Fairfield Moravian Church
Fairfield Moravian Church and its surrounding settlement was founded in 1785 in Fairfield, Lancashire, England. It was founded by Benjamin La Trobe as a centre for evangelistic work for the Moravian Church in the Manchester area. Numbers 15, 28 and 30 Fairfield Square are Grade II* listed buildings. In 1742 the Moravians established a headquarters for their evangelistic work in the North of England at Lightcliffe near Halifax in the West Riding of Yorkshire. At the request of James Taylor and John Wood of Cheshire, evangelists moved to work in the Manchester area. In 1751 a congregation was established in Dukinfield, with a small settlement following in 1755; this was to be the centre of a preaching mission on the western side of the Pennines. There was limited scope for expansion at Dukinfield and in 1783 the Moravians purchased sixty acres of land in Droylsden from Mrs Greaves at Broad Oaks Farm and her neighbours, Mr Saxon and Mr Kirkenhead with a 999 years lease; this became Fairfield Moravian Settlement.
The architect of the settlement was a member of the Moravian Church, Brother John Lees, from Clarksfield, in Oldham. There is some evidence that Br Lees may have sold two coal mines he owned to pay for building Fairfield. Other finance came from Moravian congregations in England and America; the total cost was £6,000. On 9 June 1784, foundation stones of choir houses were laid. A declaration was placed in the stone of the chapel, in which the settlers expressed their desire'to be separated from the world and its seductions... and... to enjoy true fellowship as children of God', to serve the'propagation of His Gospel among Christians and the Heathen' and asserted their'adherence to the Word of God as contained in the Old and New Testaments, the Augsburg Confession'. By May 1785, the choir houses and 13 dwelling houses were tenanted, it was a feature of Moravian settlement life in the 18th and early 19th centuries that members were grouped into three choirs or communities: married. The single brethren occupied shared accommodation and worked together within the settlement as would the single sisters in their house.
The chapel was consecrated in a private service on 15 July 1785. On this occasion, a single sister from Oldham was received into the congregation and Br Joshua Sutcliffe was ordained deacon by Bishop Tranaker who had travelled from the Fulneck settlement in Yorkshire; the chapel's public opening took place on Sunday 17 July. Some 1,500 people attended Morning Service which began with a musical ode performed on the new organ by Br Christian La Trobe supported by the brass bands from Fulneck and Fairfield; the use of brass instruments in worship is a Moravian characteristic now defunct in England but alive in Germany and the United States. Br Benjamin La Trobe preached a sermon on Matthew 28: 19-30 in a service lasting over three hours. Benjamin La Trobe, of Huguenot descent, was the Provincial Helper or superintendent in charge of the Moravian's work in the United Kingdom, reporting to the Unity headquarters in Herrnhut, Germany. La Trobe’s son, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, was the architect of the Capitol of the United States in Washington, DC.
In 1785, the community at Fairfield had 110 members, 22 men who lived in the single brethren’s house and 45 women in the single sisters’ house. The congregation was overseen by an elders conference consisting of the minister and his wife, the single brethren’s labourer, the single sisters’ labouress, a member of the married choir and two elected representatives of the congregation. In turn, the elders appointed a college of overseers to manage the settlement, deal with repair of buildings, maintenance of roads, street lighting and supervision of economic activity. Economic activities included weaving and saddlery by the single brethren; the settlement operated a fire engine. Activities included brickmaking and cotton carding and spinning; the single brethren's house was not a success financially. The young men were admonished for drinking too much at the settlement's inn. In the 18th century, the chapel was called the hall, it was unheated. Hard benches surrounded a communion table in the centre of the north wall.
The sisters sat near their house. When the married choir came to church, men sat with the single women with the sisters; this practice continued until the late 19th century. On the wall opposite the pulpit was a gallery with an organ and a musical choir assembled to sing the responses in the liturgy; the Fairfield congregation used the Lot when making decisions such as admission to membership and choice of a marriage partner. After prayer the question was posed, the Lot was consulted by drawing at random one of three slips of paper. One slip marked'Yes', one'No' and one was blank; the practice was based on Biblical precedent and reflected the Moravian belief in Christ as the active and directing Head of the Church. By 1815 the use of the Lot to determine membership began to wane; this may be due to a result on 8 May 1815 when a married woman, Hannah Kenyon, earnestly sought on her death bed to become a member of Fairfield. The el
Fairfield is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 6 km north-east of Melbourne City Centre. Its local government area are the cities of Yarra, its borders are Grange Road to the east, the Yarra River to the south, Darebin Road to the north and Northcote to the west. Yarra Bend is a locality in Fairfield. Fairfield Post Office opened on 21 February 1887, it has since relocated. In 1962, Fairfield was part of the City of Heidelberg. In that year, it and Alphington became part of the City of Northcote, which, in 1994 became part of the City of Darebin. Fairfield is serviced by the Fairfield railway station, on the Hurstbridge line as well as by bus. Fairfield is predominantly residential, with a small north-eastern pocket remaining a light industrial area, it features a three-storey hotel, the Grandview Hotel, completed in 1888. License was granted by the Licensing Court on 15 August 1888; the Station St shopping district has 89 businesses operating within it, with 23 cafes/bars/restaurants and 17 food and wine specialists.
Fairfield has significant Greek and Italian communities, with 10.9% and 10.5% of residents being of those ancestries respectively. There are strong numbers of Chinese, Dutch and Indian residents in the suburb. Adjacent to the railway station, facing north-east, is the Fairfield Industrial Dog Object, a 6m tall animatronic wooden dog. Fairfield Primary School St Anthony's Primary School Melbourne Polytechnic has a campus on the site of the former Fairfield Infectious Diseases Hospital specialising in Visual Arts, music and jewellery manufacture. Fairfield Cricket Club Soccer teams Fitzroy City and Yarra Jets play. Golfers play at the course of the Yarra Bend Golf Club on Yarra Bend Road. Fairfield is home to the Darebin International Sports Centre which played host to events during the 2006 Commonwealth Games City of Northcote - the former local government area of which Fairfield was a part
Fairfield is a town in Fairfield County, United States. It borders the city of Bridgeport and towns of Trumbull, Easton and Westport along the Gold Coast of Connecticut; as of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 59,404. In September 2014, Money magazine ranked Fairfield the 44th best place to live in the United States, the best place to live in Connecticut. In 1635, Puritans and Congregationalists in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, were dissatisfied with the rate of Anglican reform, sought to establish an ecclesiastical society subject to their own rules and regulations; the Massachusetts General Court granted them permission to settle in the towns of Windsor and Hartford, an area now known as Connecticut. On January 14, 1639, a set of legal and administrative regulations called the Fundamental Orders was adopted, established Connecticut as a self-ruling entity. By 1639 these settlers had started new towns in the surrounding areas. Roger Ludlowe, framer of the Fundamental Orders, purchased the land presently called Fairfield, established the name.
The name "Fairfield" is commendatory. According to historian John M. Taylor: "Early in 1639 the General Court granted a commission to Ludlow to begin a plantation at Pequannocke, he was on that errand, with a few others from Windsor, afterwards joined by immigrants from Watertown and Concord. He stole a large tract of land from the Pequannocke sachems, - afterwards enlarged by other purchases to the westward,- and recalling the attractive region beyond, which he had seen on the second Pequot expedition, he “set down” there, having purchased the territory embraced in the present town of Fairfield, to which he gave its name." Fairfield was one of the two principal settlements of the Connecticut Colony in southwestern Connecticut. The town line with Stratford was set in May 1661 by John Banks, an early Fairfield settler, Richard Olmstead, Lt. Joseph Judson, who were both appointed as a committee by the Colony of Connecticut; the town line with Norwalk was not set until May 1685. Over time, it gave rise to several new towns that incorporated separately.
The following is a list of towns created from parts of Fairfield. Redding in 1767 Weston in 1787 Easton, created from Weston in 1845 Bridgeport in 1821 and again in 1895 when the Black Rock section left Fairfield Westport in 1835 When the American Revolutionary War began in the 1770s, Fairfielders were caught in the crisis as much as, if not more than, the rest of their neighbors in Connecticut. In a predominantly Tory section of the colony, the people of Fairfield were early supporters of the cause for independence. Throughout the war, a constant battle was being fought across Long Island Sound as men from British-controlled Long Island raided the coast in whaleboats and privateers. Gold Selleck Silliman, whose home still stands on Jennings Road, was put in charge of the coastal defenses. In the spring of 1779, he was kidnapped from his home by Tory forces in preparation for a British raid on Fairfield County, his wife, Mary Silliman watched from their home as, on the morning of July 7, 1779 2,000 enemy troops landed on Fairfield Beach near Pine Creek Point and proceeded to invade the town.
When they left the following evening, the entire town lay in ruins, burned to the ground as punishment for Fairfield's support of the rebel cause. 10 years President George Washington noted that after traveling through Fairfield that "the destructive evidences of British cruelty are yet visible both in Norwalk and Fairfield. World War I brought Fairfield out of its agrarian past by triggering an unprecedented economic boom in Bridgeport, the center of a large munitions industry at the time; the prosperity created a housing shortage in the city, many of the workers looked to Fairfield to build their homes. The trolley and the automobile made the countryside accessible to these newly rich members of the middle class, who brought with them new habits, new attitudes, new modes of dress; the prosperity lasted throughout the twenties. By the time of the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the population had increased to 17,000 from the 6,000 it had been just before the war. During the Depression, the town kept expanding.
The grounding of a barge with two crewmen on Penfield Reef in Fairfield during a gale led to the 1st civilian helicopter hoist rescue in history, on November 29, 1945. The helicopter flew from the nearby Sikorsky Aircraft plant in Connecticut. Fairfield became the home of the corporate headquarters of General Electric, one of the world's largest companies. On May 8, 2017, GE relocated to Massachusetts; the opening of the Connecticut Turnpike in the 1950s brought another wave of development to Fairfield, by the 1960s the town's residential, suburban character was established. The town is on the shore of Long Island Sound. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 31.3 square miles, of which 30.0 square miles is land and 3.4 square kilometres, or 4.15%, is water. The Mill River, the waters of which feed Lake Mohegan, flows through the town. Fairfield consists of many neighborhoods; the best known are wealthy Southport, where General Electric Chief Executive Officer Jack Welch lived for many years, Greenfield Hill, with its large areas, famous dogwood trees, picturesque green with its white-spired Congregational church.
Other well established neighborhood
Fairfield East is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Fairfield East is located 28 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of the City of Fairfield. Fairfield East is part of the Greater Western Sydney region. Fairfield East shares the postcode of 2165 with nearby suburbs of Fairfield, Fairfield Heights and Fairfield West. Fairfield East gets its name from its neighbour Fairfield which in turn was named after the family estate of Captain John Horsley, an early settler. Prior to colonisation, the Cabrogal clan of the Dharug people inhabited the area around what is now known as Fairfield East. British settlers used the land for farming. By the 1870s, the area now known as Fairfield East was part of two large properties: Orchardleigh in the north which extended towards Guildford and Mark Lodge in the south which included Villawood and parts of the Fairfield town centre. In 1876, Orchardleigh was subdivided for housing and when Mark Lodge followed suit in 1885, the area completed its transformation from farmland to suburbia.
The name Mark Lodge was still used in the area for some time after although by the 1950s it had become Fairfield East. Fairfield East was home to the infamous Villawood Bronx, plagued with crime and drugs and experienced gang related murders and other serious crimes for many years until the former public housing estate was knocked down in 1999 and redeveloped into townhouses and private homes. According to the 2016 census, Fairfield East had a population of 5,273 people. 39.4% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were Vietnam 18.9%, Iraq 6.2%, Lebanon 3.6% and China 3.3%. 19.3% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Vietnamese 24.7%, Arabic 17.6%, Cantonese 4.6%, Mandarin 3.5% and Spanish 2.5%. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 22.0%, Buddhism 20.1%, Islam 18.0% and No Religion 12.7%. The most common occupations included Labourers 16.1%, Professionals 14.5%, Technicians and Trades Workers 14.2%, Clerical and Administrative Workers 13.2%, Machinery Operators and Drivers 13.2%
Fairfield (Lake District)
Fairfield is a fell in the English Lake District. It is the highest of a group of hills in the Eastern Fells, standing to the south of the Helvellyn range. There is a marked contrast between the character of the southern flanks of Fairfield. Alfred Wainwright in his influential Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells wrote that "From the south it appears as a great horseshoe of grassy slopes below a high skyline...but lacking those dramatic qualities that appeal most to the lover of hills. But on the north side the Fairfield range is magnificent: here are dark precipices, long fans of scree...desolate combes and deep valleys."Fairfield has connecting ridges to several other fells and in plan view can be likened to a bow-tie. The top has an east -- west axis with ridges running out south from each end; the two southern arms make up the popular walk, the Fairfield horseshoe, which starts in Ambleside and makes a circuit of the valley of Rydale to the south. On the western side, descending from Fairfield are Great Rigg, Heron Pike and Nab Scar while the eastern ridge bears the tops of Hart Crag, Dove Crag, High Pike and Low Pike.
The north-western ridge of Fairfield crosses Deepdale Hause to St Sunday Crag whilst that to the north east is a short rocky spur into Deepdale, dropping over Greenhow End. A fifth line of high ground, less a ridge than a salient in the breast of the fell, runs due west to Seat Sandal across Grisedale Hause; the northern and eastern faces all loom above the desolate upper Deepdale, divided by Greenhow End. This short rocky spur has Scrubby Crag on the east; the corries of Cawk Cove and Link Cove lie on either side, each with a steep headwall formed by the flanks of Fairfield. North-west of Fairfield is Grisedale Tarn at around 1,770 ft; this sizeable tarn has a depth of over 100 ft and holds brown trout and eels. It is the legendary resting place of the crown of Dunmail, following his—perhaps legendary—defeat in battle at Dunmail Raise; the outflow is to Ullswater, 3 miles to the north-east along the strath of Grisedale. The south western flank of Fairfield looks down on a feeder of Raise Beck and Grasmere.
The volcaniclastic sandstone and lapilli-tuff of the Deepdale Formation overlie the dacitic lapilli-tuff of the Helvellyn Formation. The summit is a rough stony plateau with the high point at the western end above the brink of Cawk Cove; the top is flat and there are many cairns, including a pair of large windbreaks near the high point. Guidebook writers warn that it is easy to get lost in mist and that the cautious walker should beware of the presence of precipices to the north and west; the vista is fine, with all of the major fell groups well seen and views down into the abyss of Deepdale only yards away. Other fells visible at close hand include Helvellyn, Nethermost Pike, Saint Sunday Crag and Cofa Pike; the view south towards Ambleside and Rydal over Rydal Head is extensive, with Windermere and Coniston Water in view. Fairfield is most climbed as the high point of the Fairfield horseshoe, a walk which has no agreed direction of travel. Coming from Great Rigg, the long grassy ridge heads directly for the summit, whilst the walker arriving from Hart Crag climbs up from Link Hause with a fine view of Scrubby Crag to the right, before the stony traverse of Fairfield summit.
The finest indirect ascent is from Patterdale via Birks and St Sunday Crag, following the fine narrow ridge down to Deepdale Hause before ascending rough ground to Cofa Pike. This subsidiary top of Fairfield has a fine peaked profile, quite outdoing its parent until the wide tabletop comes into view behind. A further rock tor is surmounted. From St Sunday Crag onwards the northern crags of Fairfield are seen in their wild glory. Fairfield can be climbed via Grisedale Hause, either up Tongue Gill from Grasmere, from Dunmail Raise or from Patterdale; the path up from the Hause is a rough zigzag up worsening scree. Grisedale Hause can be reached as a ridge walk from Seat Sandal, or by cutting across the outlet of Grisedale Tarn from Dollywaggon Pike and the Helvellyns. In this way Fairfield forms part of the Threlkeld–Kirkstone Walk, which continues over Fairfield summit to Dove Crag and Red Screes. A more challenging route climbs out of Deepdale, veering into the lower part of Link Cove before surmounting Greenhow End and The Step.
Deepdale Hause can be gained from this side, but climbs direct out of Link Cove or Cowk Cove are not practicable for walkers. Computer-generated panorama from summit: http://www.viewfinderpanoramas.org/panoramas/ENGP/Fairfield.png
Fairfield is the county seat of and the only city in Camas County, United States. The population was 416 at the 2010 census, nearly half of the rural county's population; the town was featured in a season 2 episode of The X-Files, whereupon an investigation at a fictitious zoo took place. Fairfield is located at 43°20′46″N 114°47′28″W, at an elevation of 5,066 feet above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.88 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 416 people, 176 households, 109 families residing in the city; the population density was 472.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 244 housing units at an average density of 277.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.0% White, 1.0% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 1.4% from other races, 4.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.3% of the population. There were 176 households of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.9% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 10.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.1% were non-families.
31.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age in the city was 35.1 years. 26.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.9% male and 48.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 395 people, 162 households, 115 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,214.3 people per square mile. There were 211 housing units at an average density of 648.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.97% White, 0.51% Native American, 0.25% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.08% of the population. There were 162 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.5% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.0% were non-families. 25.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,167, the median income for a family was $33,750. Males had a median income of $26,607 versus $16,667 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,504. About 9.1% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.7% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over. Fairfield's main street is Soldier Road but is accessed by U. S. Route 20, a two-lane undivided highway connecting it to the west with Interstate 84 near Mountain Home, to the east with State Highway 75 at Timmerman Junction in Blaine County. Four miles east of Fairfield, State Highway 46 proceeds south to Gooding.
The public schools are operated by Camas County School District #121, headquartered in Fairfield. Camas County High School is the district's flagship school, located on Soldier Road in central Fairfield; the Soldier Mountains and Smoky Mountains of the Sawtooth National Forest are north of the city, offering many outdoor recreational opportunities. The Soldier Mountain ski area, established in 1948, is 12 miles north of the city; the Snowkiting area, known around the world as one of the top destinations for this extreme sport, is 16 miles west of the city. The Sun Valley ski resort is 45 highway miles northeast, up the Big Wood River Valley along State Highway 75, the Sawtooth Scenic Byway; the western end of the Magic Reservoir is 10 miles east of Fairfield, the Silver Creek fly fishing stream is about 30 miles east of the city. Fairfield experiences a continental climate with hot, dry summers. Official website Fairfield Idaho.net Camas County School District #121 Sawtooth National Forest
Bury, Greater Manchester
Bury is a town in Greater Manchester, England, on the River Irwell 5.5 miles east of Bolton, 5.9 miles southwest of Rochdale and 7.9 miles northwest of Manchester. Bury is the administrative centre of the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, had a population of 78,723 in 2015. Part of Lancashire, Bury emerged in the Industrial Revolution as a mill town manufacturing textiles. Bury is known for the traditional local dish, black pudding; the Manchester Metrolink tram system has a terminus in the town. Bury-born Sir Robert Peel was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and founded the Metropolitan Police and Conservative Party; the Peel Memorial stands outside Bury parish church and the Peel Monument on Holcombe Hill, overlooking the borough. The name Bury comes from an Old English word, meaning castle, stronghold or fort, an early form of modern English borough. Bury was formed around the ancient market place but there is evidence of activity dating back to the period of Roman occupation. Bury Museum has a Roman urn containing a number of small bronze coins dated for AD 253–282 and found north of what is now the town centre.
Under Agricola the road–building programme included a route from the fort at Manchester to the fort at Ribchester which ran through Radcliffe and Affetside. The modern Watling Street, which serves the Seddons Farm estate on the west side of town, follows the approximate line of the Roman road. Before the River Irwell was diverted to its present course it flowed by the foot of the rock, from which the road'The Rock' takes its name, which provided the platform for the fortified manor house, parish church and a few houses nestling around the village square; the most imposing building in the early town would have been Bury Castle, a medieval manor house built in 1469. It sat in a good defensive position on high ground overlooking the Irwell Valley; the Pilkington family suffered badly in the Wars of the Roses when, despite geography, they supported the House of York. When Richard III was killed at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, Thomas Pilkington was captured and executed; the outcome of the battle was the Lancastrian Duke of Richmond being crowned Henry VII by Sir William Stanley.
As a reward for the support of his family, Thomas Stanley was created Earl of Derby and, amongst other lands, the confiscated Pilkington estate in Bury was presented to him. The ancestral home of the Earls of Derby is Knowsley Hall on the outskirts of Liverpool; the family maintains a connection with Bury in various ways—the Derby High School is named after them. When the school opened in 1959 the 18th Earl of Derby was patron and the school's badge is based on the Earl's coat of arms; the 15th and 16th Earls were both supporters of Bury Grammar School, both financially and in terms of land, one of the school houses is named Derby in their honour. The town was home to the Derby Hall and the Derby Hotel; the castle remains were buried beneath the streets outside the Castle Armoury until properly excavated for the first time in the 1970s. Between 1801 and 1830, the population of the town more than doubled from 7,072 to 15,086; this was the time when the factories and foundries, with their spinning machines and steam engines, began to dominate the landscape.
Probate evidence from the 17th century and the remains of 18th century weavers' cottages in Elton, on the west side of Bury, indicate that domestic textile production was an important factor in the local economy at a time when Bury's textile industry was dominated by woollens, based upon the domestic production of yarn and cloth, as well as water-powered fulling mills. Development was swift in the late early 19th centuries; the establishment in 1773 by the family of Sir Robert Peel of Brooksbottom Mill in Summerseat, north of the town, as a calico printing works marked the beginning of the cotton industry in Bury. By the early 19th century, cotton was the predominant textile industry, with the Rivers Roch and Irwell providing power for spinning mills and processing water for the finishing trades. Development was further promoted when the town was linked to the national canal network by the Manchester, Bolton & Bury Canal opened in 1808; the canal was provided with water from Elton Reservoir, fed by aqueducts from a weir on the Irwell, north of what is now the Burrs Country Park.
The Burrs is the site of another mill developed by the Peel family, first founded in 1790. The remains are displayed for the public. There were seven cotton mills in Bury by 1818 and the population grew from 9,152 in 1801 to 58,029 in 1901. Following this, railways were opened, linking the town from Bury Bolton Street railway station to Manchester (via Prestwich and Radcliffe, to Rawtenstall and to Accrington. From the Knowsley Street railway station there were connections to the neighbouring mill towns of Bolton and Rochdale; as well as the many cotton mills, other industries which thrived included paper–making, calico printing and some light engineering. The town expanded to incorporate the former townships of Elton and Heap, rows of terraced houses encircled the town centre by the turn of the 19th century. Districts such as Freetown and Pimhole were transformed from farmers' fields to rows of terraces beside the factories and mills; the houses were without basic facilities, sewers or proper streets.
The result was the rapid spread of disease and high mortality rates in crowded areas. In 1838, out of 1,058 working class houses in Bury investigated by the Manchester Statistical Society, 733 had 3–4 people in each bed, 207 had 4–5, 76 had 5–6. Social r