Star Trek is an American space opera media franchise based on the science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. The first television series called Star Trek and now referred to as "The Original Series", debuted in 1966 and aired for three seasons on NBC, it followed the interstellar adventures of Captain James T. Kirk and his crew aboard the starship USS Enterprise, a space exploration vessel built by the United Federation of Planets in the 23rd century; the Star Trek canon includes The Original Series, an animated series, five spin-off television series, the film franchise, further adaptations in several media. In creating Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by the Horatio Hornblower novels, the satirical book Gulliver's Travels, Westerns such as the television series Wagon Train; these adventures continued in the 22-episode Star Trek: The Animated Series and six feature films. Five other television series were produced: Star Trek: The Next Generation follows the crew of a new starship Enterprise, set a century after the original series.
The most recent Star Trek TV series, entitled Star Trek: Discovery, aired on the digital platform CBS All Access. The adventures of The Next Generation crew continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a "reboot" set in an alternate timeline, or "Kelvin Timeline," entitled Star Trek; this film featured a new cast portraying younger versions of the crew from the original show. Its sequel, Star Trek Beyond, was released to coincide with the franchise's 50th anniversary. Star Trek has been a cult phenomenon for decades. Fans of the franchise are called Trekkers; the franchise spans a wide range of spin-offs including games, novels and comics. Star Trek had a themed attraction in Las Vegas that opened in 1998 and closed in September 2008. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world; the series has Klingon. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions; as of July 2016, the franchise had generated $10 billion in revenue, making Star Trek one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.
Star Trek is noted for its cultural influence beyond works of science fiction. The franchise is noted for its progressive civil rights stances; the Original Series included. Star Trek references may be found throughout popular culture from movies such as the submarine thriller Crimson Tide to the animated series South Park; as early as 1964, Gene Roddenberry drafted a proposal for the science-fiction series that would become Star Trek. Although he publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space—a so-called "Wagon Train to the Stars"—he told friends that he was modeling it on Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, intending each episode to act on two levels: as a suspenseful adventure story and as a morality tale. Most Star Trek stories depict the adventures of humans and aliens who serve in Starfleet, the space-borne humanitarian and peacekeeping armada of the United Federation of Planets; the protagonists have altruistic values, must apply these ideals to difficult dilemmas. Many of the conflicts and political dimensions of Star Trek represent allegories of contemporary cultural realities.
Star Trek: The Original Series addressed issues of the 1960s, just as spin-offs have reflected issues of their respective decades. Issues depicted in the various series include war and peace, the value of personal loyalty, imperialism, class warfare, racism, human rights, sexism and the role of technology. Roddenberry stated: " a new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, Vietnam and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek: we were sending messages and they all got by the network." "If you talked about purple people on a far off planet, they never caught on. They were more concerned about cleavage, they would send a censor down to the set to measure a woman's cleavage to make sure too much of her breast wasn't showing"Roddenberry intended the show to have a progressive political agenda reflective of the emerging counter-culture of the youth movement, though he was not forthcoming to the networks about this. He wanted Star Trek to show what humanity might develop into, if it would learn from the lessons of the past, most by ending violence.
An extreme example is the alien species, the Vulcans, who had a violent past but learned to control their emotions. Roddenberry gave Star Trek an anti-war message and depicted the United Federation of Planets as an ideal, optimistic version of the United Nations, his efforts were opposed by the network because of concerns over marketability, e.g. they opposed Roddenberry's insistence that Enterprise have a racially diverse crew. The central trio of Kirk, McCoy from Star Trek: The Original Series was modeled on classical mythological storytelling. There is a mythological component with science fiction. It's people looking for answers – and science fiction offers to explain the inexplicable, the same as religion tends to do... If we accept the premise that it has a mythological element all the stuff about going out into space and meeting new life – trying to explain it and put a human element to it – it's a hopeful visio
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people to oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject. The term is used for a rebellion among members of the military against their superior officers, but it can occasionally refer to any type of rebellion against authority figures or governances. During the Age of Discovery, mutiny meant open rebellion against a ship's captain; this occurred, for example, during Ferdinand Magellan's journeys around the world resulting in the killing of one mutineer, the execution of another, the marooning of others. Mutiny carried capital punishment; until 1689, mutiny was regulated in England by Articles of War instituted by the monarch and effective only in a period of war. In 1689, the first Mutiny Act was passed which passed the responsibility to enforce discipline within the military to Parliament; the Mutiny Act, altered in 1803, the Articles of War defined the nature and punishment of mutiny until the latter were replaced by the Army Discipline and Regulation Act in 1879.
This, in turn, was replaced by the Army Act in 1881. Today the Army Act 1955 defines mutiny as follows: Mutiny means a combination between two or more persons subject to service law, or between persons two at least of whom are subject to service law— to overthrow or resist lawful authority in Her Majesty's forces or any forces co-operating therewith or in any part of any of the said forces, to disobey such authority in such circumstances as to make the disobedience subversive of discipline, or with the object of avoiding any duty or service against, or in connection with operations against, the enemy, or to impede the performance of any duty or service in Her Majesty's forces or in any forces co-operating therewith or in any part of any of the said forces; the same definition applies in the Royal Royal Air Force. The military law of England in early times existed, like the forces to which it applied, in a period of war only. Troops were disbanded upon the cessation of hostilities; the crown, by prerogative, made laws known as Articles of War for the government and discipline of the troops while thus embodied and serving.
Except for the punishment of desertion, made a felony by statute in the reign of Henry VI, these ordinances or Articles of War remained the sole authority for the enforcement of discipline until 1689 when the first Mutiny Act was passed and the military forces of the crown were brought under the direct control of parliament. The Parliamentary forces in the time of Charles I and Oliver Cromwell were governed, not by an act of the legislature, but by articles of war similar to those issued by the king and authorized by an ordinance of the Lords and Commons exercising in that respect the sovereign prerogative; this power of law-making by prerogative was however held to be applicable during a state of actual war only, attempts to exercise it in time of peace were ineffectual. Subject to this limitation, it existed for more than a century after the passing of the first Mutiny Act. From 1689 to 1803, although in peacetime the Mutiny Act was suffered to expire, a statutory power was given to the crown to make Articles of War to operate in the colonies and elsewhere beyond the seas in the same manner as those made by prerogative operated in time of war.
In 1715, in consequence of the rebellion, this power was created in respect of the forces in the kingdom but apart from and in no respect affected the principle acknowledged all this time that the crown of its mere prerogative could make laws for the government of the army in foreign countries in time of war. The Mutiny Act of 1803 effected a great constitutional change in this respect: the power of the crown to make any Articles of War became altogether statutory, the prerogative merged in the act of parliament; the Mutiny Act 1873 was passed in this manner. Such matters remained until 1879 when the last Mutiny Act was passed and the last Articles of War were promulgated; the Mutiny Act legislated for offences in respect of which death or penal servitude could be awarded, the Articles of War, while repeating those provisions of the act, constituted the direct authority for dealing with offences for which imprisonment was the maximum punishment as well as with many matters relating to trial and procedure.
The act and the articles were found not to harmonize in all respects. Their general arrangement was faulty, their language sometimes obscure. In 1869, a royal commission recommended that both should be recast in a simple and intelligible shape. In 1878, a committee of the House of Commons endorsed this view and made recommendations as to how the task should be performed. In 1879, passed into law a measure consolidating in one act both the Mutiny Act and the Articles of War, amending their provisions in certain important respects; this measure was called the Army Discipline and Regulation Act 1879. After one or two years experience finding room for improvement, it was superseded by the Army Act 1881, which hence formed the foundation and the main portion of the military law of England, containing a proviso saving the right of the crown to make Articles of War, but in such a manner as to render the power in effect a nullity by enacting that no crime made punishable by the act shall be otherwise punishable by such articles.
As the punishment of every conceivable offence was provided, any articles made under the act could be no more than an empty formality having no practical effect. Thus the history of English
A Trekkie or Trekker is a fan of the Star Trek franchise, or of specific television series or films within that franchise. In 1967, science fiction editor Arthur W. Saha applied the term "trekkies" when he saw a few fans of the first season of Star Trek: The Original Series wearing pointy ears at the 25th World Science Fiction Convention, on the day series creator Gene Roddenberry showed a print of "Amok Time" to the convention. Saha used the term in an interview with Pete Hamill that Hamill was conducting for TV Guide concerning the phenomenon of science fiction. Many early Trekkies were fans of The Man From U. N. C. L. E. Another show with a devoted, "cult" - like audience; the first Star Trek fanzine, appeared in September 1967, including the first published fan fiction based on the show. Roddenberry, aware of and encouraged such activities, a year estimated that 10,000 wrote or read fanzines; the mainstream science fiction magazine If published a poem about Spock, accompanying a Virgil Finlay portrait of the Vulcan.
The first large gathering of fans occurred in April 1967. When Leonard Nimoy appeared as Spock as grand marshal of the Medford Pear Blossom Festival parade in Oregon, he hoped to sign hundreds of autographs but thousands of people appeared. Another was in January 1968, when more than 200 Caltech students marched to NBC's Burbank, California studio to support Star Trek's renewal; the first fan convention devoted to the show occurred on 1 March 1969 at the Newark Public Library. Organized by a librarian, one of the creators of Spockanalia, the "Star Trek Con" did not have celebrity guests but did have "slide shows of'Trek' aliens, skits and a fan panel to discuss'The Star Trek Phenomenon.'" Some fans were so devoted that they complained to a Canadian TV station when it preempted an episode in July 1969 for coverage of Apollo 11. However, the Trekkie phenomenon did not come to the attention of the general public until after the show was cancelled in 1969 and reruns entered syndication; the first publicized fan convention occurred in January 1972 at the Statler Hilton Hotel in New York, featuring Roddenberry, Isaac Asimov, two tons of NASA memorabilia.
The organizers expected 500 attendees at the "First International Star Trek Convention" but more than 3,000 came. By more than 100 fanzines about the show existed, its reruns were syndicated to 125 American TV stations and 60 other countries, news reports on the convention caused other fans, who had believed themselves to be alone, to organize; some actors, such as Nichelle Nichols, were unaware of the size of the show's fandom until the conventions, but major and minor cast members began attending them around the United States. The conventions so grew in popularity that the media cited Beatlemania and Trudeaumania as examples to describe the emerging "cultural phenomenon". 6,000 attended the 1973 New York convention and 15,000 attended in 1974, much larger figures than at older events like the 4,500 at the 32nd Worldcon in 1974. By the demand from Trekkies was large enough that rival convention organizers began to sue each other; the first UK convention featured special guests George Takei and James Doohan.
After this, there was an official British convention yearly. Because Star Trek was set in the future the show did not become dated, by airing during the late afternoon or early evening when other stations showed news programs it attracted a young audience; the reruns' great popularity—greater than when Star Trek aired in prime time—caused Paramount to receive thousands of letters each week demanding the show's return and promising that it would be profitable. The entire cast reunited for the first time at an August 1975 Chicago convention that 16,000 attended. "Star Trek" Lives!, an early history and exploration of Trekkie culture published that year, was the first mass-market book to introduce fan fiction and other aspects of fandom to a wide audience. By 1976 there were more than 250 Star Trek clubs, at least three rival groups organized 25 conventions that attracted thousands to each. While discussing that year whether to name the first Space Shuttle Enterprise, Jim Cannon, Gerald R. Ford's domestic policy advisor, described Trekkies as "one of the most dedicated constituencies in the country".
"Unprecedented" crowds visited a 1992 Star Trek exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, in 1994, when Star Trek reruns still aired in 94% of the United States, over 400,000 attended 130 conventions. By the late 1990s an estimated two million people in the United States, or about 5% of 35 million weekly Star Trek watchers, were what one author described as "hard-core fans"; the Trek fandom was notably fast to use the World Wide Web. The Guardian's Damien Walter joked that "the 50% of the early world wide web that wasn't porn was made up of Star Trek: The Next Generation fansites". There are some fans; that can become terrible. They look in windows and lean against doors and listen. Since only about a dozen quarterbacks are selected during the typical draft, a 64-quarterback draft board transcends "thorough" and reaches "fetishistic"; this is the stuff of Star Trek conventions. In a few years, the football equivalent of "Mr. Shatner, why didn't the Enterprise use antimatter to destabilize the alien pr
Victor Joseph Mignogna is an American actor and musician known for his voice-over work in the English dubs of Japanese anime shows, the most notable being Edward Elric from the Fullmetal Alchemist series, for which he earned the American Anime Award for Best Actor in 2007. Other notable animation roles include Broly from the Dragon Ball films, Tamaki Suoh in Ouran High School Host Club, Fai D. Flowright in Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle, Dark in D. N. Angel, Kurz Weber in the Full Metal Panic! series and Ichiru Kiryu in the Vampire Knight series, Christopher Aonuma in Digimon Fusion and Obito Uchiha in Naruto Shippuden, Ikkaku Madarame in Bleach, Qrow Branwen in the anime-style web series RWBY, Matt Ishida in Digimon Adventure tri. In video games, he is the voice of E-123 Omega in the Sonic the Hedgehog series and Junpei Iori from Persona 3. In live-action work, he has participated in several Star Trek fan productions, including Star Trek Continues where he plays Captain James T. Kirk. Mignogna was born in Pennsylvania to Barb Myers.
He graduated from Liberty University with a degree in film production. He helped arrange some of the songs on DC Talk's eponymous first album. Mignogna taught drama and speech in Jacksonville and was an officer with the Ocean City Police Department. In 1990, he moved to Houston, where he was a film and video production instructor at The Art Institute of Houston. In 1993, he was a contestant on American television talent show Star Search, on which he sang "Worth Waiting For". While working in video production with John Gremillion in Houston, Mignogna got involved in voice acting in anime at ADV Films, he made his debut as Vega in the video game based anime series Street Fighter II V. He started attending anime conventions, where he contacted Funimation and landed the voice role of Broly in the Dragon Ball films. In 2007, the American Anime Awards presented Mignogna with an award for Best Actor for his work on Fullmetal Alchemist, he gains attention for his role in Fullmetal Alchemist, he at one point attended between 15 and 25 conventions each year.
One of Mignogna's career goals was "to record at all of the major places where dubbing is done." He said he was "the first ADV voice actor to record at Funimation in Dallas and I was the first to go to New York". He has recorded in Los Angeles. In non-anime productions, he voiced Qrow Branwen in the American web series RWBY. In addition to voice acting, Mignogna has been involved in production for music and video, he has produced hundreds of jingles for commercials, he was a worship leader with Houston's First Baptist Church. He has sung the U. S. national anthem at several Houston Astros baseball games. As a musician, Mignogna has released several albums, some of which feature English cover versions of anime songs from shows including One Piece and the Dragon Ball series, he handled some of the ADR direction for the English dub of Claymore, in which he voices Rigaldo. Mignogna has been involved with several fan productions, including Fullmetal Fantasy and Star Trek: Phase II. In the latter series, he co-directed the episode "Enemy: Starfleet" and played the Andorian Captain.
He directed "KITUMBA" and played Malkthon the Klingon, was slated to direct the episode "Mindsifter". In 2012, Mignogna worked with the Starship Farragut production group, he starred as Captain Kirk in their web series Star Trek Continues. Mignogna has received good reviews for writing, executive producing and starring in Star Trek Continues for his portrayal of the character of James T. Kirk, respectfully utilizing William Shatner's unique mannerisms and cadence. Following the release of Dragon Ball Super: Broly, which prominently features Mignogna's vocal work, accusations of sexual harassment began to surface against Mignogna, with some allegations dating as far back as 1989. Multiple accounts alleged that Mignogna kissed and made unwanted comments to fans without their consent, some of whom were underage. Voice actresses Monica Rial and Jamie Marchi tweeted their support for those speaking out, alleged being sexually harassed by Mignogna. On February 5, 2019, Rooster Teeth, creators of the animated series RWBY, severed their business relationship with Mignogna, Funimation recast Mignogna's role of the Executive in The Morose Mononokean.
In response to the controversy, Mignogna categorically denied any accusations of sexual harassment. However, multiple anime conventions withdrew Mignogna from their guest list. On February 11, 2019, Funimation confirmed on Twitter that they had ended professional ties with Mignogna following an investigation. Mignogna issued an apology during his panel at Bak-Anime 2019 and again via Twitter on February 13, 2019. On February 20, 2019, Mignogna confirmed on Twitter. Mignogna was in a relationship with actress Michele Specht from 2006 to May 2018. If These Walls Could Talk Selah – Music for the Quiet Time Metafiction Christmas Selah II Revix – a remix album of some of his earlier singles Gospel of John A Howl at the Moon – audiobook narrator Official website Vic Mignogna at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Vic Mignogna convention appearances on AnimeCons.com Vic Mignogna on IMDb Vic Mignogna at Behind The Voice Actors
Kickstarter is an American public-benefit corporation based in Brooklyn, New York, that maintains a global crowdfunding platform focused on creativity and merchandising. The company's stated mission is to "help bring creative projects to life". Kickstarter has received more than $4 billion in pledges from 15.5 million backers to fund 257,000 creative projects, such as films, stage shows, journalism, video games and food-related projects. People who back Kickstarter projects are offered tangible rewards or experiences in exchange for their pledges; this model traces its roots to subscription model of arts patronage, where artists would go directly to their audiences to fund their work. Kickstarter launched on April 28, 2009, by Perry Chen, Yancey Strickler, Charles Adler; the New York Times called Kickstarter "the people's NEA". Time named it one of the "Best Inventions of 2010" and "Best Websites of 2011". Kickstarter raised $10 million funding from backers including NYC-based venture firm Union Square Ventures and angel investors such as Jack Dorsey, Zach Klein and Caterina Fake.
The company is based in Brooklyn. Andy Baio served as the site's CTO until November 2010. Lance Ivy has been Lead Developer since the website launched. On February 14, 2013, Kickstarter released; the app was aimed at users who create and back projects and was the first time Kickstarter had an official mobile presence. On October 31, 2012, Kickstarter opened projects based in the United Kingdom, followed by projects based in Canada on September 9, 2013, Australia and New Zealand on November 13, 2013, the Netherlands on April 28, 2014, Ireland and Sweden on September 15, 2014, Germany on April 28, 2015, France and Spain on May 19, 2015, Belgium, Italy and Switzerland on June 16, 2015, Singapore and Hong Kong on August 30, 2016, Mexico on November 15, 2016 and Japan on September 12, 2017. In July 2017, Strickler announced his resignation. Kickstarter is one of a number of crowdfunding platforms for gathering money from the public, which circumvents traditional avenues of investment. Project creators choose a minimum funding goal.
If the goal is not met by the deadline, no funds are collected. The kickstarter platform is open to backers from anywhere in the world and to creators from many countries, including the US, UK, Australia, New Zealand, The Netherlands, Ireland, Sweden, France, Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg and Mexico. Kickstarter applies a 5% fee on the total amount of the funds raised, their payments processor applies an additional 3–5% fee. Unlike many forums for fundraising or investment, Kickstarter claims no ownership over the projects and the work they produce; the web pages of projects launched on the site are permanently archived and accessible to the public. After funding is completed and uploaded media cannot be edited or removed from the site. There is no guarantee that people who post projects on Kickstarter will deliver on their projects, use the money to implement their projects, or that the completed projects will meet backers' expectations. Kickstarter advises backers to use their own judgment on supporting a project.
They warn project leaders that they could be liable for legal damages from backers for failure to deliver on promises. Projects might fail after a successful fundraising campaign when creators underestimate the total costs required or technical difficulties to be overcome. Asked what made Kickstarter different from other crowdfunding platforms, co-founder Perry Chen said: "I wonder if people know what the definition of crowdfunding is. Or, if there’s an agreed upon definition of what it is. We haven’t supported the use of the term because it can provoke more confusion. In our case, we focus on a middle ground between commerce. People are offering cool stuff and experiences in exchange for the support of their ideas. People are creating these mini-economies around their project ideas. So, you aren’t coming to the site to get something for nothing. We focus on creative projects—music, technology, design and publishing—and within the category of crowdfunding of the arts, we are ten times the size of all of the others combined."
On June 21, 2012, Kickstarter began publishing statistics on its projects. As of February 13, 2015, there were 207,135 launched projects, with a success rate of 40%; the total amount pledged was $1,523,718,656. The business grew in its early years. In 2010 Kickstarter had $27,638,318 pledged; the corresponding figures for 2011 were 11,836 funded projects and $99,344,381 pledged. On February 9, 2012, Kickstarter hit a number of milestones. A dock made for the iPhone designed by Casey Hopkins became the first Kickstarter project to exceed one million dollars in pledges. A few hours a new adventure game project started by computer game developers, Double Fine Productions, reached the same figure, having been launched less than 24 hours earlier, finished with over $3 million pledged; this was the first time Kickstarter raised over a million dollars in pledges in a single day. On August 30, 2014, the "Coolest Cooler", an icebox created by Ryan Grepper, became the most funded Kickstarter project in history, with US$13.28 million in funding, breaking the record held by the Pebble smart watch.
In July 2012, Wharton professor Ethan Mollick and Jeanne Pi conducted research
Star Trek: Enterprise
Star Trek: Enterprise, titled Enterprise for its first two seasons, is an American science fiction television series created by Rick Berman and Brannon Braga. It aired from September 26, 2001 to May 13, 2005 on UPN, spanning 98 episodes across four seasons. Enterprise is the sixth series in the Star Trek franchise, it served as a prequel to Star Trek: The Original Series. The show is set in the 22nd century, a hundred years before the events of The Original Series and just prior to the formation of the United Federation of Planets; the series follows the adventures of the Enterprise, Earth's first starship capable of traveling at warp five, as it explores the galaxy and encounters various alien species. Following the culmination of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and with Star Trek: Voyager scheduled to end, UPN asked Braga and Berman to devise a new series to continue the franchise. Rather than setting it in the 24th century alongside Deep Space Nine and Voyager, the duo decided to set Enterprise in an earlier period, allowing them to explore new parts of the Star Trek fictional universe.
Wanting a more basic and character-driven series and Braga concentrated the episodes around a core trio of characters: Captain Jonathan Archer, Commander Charles "Trip" Tucker III and Sub-commander T'Pol. The show broke with Star Trek convention in several respects: in addition to dropping the Star Trek prefix, Enterprise used the pop-influenced song "Where My Heart Will Take Me" as its theme, it was filmed on the Paramount lot in Los Angeles, California, on the same stages that had housed the Star Trek series and films since the abandoned Star Trek: Phase II in the late 1970s. The first two seasons were characterized by stand-alone episodes that explored topics like humanity's early relations with the Vulcans and their first encounters with the Klingons and Andorians, alien species familiar to the Star Trek franchise. Wanting to attract greater viewers, UPN called for changes for its third season; the series was renamed, pursuing more action-driven plots and a single, serialized storyline: the crew's mission to prevent the Earth being destroyed by a newly introduced alien species called the Xindi.
UPN cancelled the series after its fourth season. The cancellation of Star Trek: Enterprise marked the first point in eighteen years that no new Star Trek episodes were produced, a situation that remained until the launch of Star Trek: Discovery in 2017. Star Trek: Enterprise follows the adventures of the crew of the starship Enterprise, designation NX-01, they are the first deep space explorers in Starfleet. At the start of the series, it is revealed that the Vulcans have withheld advanced technology from humanity since their first contact, concerned that humans were not ready for it; this has delayed human space exploration and caused resentment in Captain Jonathan Archer, whose father developed the Warp 5 engine but did not live to see it used. Enterprise was intentionally equipped with less advanced versions of technologies seen in previous series. For example, it has no tractor beam, uses missiles instead of photon torpedoes, has only limited means of synthesizing foods and other consumable items.
Communications Officer Linguist Hoshi Sato's expertise in linguistics helps compensate for the lack of advanced universal translators. The series showed the crew making first contacts with a number of races seen in the franchise. Notably, the Klingons who appear in the pilot, "Broken Bow" have the ridged makeup seen in the movie franchise and from Star Trek: The Next Generation onwards, rather than the smooth-headed versions seen in Star Trek: The Original Series; this particular change was attributed by Braga to advancements in makeup. They felt that contradictions in the continuity such as the Klingon ridges were unavoidable, as well as those involving technology. However, continuity was restored, by attributing the change to a plague caused by genetic experimentation; the series's first season emphasized a core trio of characters: Jonathan Archer, T'Pol, Charles "Trip" Tucker III. Other main characters had primary roles in particular episodes, such as "Dear Doctor" and "Fight or Flight"; the second season saw deepening relationships between characters—for example, the friendship between Tucker and Reed, seen in episodes such as "Two Days and Two Nights".
The addition of a futuristic Temporal Cold War element was seen as a "nod to mystery" by Rick Berman, who sought to add an element of The X-Files to the series. Berman decided. At the start of the second season, Braga said that the Temporal Cold War storyline would continue to be included if viewers were still interested, but described it as "strangulating". Featured in the pilot episode, "Broken Bow", it featured the Suliban being manipulated by an unknown humanoid figure from the future, nicknamed "Future Guy" by viewers—a moniker adopted by the series's writers. At the start of the series, Braga said that they did not have a plan for who the character would turn out to be. Ten years after the end of the series, Braga stated on Twitter that Future Guy was Archer manipulating his own timeline.
The Mirror Universe is a parallel universe in which the plots of several Star Trek television episodes take place. It resembles the fictional universe in which the Star Trek television series takes place, but is separate from the main universe; the Mirror Universe has been visited in one episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, five episodes of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, a two-part episode of Star Trek: Enterprise and a storyline in Star Trek: Discovery, as well as several non-canon Star Trek tie-in works. It is named after "Mirror", the original series episode in which it first appeared; the characters in the Mirror Universe are aggressive and opportunistic in personality. Whereas the Star Trek universe depicts an optimistic future in which the Earth-based United Federation of Planets values peace, co-operation and exploration, episodes set in the Mirror Universe feature the human-dominated authoritarian Terran Empire which values war and conquest instead. In Star Trek: Discovery, it is noted.
The Mirror Universe was first introduced in the original Star Trek episode "Mirror, Mirror", which featured the brutal Terran Empire, managed by humans and their Vulcan allies, in place of the United Federation of Planets. The Mirror Captain Kirk of the ISS Enterprise was a mass murderer, promoted to Captain after assassinating Captain Christopher Pike. Discipline aboard starships was enforced through agony agonizers carried by crewmembers. Officers were barbaric in behavior and advanced in rank by killing superiors who they thought were incompetent. Roman/Nazi-style military salutes were used by crewmembers to show loyalty to their captain; the episode established the goatee as a visual marker for an evil version of a character. The Mirror Universe was revisited in the Deep Space Nine second-season episode "Crossover", turned into a story arc that spanned into the final season, with five Mirror Universe episodes over the course of five seasons; the series reveals that when exposed to individuals from the normal universe, the Terran Empire began to reform itself for the better, but was overthrown in the 23rd century by an alliance of alien species who took advantage of the Empire's self-weakening and conquered it, enslaving humans and Vulcans in the process.
A two-part episode of Star Trek: Enterprise, entitled "In a Mirror, Darkly", introduces the early developments of the Mirror Universe. The first season of Star Trek: Discovery has a storyline involving the Mirror Universe. Captain Gabriel Lorca, commander of the USS Discovery, is discovered to be an inhabitant of the Mirror Universe on account of his intolerance to bright light, a genetic trait common to all humans from the Mirror Universe. In addition to the television episodes, a number of ancillary tie-in works make use of the Mirror Universe setting; these works may contradict continuity as established in the television episodes, are not considered canon. The Star Trek: Stargazer novel Three by Michael Jan Friedman features the Mirror Universe; the Star Trek: The Next Generation book Dark Mirror, written by Diane Duane, offers another explanation of what happened after Captain Kirk and three of his crew encountered the Mirror Universe. In the novel, the Empire is still in existence in the 24th century.
The point of divergence appears to be the Eugenics Wars where the genetic supermen were not defeated and turned on each other resulting in atomic war, but works dating back to the days of ancient Greece supporting the Empire's current mindset are noted. Various novels have been set in the Deep Space Nine version of the Mirror Universe, including a trilogy by William Shatner, which reveals the Mirror Kirk is still alive and plotting to reconquer the Empire. Two collections of Mirror stories were published in 2007: the first involves Mirror Enterprise, TOS and TNG and the second features Mirror DS9, Voyager and New Frontier. A third collection, entitled Shards and Shadows, was released in January 2009; the Mirror Universe storyline was concluded in the novel Rise Like Lions, released in November 2011. A further story taking place in the Mirror Universe, Section 31 - Disavowed, was released in October 2014. A number of Star Trek games reference it. Among them, the first-person shooter Star Trek Voyager: Elite Force, the massively multiplayer online game Star Trek Online, the battle simulator Star Trek: Shattered Universe, set in the Mirror Universe, Decipher's Star Trek Roleplaying Game and Star Trek: Attack Wing.
The Mirror Universe Saga is a trade paperback that reprints eight issues of DC Comics' Star Trek comic book chronicling an encounter between the Mirror Universe and the Prime Universe. It is set after the events of Star Trek III: The Search for Spock; the series was drawn by Tom Sutton & Ricardo Villagrán. This version postulates the divergence of history to start at the time of the Earth-Romulan War, with the conquest of Earth by the Romulans; the concept of a morally inverted universe had been pioneered by DC Comics in 1964, three years before Star Trek adopted the idea, in the Justice League of America story "Crisis on Earth-Three" written by Gardner Fox. The fan-produced web series Star Trek Continues included an episode set in the Mirror Universe called "Fairest of Them All"; the South Park episode "Spookyfish" is a parody of the Mirror Universe in Star Trek, complete with goatees on all the characters from the Mirror Universe. However, in a twist, the "normal" Eric Cartman is the evil one, while the Mirror Universe version o