; the area is served by the University of Alaska Fairbanks for fire protection and ambulance service, jointly by the University of Alaska Fairbanks Police Department and Alaska State Troopers for police protection. College is located at 64°50′54″N 147°49′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 19.1 square miles, of which 18.7 square miles is land and 0.4 square miles is water. College first appeared on the 1930 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it was made a census-designated place in 1980. At the 2000 census, there were 11,402 people, 4,104 households and 2,638 families residing in the CDP.
The population density was 610.7 per square mile. There were 4,501 housing units at an average density of 241.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 77.85% White, 3.11% Black or African American, 8.95% Native American, 3.19% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, 5.74% from two or more races. 3.47% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,104 households of which 37.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.13. 26.7% of the population were under the age of 18, 16.8% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 4.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.2 males.
The median household income was $56,560 and the median family income was $69,969. Males had a median income of $47,126 versus $31,495 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,381. About 4.9% of families and 8.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.2% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over. The Fairbanks North Star Borough School District operates the public grade schools that serve the CDP; the oldest of these is University Park Elementary. A new school building for U-Park was constructed on Loftus Road during the 1990s; the district operates several other schools within CDP boundaries: along with U-Park, Pearl Creek Elementary, Woodriver Elementary and West Valley High serve attendance areas which include the CDP. Effie Kokrine Charter, Watershed Charter and Hutchison High are located in the CDP; these schools are not governed by attendance area boundaries. The Yukon–Koyukuk School District, which operates public schools in a scattered swath of rural Interior Alaska covering much of the nearby Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, has its headquarters within the CDP boundaries.
Media related to College, Alaska at Wikimedia Commons Granny Hamme on YouTube from the Alaska Film Archives — Bob Hamme stars as "Granny" in an early 1970s commercial for a small business in College, which shows a period view of the area surrounding the College Road and Hess Avenue intersection