The Fairtrade certification initiative was created to form a new method for economic trade. This method takes an ethical standpoint, considers the producers first. In the 1960s and 1970s, several early attempts were made to market fair trade products. In 1988, Dutch Non-profit organization Stichting Max Havelaar launched the first Fairtrade Certification Mark applied to coffee originating from the UCIRI cooperative in Mexico, expanded to other products. Fairtrade sales prior to labeling initiatives were contained to small world shops, operated by alternative trading organizations such as Oxfam and Traidcraft. Fairtrade International was established in 1997. Fairtrade International started with the coffee industry, but now covers a range of products such as cocoa, cotton, flowers and others; the established buyers of these products make up a niche market, which makes marketing for Fairtrade a challenge. As of 2016, 1,411 producer organizations in 73 developing countries were Fairtrade certified, representing over 1.66 million farmers and workers.
The fair trade movement stemmed from an initiative established by the Dutch development agency and aimed to create more equality between coffee producers and roasters. The agency recognized that the producers were not being treated and strived to create a more ethical system to trade; the Max Havelaar seal, based on a fictional character, was established "to license existing roasters and retailers who complied with its fair trade criteria". The seal provided specific benefits for cooperatives of small coffee producers in Mexico, with the aim of balancing the production of crops to be exported, as well as crops for the local population; the four benefits in this early model of the fairtrade initiative were: A guaranteed minimum price to protect producers from any potential falls in the global market. An additional 10% of the market price for their investment in social and environmental projects. A 60% advance to producers to reduce the pressure of selling their product "immediately after harvest when its price is lowest" A commitment by roasters to eliminate any other parties within the supply chain, with the aim of dealing more directly with producers.
The initiative was a great financial success and was replicated in several other markets: in the ensuing years, similar non-profit Fairtrade labelling organizations were set up in other European countries and North America, called "Max Havelaar", "Transfair", or carrying a national name: "Fairtrade Mark" in the UK and Ireland, "Rättvisemärkt" in Sweden, "Reilu kauppa" or "Rejäl handel" in Finland. While the Max Havelaars and the Transfairs co-operated product by product with equivalent standards and producer lists there was no contractual agreement to ensure global standards. In 1994, a process of convergence among the labelling organizations – or "LIs" – started with the establishment of a TransMax working group, culminating in 1997 in the creation of Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International, now known as Fairtrade International. FLO is an umbrella organization whose mission is to set the Fairtrade Standards, support and certify disadvantaged producers and harmonize the Fairtrade message across the movement.
In 2002, FLO launched a new International Fairtrade Certification Mark replacing most previous Max Havelaar and TransFair certification marks. The goals of the launch were to improve the visibility of the Mark on supermarket shelves, facilitate cross-border trade and simplify export procedures for both producers and exporters. Today, all but one labeling initiative have adopted the new mark. TransFair USA has elected to continue with its own Fair Trade Certified Mark for the time being, while the Canadian organization allows certified products to carry either mark, it is transitioning toward the sole use of the International Fairtrade Certification Mark. In January 2004, Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International was divided into two independent organizations: Fairtrade International, which sets Fairtrade Standards and provides producer business support, FLO-CERT, which inspects and certifies producer organizations; the aim of the split was to ensure the impartiality, the independence of the certification process and compliance with ISO 65 standards for product certification bodies.
At present, over 25 labelling initiatives and producer networks are members or associate members of Fairtrade International. There are now FAIRTRADE Certification Marks on dozens of different products, based on FLO's certification for coffee, rice, mangoes, cotton, honey, fruit juices, fresh fruit, quinoa and spices, wine and footballs. In 2009, fair trade coffee was sufficiently mainstream that Walmart, the world's largest retailer began selling it, pricing it about the same as regular; the Fairtrade and Fairmined dual certification for gold was launched across the United Kingdom on 14 February 2011, a joint scheme between The Fairtrade Foundation and The Association for Responsible Mining. The Solidaridad informed large audiences of the mistreatment of coffee producers and poor living conditions in developing countries, they worked with other associations as well as the mass media to spread the message and create an awareness of their fair trade initiative. Because of their efforts, in 1988 the first bag of Max Havelaar sealed coffee from Mexico was delivered to Holland's Prince Claus, was launched to be sold in supermarkets throughout Holland.
By the 1990s every western European
Pseudodiploria strigosa, the symmetrical brain coral, is a colonial species of stony coral in the family Mussidae. It occurs on reefs in shallow water in the West Atlantic Caribbean Sea, it grows and lives to a great age. The symmetrical brain coral forms smooth flat plates or massive hemispherical domes up to 1.8 metres in diameter. The surface is covered with interlinking convoluted valleys in which the polyps sit in cup-shaped depressions known as corallites; each of these has a number of radially arranged ridges known as septa which continue outside the corallite as costae and link with those of neighbouring corallites. The ridges separating the valleys are smoothly rounded and do not have a groove running along their apex as does the rather similar grooved brain coral; the coral has symbiotic dinoflagellate alga called zooxanthella in its tissues and it is these which give the coral its colour of yellowish or greenish brown, or blue-grey. The valleys are a paler or contrasting colour; the symmetrical brain coral grows in shallow parts of the Caribbean Sea, the Bahamas, Bermuda and Texas.
It is the most widespread of the brain corals and not only occurs on reefs but sometimes on muddy stretches of seabed where not many other corals flourish. It grows at depths down to about 40 metres; the fossilised remains of Pseudodiploria strigosa have been found alongside those of other massive corals, Pseudodiploria clivosa, Siderastrea siderea and Solenastrea bouroni, in marine deposits in Río Grande de Manatí, Puerto Rico that date back to the Pleistocene. The symmetrical brain coral grows slowly adding about 1 centimetre to its diameter in a year; this means. In the day time the polyps retract inside their corallites but at night they extend their ring of tentacles and feed on zooplankton; the coral benefits from the photosynthetic products produced by the zooxanthellae
Auchenshuggle is an area of the city of Glasgow in Scotland, to the south of Tollcross. It was the easternmost part of the Braidfauld Ward of the City of Glasgow, has been in the larger Shettleston ward since 2007; the quaint name was made famous throughout the city by Glasgow Corporation Tramways. Auchenshuggle was the eastern terminus of tram service number 9 and was duly carried on the destination boards of tramcars. Service No 9 ran between Dalmuir West; the service was extended from its previous terminus at Springfield Road in 1922. The area is at the east end of Glasgow close to London Road, it was said that Glasgow Corporation Transport Department invented the name so that curious tourists and city dwellers would travel there thus increasing revenue. In fact, the terminus was directly opposite a group of 19th century cottages, now replaced by 1960s council houses, named "Auchenshuggle Cottages". Service No 9 was the final route; the last regular tram ran on 1 September 1962. On 2, 3 and 4 September, a special tram service was operated between Auchenshuggle and Anderston Cross on which souvenir tickets were sold.
This proved attractive to those. The route was taken by bus service No 64. There was service No. 22 which operated between Auchenshuggle and Castlemilk via Shettleston Road, Duke Street and Rutherglen, however this service has been withdrawn. No service uses Auchenshuggle terminus or the destination on its signage, although it does still stop there; the link between Clydebank and Auchenshuggle on service 64 no longer exists, the 64 terminates in Glasgow City Centre and no longer serves Clydebank. Service 308 uses Auchenshuggle as a stop. There was a railway station at Auchinshuggle between the 1890s and the 1960s, but it was named Tollcross; the Auchenshuggle Wood lies to the south of London Road, is now site of a community nature park, established in 1982. After the Glasgow Commonwealth Games in 2014, the park was designated a Commonwealth Woodland as part of the Games legacy project; as part of the northern extension of the M74 Motorway, a new Auchenshuggle Bridge over the River Clyde was completed and opened in 2011.
Adjacent to the junction serving the area is a small retail park featuring fast food restaurants, car showroom, furniture shop, clothing retailer and a budget hotel with attached public house. Auchenshoogle "Glasgow Transport Memorabilia, FROM DALMUIR WEST TO AUCHENSHUGGLE ". Glasgowtransport.co.uk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016. "Auchenshuggle Bridge over The Clyde". Colinnairnsart.co.uk. Retrieved 29 July 2016