Vesper Boat Club
The Vesper Boat Club is an amateur rowing club located at #10 Boathouse Row in the historic Boathouse Row of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1865 as the Washington Barge Club, the Club changed its name to Vesper Boat Club in 1870, Vespers stated goal is to produce Olympic champions. Five years later, on Jan 1,1870, it changed its name to Vesper Boat Club and quickly became one of the most celebrated rowing clubs in the United States, vesper’s eight-oared shell took the gold medal in Paris at the 1900 Summer Olympics. The Vesper eight repeated its victory at the 1904 games in St. Louis, and at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, Vespers eight won again, making it the only rowing club in the United States to win the title three times. Kelly Sr. won Olympic Gold in the single scull in 1920 and he won gold medals in the double scull in 1920 and in 1924, both times with his cousin Paul Costello. As a laborer Kelly was barred from entering the Diamond Sculls at the Royal Henley Regatta and it was two decades that John B.
Kelly Jr. would win that event, in 1947 and 1949. Kelly Jr. won the singles championship eight times. At the time of his death in 1985, he, was president of the United States Olympic Committee. The present clubhouse was constructed in combination with neighboring Malta, with the Vesper cornerstone dated 1865, the first building was completed in1865, and the second boat bay addition in 1898. The last addition was completed in the early 1960s, the boathouse was designed by noted Philadelphia architect G. H. The architecture – semi -attached ornamental Victorian Gothic is typical of that period, after a century of accomplishments for the men, Vesper in 1970 became the first men’s club to organize a women’s rowing team. Vesper women have won national championships and have regularly represented the United States in international competition. At the Montreal Olympics in 1976, six Vesper members were on the USA Olympic Rowing Team, in 1873, Vesper, in conjunction with Malta Boat Club, built a 1 1⁄2-story boat house.
In 1898, a floor and addition were added to Vesper. Howard Egar designed the 1898 alterations and additions to the Vesper Boat Club, harry Parker -1960 US Olympic Team and US Olympic Coach 1964–1984 Allen Rosenberg - rower and US Olympic rowing coach Kenneth Dreyfuss -1972 US Olympic Team C. Hugh Stevenson –1972 US Olympic Team James E. Kelly Jr. - Bronze medal 1956, competed in 1948,1952, and 1960. Bill Maher -1968 Mens Double Sculls bronze medal, John B. Kelly Sr. John Strotbeck, Jr. John Timoney Boathouse Row. Upper-Class Clubs and Associations in Philadelphia, the Perennial Philadelphians, the anatomy of an American aristocracy
Blue is the colour between violet and green on the optical spectrum of visible light. Human eyes perceive blue when observing light with a wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres, which is between 4500 and 4950 ångströms. Blues with a frequency and thus a shorter wavelength gradually look more violet, while those with a lower frequency. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometers, in painting and traditional colour theory, blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, along with red and yellow, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet and yellow together form green, Blue is a primary colour in the RGB colour model, used to create all the colours on the screen of a television or computer monitor. The clear sky and the sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. When sunlight passes through the atmosphere, the wavelengths are scattered more widely by the oxygen and nitrogen molecules. An optical effect called Tyndall scattering, similar to Rayleigh scattering, explains blue eyes, distant objects appear more blue because of another optical effect called atmospheric perspective.
Blue has been used for art and decoration since ancient times and it is the most important color in Judaism. In the Middle Ages, cobalt blue was used to colour the stained glass windows of cathedrals, beginning in the 9th century, Chinese artists used cobalt to make fine blue and white porcelain. Blue dyes for clothing were made from woad in Europe and indigo in Asia, in 1828 a synthetic ultramarine pigment was developed, and synthetic blue dyes and pigments gradually replaced mineral pigments and vegetable dyes. Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Vincent van Gogh and other late 19th century painters used ultramarine and cobalt blue not just to depict nature, in the late 18th century and 19th century, blue became a popular colour for military uniforms and police uniforms. In the 20th century, because blue was associated with harmony, it was chosen as the colour of the flags of the United Nations. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most commonly associated with harmony, confidence, infinity, the imagination and sometimes with sadness.
In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, Blue is the colour of light between violet and green on the visible spectrum. Blues vary in shade or tint, darker shades of blue contain black or grey, darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, and Prussian blue, while lighter tints include sky blue and Egyptian blue. Today most blue pigments and dyes are made by a chemical process, the modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. In heraldry, the azure is used for blue
Boathouse Row is a historic site located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the east bank of the Schuylkill River, just north of the Fairmount Water Works and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. It consists of a row of 15 boathouses housing social and rowing clubs, each of the boathouses has its own history, and all have addresses on both Boathouse Row and Kelly Drive. Boathouses #2 through #14 are part of a known as the Schuylkill Navy. Boathouse #1 is Lloyd Hall and is the only public boathouse facility on the Row, Boathouse #15 houses the Sedgeley Club, which operates the Turtle Rock Lighthouse. The boathouses are all at least a century old, and some were built over 150 years ago. Boathouse Row hosts several major rowing regattas, including the Aberdeen Dad Vail Regatta, Stotesbury Cup Regatta, the Navy Day Regatta, the Independence Day Regatta, the boathouses are seen as centers of the rowing community around the United States. Rowers from the boathouses compete at level, including local clubs, high schools, summer racing programs.
He proposed the lights after hearing talk of destroying the decaying Victorian boathouses, lights on the buildings at night would serve to make them more noticed and appreciated. In 2005, after two refurbishings, the houses were outfitted with computerized LEDs that can light up in various colors, Boathouse Row is a National Historic Landmark and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987. Local universities including Drexel, and La Salle row out of houses on Boathouse Row and Saint Josephs row out of other boathouses along the Schuylkill that are not part of the Row. The history of Boathouse Row begins with the construction of the Fairmount Dam, the Dam was built in 1821 to keep brackish tidal waters from entering the citys water supply through the Fairmount Water Works, which had been completed in 1815. The Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company would become involved in the improvements. The placid man-made surface was ideal for ice skating in winter, in 1835, the first regatta took place between the Blue Devils and the Imps Barge clubs.
The excitement from the race sparked the formation of several barge clubs, a secondary effect of taming the Schuylkill was that the calm water provided a breeding ground for mosquitoes, which drove wealthy residents from their riverside mansions. The abandoned estates were bought by the City of Philadelphia, in 1844, the City purchased the Lemon Hill Estate. The leaseholder of Lemon Hill operated a beer garden and allowed rowing, in 1855, the City founded Fairmount Park by converting the Lemon Hill Estate, upon which the frame boathouses were built, into a public park. At the same time, some of the established clubs wanted to regulate the sport of rowing to prevent unscrupulous practices, as a result, in 1858, the Schuylkill Navy was founded, which eventually transformed the professional sport of rowing into an amateur sport. In 1859, the City condemned the boathouses along the Schuylkill, between 1869 and 1871, Pennsylvania Barge Club and Crescent Boat Club erected a double boathouse at #4 and #5 Boathouse Row
Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Typically, rows of bricks—called courses— are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall, Brick is a popular medium for constructing buildings, and examples of brickwork are found through history as far back as the Bronze Age. The fired-brick faces of the ziggurat of ancient Dur-Kurigalzu in Iraq date from around 1400 BC, much older examples of brickwork made with dried bricks may be found in such ancient locations as Jericho in Judea, Çatal Hüyük in Anatolia, and Mehrgarh in Pakistan. These structures have survived from the Stone Age to the present day, parts of brickwork include bricks and perpends. The bed is the mortar upon which a brick is laid, a perpend is a vertical joint between any two bricks and is usually—but not always—filled with mortar. An example of a co-ordinating metric commonly used for bricks in the UK is as follows, Bricks of dimensions 215 mm x 102.5 mm ×65 mm, Mortar beds and perpends of a uniform 10 mm.
In this case the co-ordinating metric works because the length of a brick is equal to the total of the width of a brick plus a perpend plus the width of a second brick. There are many other brick sizes worldwide, and many of them use this same co-ordinating principle, a brick is given a classification based on how it is laid, and how the exposed face is oriented relative to the face of the finished wall. Stretcher or Stretching brick A brick laid flat with its narrow side exposed. Header or Heading brick A brick laid flat with its width exposed, soldier A brick laid vertically with its long narrow side exposed. Sailor A brick laid vertically with the face of the brick exposed. Rowlock A brick laid on the narrow side with the short end of the brick exposed. Shiner or Rowlock Stretcher A brick laid on the narrow side with the broad face of the brick exposed. The practice of laying uncut full-sized bricks wherever possible gives brickwork its maximum possible strength, in some cases these special shapes or sizes are manufactured. A second practice particularly observed in older examples of brickwork is that of building brickwork thicker than the width of any of its individual bricks, in such cases, some of the bricks may well be tied together into the depth of the wall.
Historically, this was the dominant method for consolidating the transverse strength of walls, brickwork observing either or both of these two conventions is described as being laid in one or another bond. The advent during the mid twentieth century of the cavity wall saw the popularisation, a cavity wall comprises two totally discrete walls—each one of which is called a wythe or leaf. A cavity separates the two leaves so that there is no connection between them at all
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
University Barge Club
University Barge Club of Philadelphia is an amateur rowing club located at #7 in the historic Boathouse Row of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and designated a National Historic Landmark, the Clubs founding, in 1854, is considered the dawn of organized athletics in the University of Pennsylvania. Known as the rowing club, UBC is a founder, and the most senior member, of the oldest amateur athletic governing body in the United States. The Club was officially formed when the founders purchased its first boat, Club members wore sailor uniforms from clothier Jacob Reed that were monogrammed with “U. B. C. ” on their hats and belts. In 1855, members of the Club, in conjunction with the Philadelphia Barge Club, the Club purchased a second boat, named Lucifer. After 1860, both boats were moved to a space rented from the Philadelphia Skating Club, which is now the Philadelphia Girls Rowing Club, membership was opened to Penn alumni and certain non-alumni.
Although the Club was still affiliated with the University, it began to cater more to non-students. As the Club’s membership became dominated by Old Philadelphians from the upper-class aristocracy, in 1871, the Fairmount Park commission allowed the Club to build its own boathouse on Boathouse Row. In 1872, Penn students formed a club, the College Boat Club, to cater to students. In 1887, for functions, University Barge Club leased an additional upriver clubhouse on the west bank of the Schuylkill. Today, while many of the University Barge Clubs members are University of Pennsylvania graduates, University Barge Club is the sister club of Union Boat Club of Boston. For more than 60 years, the two clubs have held an annual interclub UBC regatta. The boathouse, at #7-8 Boathouse Row, dates from 1871, University Barge Club only occupied #7, while Philadelphia Barge Club occupied #8. In 1932, University Barge Club acquired #8 when Philadelphia Barge Club ceased operations, National Register of Historic Places Inventory--Nomination Form.
NPS Focus, National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, the Schuylkill Navy of Philadelphia,1858 -1937. Philadelphia, The Drake Press, Inc. p.81, Frederick W. University Barge Club. Outing Library of Sports, American Amateur Athletic and Aquatic History 1829-1888, Fairmount Park, Sketches of its Scenery and History. The History of the Penn Athletic Club Rowing Association, Part 2 - Beginning of the Clubs, University Barge Club on Boathouse Row
College Boat Club
Its membership consists entirely of past and present rowers of the University of Pennsylvania. It hosts both heavyweight and lightweight varsity mens teams and a varsity womens team. The Wharton Crew Team, rows out of Bachelors Barge Club at #6 Boathouse Row, College Boat Club was founded in 1872 by the schools students, shortly after the schools campus was relocated from Center City to West Philadelphia. College Boat Club was admitted to the Schuylkill Navy in 1875, the history of rowing at the University of Pennsylvania began in 1854 with the foundation of the University Barge Club. The Club changed its name from College Barge Club to College Boat Club, in the clubs first year, it had only 20 members, mostly sophomores from the Universitys graduating Class of 1875. At first, the Club rowed out of the Quaker City Barge Club, College Boat Club grew quickly and was able to build its own boathouse in 1874. In 1877, sophomores from College Boat Club were victorious against seniors rowing out of University Barge Club, by 1879, the Club was the base for most Penn crews, and members were rowing in intercollegiate competitions.
In 1893, College Boat Club opened membership to alumni as well as enrolled students, in 1904, the Club admitted alumni crews as far back as 1899. Currently, membership for alumni is limited to former varsity rowers, the crews of College Boat Club compete in several regattas throughout the rowing season. The three most competitive regattas are the Eastern Association of Rowing College Championship, the Intercollegiate Rowing Association Championship, as of 1997, the womens crews compete in the NCAA Division I Rowing Championship instead of the IRAs. The Penn heavyweight mens eight has won the Eastern Sprints six times,1955,1962,1986,1991,1996, the lightweight mens eight has won 4 times,1951,1952,1955, and 1976. In 2004, Penn finished fourth in the final for the Mens Freshman Four w/Cox. In 2005, Penn finished third in the Mens Varsity Lightweight Eight, in 2006, the Mens Freshman Eight finished third. In 2008, the Mens Open Four qualified for the grand final, the last time that the Penn won the Ivy League Championship at IRAs was 1992, when Penn tied Dartmouth.
Penn has won the Ivy League Championship eight additional times in 1898,1899,1900,1967,1968,1969,1972, Penn Crew has competed at the prestigious Henley Royal Regatta. In 1994, College Boat Club won the Ladies Challenge Plate, in 1991, Penn won the Thames Challenge Cup. In 1955, Penn won the most prestigious of all prizes at Henley, Penn won the Thames Challenge Cup in 1951 and 1952. The mens team won the National Collegiate Rowing Championship in 1991, the 1955 Mens Heavyweight 8, coached by Joe Burk, won at the Henley Regatta, and the crews speed drew attention and acclaim internationally
Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Allentown, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware.
Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America
The Episcopal Academy, founded in 1785, is a private, co-educational school for grades Pre-K through 12 based in Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. Prior to 2008, the campus was located in Merion. The Newtown Square facility is 123-acre, Episcopal Academy has been consistently ranked as a top private school in the nation by various media outlets, including the Wall Street Journal. The Academy is affiliated with the Episcopal Church in the United States of America, the Episcopal Academy was founded in 1785 by the Rt. Rev. William White at Old Christ Church in Philadelphia as a school focusing on education in Greek, religion, mathematics. It was a pre-missionary school, trustees included two signers of the Declaration of Independence, as well as bankers and reverends. The faculty was composed of figures like Noah Webster Jr. of Webster Dictionaries. Its first campus was located on the east side of Fourth Street and was directed by Rev. John Andrews, D. D. the Academys first headmaster. However, when Dr. Andrews and several of faculty members left to teach at the University of Pennsylvania in 1798, in 1816 it became a Second Classical Academy and a free school again in 1828, but at some points the Academy did not operate as an educational entity.
In 1846 the school was reconstituted, this time as a Third Classical Academy, in 1850, the school moved to a building at Juniper and Locust Street, and remained there until its 1921 move to the Merion, campus. Female students attended the Academy between 1789 and 1818, but a plan for permanent co-education was not implemented until 1974, in 1974, girls were admitted to kindergarten, and to one higher grade each year thereafter. The class of 1984 was the first co-educational class to graduate from the Academy, Episcopal Academy was located in Merion, from 1921 until it moved to Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, in 2008. With a $20 million donation the Board purchased a 123-acre tract of land in Newtown Square, the $212.5 million project was completed in 2008 and opened for the 2008-2009 school year. The new campus boasts state-of-the-art academic, athletic, brailsford & Dunlavey served as the Academys on-site program manager throughout each phase of the campus development project. The Episcopal Academy sold its Merion campus to Saint Josephs University, the Episcopal Academys mission is Challenging and nurturing mind and spirit, we inspire boys and girls to lead lives of purpose and integrity.
The school has a 100% four-year college matriculation rate, several teams. The Academy is accredited by the Pennsylvania Association of Independent Schools, the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Accreditation for Growth protocol governed accreditation until the current accreditation cycle. The upper school is a preparatory program
Government agencies, at the state and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws often regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts, the first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931. Properties within a district fall into one of two types of property and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th Century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a medical clinic. The contributing properties are key to a districts historic associations, historic architectural qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place, the ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street.
By the mid-1930s, other U. S. cities followed Charlestons lead, an amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission, which was charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans. The city passed an ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter. Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, the Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for the New Orleans laws and 1924 for Charleston. The same publication claimed that two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946. The National Park Service appears to refute this, in 1939, the city of San Antonio, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, which was the citys original Mexican village marketplace. In 1941 the authority of local controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court. In City of New Orleans vs Pergament Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design, beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures.
The United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, by 1965,51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances. By 1998, more than 2,300 U. S. towns, contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws, usually at the local level. Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties. It can be any property, structure or object that adds to the integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal. Definitions vary but, in general, they maintain the same characteristics, another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport with origins back to Ancient Egyptian times. It is based on propelling a boat on water using oars, by pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat. The sport can be recreational, where the focus is on learning the technique of rowing, or competitive. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Often prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies, amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of boat clubs at the British public schools of Eton College and Westminster School. Similarly, clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815, at the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827.
In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University, the International Rowing Federation, responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents,150 countries now have rowing federations that participate in the sport, Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take due to bad weather. Womens rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976, only fourteen boat classes race at the Olympics, Each year the World Rowing Championships is staged by FISA with 22 boat classes raced. In Olympic years only the boat classes are raced at the World Championships. The European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title, since 2008, rowing has been competed at the Paralympic Games. Many other competitions often exist for racing clubs and universities in each nation.
While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern and this may be done on a canal, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength, whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains fairly consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition. These include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, the many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, and specific local requirements and restrictions. There are two forms of rowing, In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar and this is generally done in pairs and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a boat is referred to either as port or starboard