1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1790 United States Census
The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214. Congress assigned responsibility for the 1790 census to the marshals of United States judicial districts under an act which, with minor modifications and extensions, governed census taking until the 1840 census. "The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president." Both Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and President George Washington expressed skepticism over the results, believing that the true population had been undercounted.
If there was indeed an undercount, possible explanations for it include dispersed population, poor transportation links, limitations of contemporary technology, individual refusal to participate. Although the Census was proved statistically factual, based on data collected, the records for several states were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830. One third of the original census data have been lost or destroyed since their original documentation; these include some 1790 data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont. No microdata from the 1790 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves.
Under the direction of the current Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, marshals collected data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory. The census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. At 17.8 percent, the 1790 Census's proportion of slaves to the free population was the highest recorded by any census. Media related to 1790 United States Census at Wikimedia Commons Historic US Census data 1790 Census of Population and Housing official reports Population of 24 Urban Places: 1790
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church
The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, as it exists today, is the historical descendant of the Synod of the South, a Synod of the Associate Reformed Church. The original Associate Reformed Church resulted from a merger of the Associate Presbytery and most of the Reformed Presbytery in Philadelphia in 1782; the northern Synods merged with the forebearers of the PC. It is one of the oldest of the United States' theologically and conservative denominations. After the Westminster Confession was signed by its drafters in 1643, the "Covenanters," a Presbyterian group, left the Church of Scotland for the New World to avoid signing an oath to the monarch; these early believers seceded from the Church of Scotland over doctrinal differences. Some ministers stayed in the Church of Scotland to work out their differences. By 1739, a Scottish Presbyterian pastor Ebenezer Erskine led a group of ministers to leave the Church of Scotland who formed a separate group, the Seceders, which again opposed the main group and had doctrinal differences.
Ebenezer Erskine and his brother Ralph Erskine preached sermons that became the inspiration for the Associate Reformed Church in the American colonies. The monarch moved some of Ebenezer Erskine's followers to the northern Irish province of Ulster to quell religious disputes among Catholics and Protestants; these Ulster Scots Seceders and the Catholics continued to battle and some of the Scots emigrated to the American colonies with Seceder ministers from Scotland in the mid-1700s. They settled with the Covenanters in Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia; some churches of the Covenanter tradition and the Seceder tradition came together in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1782. The Synod of the South was formed consisting of churches in North and South Carolina and Georgia in 1803 and still another in Texas; each tradition put aside doctrinal differences to come together as long as oath-signing to a central government could be avoided. The Northern Synod merged with the Associate Presbyterians in 1858 to form the United Presbyterian Church of North America.
The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church of today traces its roots to the Synod of the South, formed in 1803 by the Rev. Mr. Lindsay, the Rev. Mr. Finney, Rev. Stafford Currie Millen, Dr. Pressly, Dr. Isaac Grier, Dr. Boyce, the Rev. Mr. McCutchen and a handful other early ARP ministers. After forming the Synod of the South, the ministers looked into forming a seminary closer to home for the education of the ministry and the growth of the church. Many of the ministers were traveling for more than thirty days on horseback to attend Synod meetings in the North. While they were gone, the churches and the congregations suffered in their absence; the solution they agreed to work towards was an academy called the Clarke and Erskine Seminary, which became known as Erskine College and Seminary. While the larger Presbyterian Church was a mix of Scottish and English Presbyterians, several smaller Presbyterian groups were entirely Scottish Seceders, they displayed the process of assimilation into the broader American religious culture.
Fisk traces the history of the Associate Reformed Church in the Old Northwest from its formation by a union of Associate and Reformed Presbyterians in 1782 to the merger of this body with the Seceder bodies to form the United Presbyterian Church in 1858. It remained centered in the Midwest, it withdrew from the parent body in 1820 because of Confessional disagreements regarding the administration of sacraments. The Associate Reformed Synod of the West maintained the characteristics of an immigrant church with Scottish roots, emphasized the Westminster Standards, used only the Psalms in public worship, was Sabbatarian and was abolitionist and anti-Catholic. In the 1850s however, it exhibited evidence of assimilation, it showed greater ecumenical interest, greater interest in the evangelization of the West and of the cities, a declining interest in maintaining the unique characteristics of its Scotch-Irish past. In 2008, the ARPC had 39,681 members in 296 churches; the denominational office is located in South Carolina.
The denomination operates a conference center, Bonclarken, in Flat Rock, Henderson County, North Carolina. The conference center is surrounded by private property owners, many of whom trace their ARP roots to the beginnings of the denomination. Membership in the ARP Church is concentrated in the Southeastern United States North Carolina and South Carolina. There are numerous congregations in Florida, Tennessee, Arkansas and Virginia; the ARPC has churches in most states of the United States. Separate synods exist in Pakistan; the ARP Church was among the first to send missionaries overseas to China as early as 1880. The ARP Church sponsors missionaries internationally through World Witness; the ARP Church is affiliated with the North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council and shares a common theology with other conservative Presbyterian denominations. It holds to the inerrancy of the Bible; the church does not ordain women as ministers or elders, though it does permit local sessions to determine whether to ordain women deacons.
Having been formed by a merger of two denominations holding to exclusive psalmody, this was the practice of the ARP Church until 1946, when its synod allowed for the use of hymns other than the Psalms. At the
South Carolina's 5th congressional district
The 5th Congressional District of South Carolina is a congressional district in northern South Carolina bordering North Carolina. The district includes all of Cherokee, Fairfield, Lancaster, Lee and York counties and parts of Newberry and Sumter counties. Outside the growing cities of Rock Hill, Fort Mill, Lake Wylie the district is rural and agricultural; the district borders were contracted from some of the easternmost counties in the 2012 redistricting. The district's character is similar to other rural districts in the South. Democrats still hold most offices outside Republican-dominated York County. However, few of the area's Democrats can be described as liberal by national standards; the largest blocs of Republican voters are in the fast-growing suburbs of Charlotte, North Carolina and Cherokee County, which shares the Republican tilt of most of the rest of the Upstate. York County is by far the largest county in the district, with one-third of its population, its Republican bent has pushed the district as a whole into the Republican column in recent years.
In November 2010, the Republican Mick Mulvaney defeated longtime Congressman John Spratt and became the first Republican since Robert Smalls and the end of Reconstruction to represent the district. Following Mulvaney's confirmation as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, a special election was held in 2017 to determine his successor. Republican Ralph Norman narrowly won the special election against Archie Parnell. From 2003 to 2013 the district included all of Cherokee, Chesterfield, Dillon, Kershaw, Marlboro and York counties and parts of Florence and Sumter counties. In the first season of House of Cards, protagonist Frank Underwood represents the district in the United States House of Representatives as a Democrat. South Carolina's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Generating Station
The Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Generating Station occupies a site near Jenkinsville, South Carolina, in Fairfield County, South Carolina 20 miles northwest of Columbia; the nuclear power station includes the decommissioned experimental Carolinas-Virginia Tube Reactor unit, just outside the site of the old town of Parr, SC. The CVTR was heavy water reactor, its cooling water is supplied by the Monticello Reservoir, used by a pumped storage unit. The plant utilizes a once-through cooling system; this plant has one Westinghouse 3-loop Pressurized Water Reactor, which has received approval of a 20-year license extension, taking the license expiration of Unit 1 from 2022 to 2042. South Carolina Electric and Gas was in the process of constructing two Westinghouse AP1000 plants, scheduled to go into service in 2020, but construction on these was stopped in 2017; the plant is named after Virgil Clifton Summer, the former Chairman and CEO of SCE&G. V. C. Summer Unit 1 is a Westinghouse 3-loop Pressurized Water Reactor.
The reactor first began commercial operation on January 1, 1984. The plant cost $1.3 billion to construct – 24 percent less per kilowatt than the average of 13 nuclear plants constructed over the same time period. Unit 1 generates 2,900 MWt of heat. In 2001, the Summer unit operated at 79.9 percent of capacity, producing 6.76 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity. In 2007 it produced 8.48 billion kilowatt-hours. About two-thirds of the Summer plant is owned by its operator, the South Carolina Electric & Gas Company, a subsidiary of the SCANA corporation; the remaining 33.3 percent is owned by the South Carolina Public Service Authority. On March 27, 2008, South Carolina Electric & Gas applied to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a Combined Construction and Operating License to build two 1,100 MW AP1000 pressurized water reactors at the site. On May 27, 2008, SCE&G and Santee Cooper announced an engineering and construction contract had been reached with Westinghouse. Costs were estimated to be $9.8 billion for both AP1000 units, plus transmission facility and financing costs.
The operators are filing an application to increase customers bills by $1.2 billion during the construction period to finance capital costs. In March 2012, the NRC approved the construction license of the two proposed reactors at the Summer plant; as with the license approval for the Vogtle plant, NRC chairman Gregory Jaczko cast the lone dissenting vote, saying "I continue to believe that we should require that all Fukushima-related safety enhancements are implemented before these new reactors begin operating". The reactors were expected to go on-line in 2018 respectively; the construction of Unit 2 began on March 9, 2013, with the pouring of concrete for the basemat. The placement of the first concrete was completed on March 11, 2013. Unit 2 is the first reactor to start construction in the US in 30 years. First concrete for Unit 3 was completed on November 4, 2013. In October 2014, a delay of at least one year and extra costs of $1.2 billion were announced due to fabrication delays. Unit 2 was expected to be complete in late 2018 or early 2019, with unit 3 about a year later.
On July 23, 2015, V. C. Summer Unit 2 reached a landmark milestone with the successful placement of the CA-01 module, one of the largest and most complicated modules within the Nuclear Island referred to as a super module because it was so large that huge submodules had to be shipped from the manufacturer and final assembly was completed on site in the twelve-story Module Assembly Building. Installation of CA-01 was long delayed due to both regulatory and production hurdles related to the module, it is the first of the US AP1000 reactors under construction to achieve placement of this critical module, beating Vogtle Unit 3 to this milestone, allowing other construction activities in the Nuclear Island to progress that could not proceed until the module was in place. CA-01 is a large structural module that forms the internal structures of some compartments within the Containment Vessel, including the Steam Generator compartments, Reactor Vessel cavity, Refueling Canal; the CA-01 Module is the heaviest module on site, weighing 2.4 million pounds.
Because of how much it weighs and placing the CA-01 module into the Unit 2 Nuclear Island resulted in the heaviest lift for the V. C. Summer construction project to date. In early 2017 Westinghouse Electric Company revised in-service dates to April 2020 and December 2020 for units 2 and 3. In March 2017, Westinghouse Electric Company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy because of $9 billion of losses from its two U. S. nuclear construction projects. SCANA considered its options for the project, decided to abandon the project in July 2017. SCANA had determined that completing just Unit 2 and abandoning Unit 3 could be feasible and was leaning toward that option internally, however the project died when minority partner Santee Cooper's board voted to cease all construction and SCANA could not find another partner to take their place. On July 31, 2017, after an extensive review into the costs of constructing Units 2 and 3, South Carolina Electric and Gas decided to stop construction of the reactors and filed a Petition for Approval of Abandonment with the Public Service Commission of South Carolina.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nucl
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i