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Youth in the Arab world

Youth consist of over 32% of the population of the Arab region. The Arab world comprises 22 territories as designated by the Arab League. Youth between the ages of 15 and 24 years old represent over 100 million of the current population. Since youth are such a large portion of the population, they have the ability to create social change or movements by uniting and mobilizing; the Arab Spring is an example of. By mobilizing and accessing the technology of today, they are able to voice their opinions and views in mass numbers across all media platforms. With the sheer numbers of youth getting involved online, young people are able to draw worldwide attention and help to organize the agendas that they value. Yet, "efforts by the region’s youth to forge a more positive future for themselves and coming generations has been subsumed by events, efforts to forge constructive solutions to the long-standing economic challenges facing the region’s youth have been sidelined by more immediate concerns related to security and political stability."

One example of youth creating a change in society is found in Lebanon's parliamentary elections in 2009. After the assassination of Rafic Hariri, a prime minister of Lebanon who helped build the wealth of the country, around 1 million Lebanese took to the streets of Beirut, their protests efforts to pass voting for their next government leader were successful. Youth played a significant role in the elections of 2009. Youth who could not vote, due to being under 21, helped fuel activism by using social media to call out youth who they knew had not voted yet; the Lebanese youth created a higher level of importance to politics than any other previous generation. This reshapes the way the people in Lebanon view politics, ways in which they can create the change they want in the government; the technology expansions of information and communications technology have shaped the way in which youth today are able to communicate. In Morocco, Facebook changed the way social interactions occur between youth.

79% of all Moroccans on Facebook consist of youth between the ages of 15 and 29. The ability of young people to use social media and be proficient creates a generational gap between youth and adults; the Moroccan youth are able to use Facebook as a private way in communicating with minimal adult interaction. With the Arab Spring happening around Morocco and surrounding communities, youth were able to set up their own social movement through Facebook. Between January and February 2011, 590,360 new users of Facebook emerged in Morocco alone. Youth's deep understanding of advancements in social media and technology have created and environment where they are able to organize protests. One way that they were successful was known as the 2011–12 Moroccan protests. With such major growth in Arab youth population, two things begin to lack. "While countries across the region had made tremendous strides in bolstering rates of educational attainment within their populations for young women, educational outcomes have not provided youth with the skills sought out by private sector employers in the region."

Due to large enrollment numbers in education each individuals access begins to decrease. A world bank report in 2008,"estimated that the secondary school population in the region will grow by one-third during the next 30 years, that tertiary education cohorts will more than double". On top of an increase in youth and no change to the education system with greater demand, millions of kids are still unable to attend primary and secondary schooling. 13 million kids between the ages 6 and 15 are out of school or never have attended. Youth fall under this category for some including. Education has a large effect on the ability to achieve stable employment. In the case of Arab youth, job opportunities begin to decrease over time. Arab youth as a whole, have one of the greatest unemployment rates out of the entire world. A report done by The Arab Human Development found an unemployment of Arab youth at 30%, nearly doubling the world's unemployment at 14%, it is estimated by the year 2020 there would need to be 51 million jobs created in order to absorb the new workers in the labor market.

With an increase in youth population, as well as lack of education the job market is inflated. With little optimism for future education and employment many Arab youth consider leaving their countries to seek opportunities. One survey done on young people in the Arab league found that 30% wanted to permanently leave their country due to the dissatisfaction with their own nation. "Increasingly, job creation for youth has been found not in the formal sector, but in the large and growing informal sector in the region, where labor market regulations do not apply or are not enforced."

Hobart Cenotaph

Hobart Cenotaph is the main commemorative military monument for the Australian state of Tasmania. It is located in the capital Hobart in a prominent position on the Queens Domain, on a small rise overlooking the city and River Derwent; the Cenotaph sits directly above. The Cenotaph is the centre of Anzac Day commemoration services at dawn and mid-morning, is the destination of the marching procession. On Anzac Day at the break of dawn, a lone bugler always plays the Last Post; the Hobart Cenotaph is an Art Deco reinterpretation of a traditional Egyptian obelisk. The Cenotaph was erected to commemorate the war dead of Tasmania from World War I, but has had subsequent additions made for all conflicts since in which Tasmanian soldiers have served; the original inscription reads: "Lest We Forget", "1914–1919". Although World War I ended on 11 November 1918, the inscription is dated'1919' in commemoration of the Treaty of Versailles, signed on 28 June 1919. There are no names recorded upon the Cenotaph itself.

An Anzac Day commemoration was held there in 1925 during construction. During the ceremony, a casket of solid zinc which bore the names of the 522 Tasmanians who were killed in World War I was set into the base of the shaft, it was replaced a previous wooden structure. The monument was designed by Hobart architectural firm Hutchinson and Walker, after their entry had won a public competition held in 1923 for the structure's design, their original design was for an obelisk, to stand 65 feet high, but it was decided to increase the height to 75 feet. The obelisk itself is stood upon a stepped plinth 8 square metres made from bluestone, the obelisk is made from grey granite; the shaft of the obelisk is capped with a pyramidal cap. Directly beneath the cap on each side are back-lit red opaque glass Latin crosses that are illuminated in remembrance of the dead. Other features of the original design are a bronze laurel wreath on the north face, bronze fluted panels on each face of the plinth, six rosettes on each side of the Obelisk base, groups of three flag holders on the north and west faces of plinth.

On each of the four faces are the crests of the four service organisations – the Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Australian Navy, Australian Commonwealth Military Forces and the Royal Australian Army Nursing Corps. Floodlights on each corner illuminate the shaft of the Obelisk at night; the site of the Hobart Cenotaph was deliberately chosen for its prominence. Not only is it a location with its own military legacy, having been the site of the Queens Battery from 1838 until 1923, but the site has excellent views of the city, Mount Wellington and the Derwent River. Following the completion of the Cenotaph, the site was landscaped extensively with a paved avenue lined with Poplar trees, named "Anzac Parade", leading from the Tasman Highway to the Cenotaph; the Hobart Cenotaph was designed as a memorial to the Tasmanians who died serving their country in World War I. However it was decided that the Cenotaph would be altered to commemorate those who had died in subsequent conflicts as well; the first addition was for soldiers who were killed in World War II, was placed directly below the "1914–1919" inscription, reads:"1939-45".

Subsequent inscriptions memorialising Tasmanian war dead in more recent conflicts on the face of the plinth below those of the two world wars are: "The Korean War", "The Malayan Emergency", "The Indonesian Confrontation", "The Vietnam War", "Peace-Keeping Operations". In 2003, two earthen walls were erected either side of Anzac Parade to the north of the Cenotaph, with soil from the birthplace of all of Tasmania's thirteen Victoria Cross recipients, as well as soil from the battlefield where they earned their VC, it tells the story behind each VC recipient. The Tasmanian recipients of the Victoria Cross are: Second Boer War – Trooper John Hutton Bisdee, Lieutenant Guy George Egerton Wylly World War I – Corporal Walter Ernest Brown, Captain Percy Herbert Cherry, Sergeant John James Dwyer, Lieutenant Alfred Edward Gaby, Lance Corporal Bernard Sidney Gordon, Sergeant Stanley Robert McDougall, Captain James Ernest Newland, Sergeant Lewis McGee, Captain Henry William Murray, Sergeant Percy Clyde Statton, Sergeant John Woods Whittle The Soldier's Memorial Avenue upon the Queens Domain was a memorial that pre-dated the construction of the Cenotaph itself.

The Avenue was first proposed in late 1917 with a decision to proceed in 1918. The groundwork was undertaken in June and July 1918 with the first dedication of trees on 3 August 1918. A crowd estimated at between eight and ten thousand attended the ceremony. A mark of its importance can be seen in the fact that Hobart's population was a mere 29,000 at the time; the event was extensively covered in the Tasmanian Mail and the Weekly Courier. A special commemorative pin back badge was produced together with an extensive souvenir program; the planting was a joint effort of the Hobart City Council, as custodians of the land, the RSSILA. The New Town Council joined the enterprise. Nearly 390 trees were planted in the first stage. A second planting took place on 15 February 1919 with a further 110 trees planted. More trees seem to have been dedicated in the months following; the trees planted were cedars of 3 varieties -- Atlas cedar and Blue Atlas. The reason for the choice is not clear though its religious connotations and reputation for longevity were commented upon at the time.

Trees were marked by wooden name boards

Chumhill rail accident

The Chumhill railway accident occurred 26 February 1913 in England, killing two. The Lynton & Barnstaple Railway maintained an exemplary safety record throughout its short existence, from 1898 to 1935, no passengers or members of the public were killed or injured. There were, two accidents resulting in fatalities to railway employees; the other was at Braunton Road. On 26 February 1913, four men of the Chelfham Bratton track gang were travelling in wagon No. 10 - a 4-ton open. They were in possession of the token and the wagon contained leaves and debris collected from trackside cesses. Whilst running down the 1 in 50 gradient from Bratton Fleming to Chelfham, the speed increased and the vehicle's brakes were unable to control the descent. Upon reaching a sharp reverse curve by bridge 25, the wagon left the track, coming to rest at the foot of the bank. George Barrow was killed outright and William Welch died a few days on 2 March, they were both buried in Bratton Fleming churchyard. The two men who survived, Foreman Ganger George Dymond and F. Dinnicombe, attributed the accident to wet leaves on the line.

The wagon was recovered and returned to service, with the replacement planks left unpainted for some time after the accident. Gower, P.. The Lynton & Barnstaple Railway — Yesterday and Today; the Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-537-3. Brown, G. A.. D. C. A.. G.. The Lynton & Barnstaple Railway. David and Charles. ISBN 0-7153-4958-9

Franklin River

The Franklin River is a major perennial river located in the Central Highlands and western regions of Tasmania, Australia. The river is located in the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park at the mid northern area of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, its source is situated at the western edge of the Central Highlands and it flows west towards the West Coast. The river is named in honour of Sir John Franklin, a Governor of Tasmania, who died searching for the Northwest Passage; the river rises below Mount Hugel west of Derwent Bridge on the western slopes of the Central Highlands and flows west and south through remote and rugged mountainous country until meeting its confluence with the Gordon River. From source to mouth the river is joined by sixteen tributaries including the Surprise, Lucan, Loddon and the Jane rivers. In its upper reaches, the Franklin is impounded by Lake Undine and Lake Dixon; the river is crossed by the Lyell Highway in its upper reaches. There are some archaeological sites.

The upper reaches of the Franklin River were traversed by explorers in the nineteenth century, in their attempts to access Frenchmans Cap. In the early twentieth century, access to the river was pine logging in the lower reaches. In the middle of the century, adventurous canoers sought to conquer the river's formidable challenges; the book Shooting The Franklin: Early canoeing on Tasmania's wild rivers identifies three trips in the 1950s. In the case of earlier travellers, few locations of the river were named at all. During his initial journeys down the river, Bob Brown submitted names for some features. Before and since and canoers have added names for many of the bends and rapids on the river: In the 1980s, the Franklin River become synonymous with Australia's largest conservation movement of the time, the movement battled to block Hydro Tasmania's proposed hydro-electric power plan, from building on the Franklin; the focus on the dam and the issues of wilderness experience led to the development of people utilising the river at levels never experienced.

The result of a drowning on the river led to stricter guidelines for users of the river. Richard Flanagan's Death of a River Guide is a fictional account of a drowning, by a writer with an academic and historical understanding of the area. Commonwealth v Tasmania Binks, C. J, Explorers of Western Tasmania, Mary Fisher Bookshop, ISBN 978-0-908291-16-8 Buckman, Tasmania's Wilderness Battles A History, Allen & Unwin, ISBN 978-1-74176-487-1 Dean, Shooting the Franklin: early canoeing on Tasmania's wild rivers, J. and S. Dean, ISBN 978-0-9581744-0-4 Gee, H and Fenton, J; the South West Book - A Tasmanian Wilderness Melbourne, Australian Conservation Foundation. ISBN 0-85802-054-8 Griffiths and Baxter, Bruce The varying flood: a guide to the Franklin River Richmond, Vic. Prowling Tiger Press ISBN 0-9586647-1-4 Lines, William J. Patriots: defending Australia's natural heritage St. Lucia, Qld.: University of Queensland Press, 2006. ISBN 0-7022-3554-7 location within the World Heritage Area

Rivières du Sud

Rivières du Sud was a French colonial division in West Africa corresponding to modern coastal sections of Guinea. While the designation was used from the 18th to 20th century, the administrative division only existed from 1882-1891. Since the 18th century, Portuguese and French traders had established small stations on the coast, called Rivières du Sud by the French; the Portuguese had trading stations at Rio Pongo and Rio Nunez for the purchase of enslaved Africans captured inland and brought to the coast. Subsequently a number of English and American traders settled in the region. With the establishment of Sierra Leone by British Abolitionists, this area attracted their attention and that of the Christian Missionary Society, which sought to promote Christianity and trading opportunities By 1820, British suppression of the slave trade and Portuguese imperial decline saw these posts abandoned, with British and French traders moving in; the French admiral Bouët-Willaumez made a number of treaties with coastal communities in the area, ensured Marseilles based trade houses exclusive access to the palm oil trade by the 1840s.

Used for making soap, the palm oil trade was with Diola merchants who established markets in the interior, transported it to the coastal stations. The French colonial governor of Senegal Louis Faidherbe in the 1850s formalised the colonial structure, christened Rivières du Sud. In 1854 Guinea ports were placed under control of Naval administration and split from new colonial administration in Saint-Louis, Senegal under the name Gorée and Dependencies, they had fallen under the naval'supreme commander in Gabon' of the Establissements francais de la Cote de l'Or et du Gabon. By 1859, Faidherbe's campaigns of conquest on the riverine coast south of Gorée saw the region annexed to the colonial administration, under the arrondissement of Gorée; the Rivières du Sud now referred to the entire region from Sine-Salmon to the border of British Sierra Leone. In 1865 the fort at Boké was built in the Rio Nunez area, expanding from the main French-controlled town of Conakry. Shortly after this, Bayol was taken as a'protectorate' as well.

The Rio Pongo area, nominally held by Germany, was traded to France for their'rights' to Porto-Seguro and Petit Popo on the Togolese coast. The British formally recognised French control of the area, the administrative division collecting these possessions was created under the name Rivières du Sud in 1882; the background to these legalistic and administrative manoeuvres was the Berlin conference of 1884 and the "loaded pause" of French imperial expansion. Domestically, this stemmed from the disastrous French defeat in Tonkin and the collapse of the colonial policy of the Ferry ministry. European horse-trading followed the Berlin conference, in which foreign powers divided the African continent and attempted to consolidate their own possessions. Rivières du Sud was a formal division which, apart from the coast, had little relation to actual governance until the next decade. In 1891, Rivières du Sud was placed under the colonial lieutenant governor at Dakar, who had authority over the French coastal regions east to Porto-Novo.

Governor general Gallieni, having faced fierce resistance to French expansion on the upper Senegal and Niger basin from the Toucouleur Empire and Mahmadu Lamine's forces, turned the colonial gaze to the Rivières du Sud in the late 1880s, marking a new phase in French expansion. Between 1889 and 1894, Rivières du Sud, Côte d'Ivoire and Dahomey were each successively separated into'independent' colonies, with Rivières du Sud being renamed the'Colony of French Guinea'. In 1895 these colonies came under the authority of the governor general of French West Africa, in 1904, this was formalised into the Afrique Occidentale Française. French Guinea, along with Senegal, Cote-d'Ivoire and Upper Senegal and Niger each were ruled by a lieutenant governor, under the Governor General in Dakar; the Rivières du Sud colony never extended far from the coast, as the French were unable to conquer the people of the Futa Jallon highlands, running from the south of modern Senegal though the interior of modern Guinea.

The Imamate of Futa Jallon was located in present-day Guinea as well as parts of Guinea Bissau and Sierra Leone. A powerful force, it stymied French expansion until 1896 when the French colonial troops defeated the last Almami, Bokar Biro Barry, dismantled the state and integrated it into their colony of French Guinea. French West Africa