Musicians of the RMS Titanic
The musicians of the RMS Titanic all perished when the ship sank in 1912. They played music, intending to calm the passengers, for as long as they could, all went down with the ship. All were recognized for their heroism; the ship's eight musicians - members of a three-piece ensemble and a five-piece ensemble - were booked through C. W. & F. N. Black, in Liverpool, they traveled as second-class passengers. They were not on the White Star Line's payroll but were contracted to White Star by the Liverpool firm of C. W. & F. N. Black, who placed musicians on all British liners; until the night of the sinking, the players performed as two separate groups: a quintet led by violinist and official bandleader Wallace Hartley, that played at teatime, after-dinner concerts, Sunday services, among other occasions. After the Titanic hit an iceberg and began to sink and his fellow band members started playing music to help keep the passengers calm as the crew loaded the lifeboats. Many of the survivors said that Hartley and the band continued to play until the end.
One second-class passenger said: Many brave things were done that night, but none were more brave than those done by men playing minute after minute as the ship settled lower and lower in the sea. The music they played served alike as their own immortal requiem and their right to be recalled on the scrolls of undying fame. Theodore Ronald Brailey was an English pianist on the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage who died in the disaster. Theodore Ronald Brailey, born on 25 October 1887 in Walthamstow in Greater London, was the son of William "Ronald" Brailey, a well-known figure of Spiritualism at the time, he studied piano at school, one of his first jobs was playing piano in a local hotel. In 1902, he joined the Royal Lancashire Fusiliers regiment signing for 12 years service as a musician, he was stationed in Barbados but resigned his commission prematurely in 1907. He lived at 71 Lancaster Road, Ladbroke Grove, London. In 1911, he enlisted aboard ship, playing first on the RMS Saxonia, prior to joining the Cunard steamer RMS Carpathia in 1912, where he met the French cellist Roger Marie Bricoux.
Both men joined the White Star Line and were recruited by Liverpool music agency C. W. and F. N. Black to serve on the RMS Titanic Brailey boarded the Titanic on Wednesday 10 April 1912 in Southampton, UK, his ticket number was the ticket for all the members of Wallace Hartley's orchestra. His cabin was in the second class quarters. Brailey was 24 years old, his body was never recovered. Roger Marie Bricoux was a French cellist on the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage, he died in the disaster. Roger Bricoux was born on 1 June 1891 in Cosne-sur-Loire, France, he was the son of a musician, the family moved to Monaco when he was a young boy. He was educated in various Catholic institutions in Italy, it was during his studies that he joined his first orchestra and won first prize at the Conservatory of Bologna for musical ability. After studying at the Paris Conservatory, he moved to England in 1910 to join the orchestra in the Grand Central Hotel in Leeds. At the end of 1911, he moved to Lille, lived at 5 Place du Lion d'Or, played in various locations throughout the city.
Before joining the Titanic and pianist Theodore Ronald Brailey had served together on the Cunard steamer RMS Carpathia before joining the White Star Line He boarded the Titanic on Wednesday 10 April 1912 in Southampton, UK. His ticket number was the ticket for all the members of Wallace Hartley's orchestra, his cabin was second class, he was the only French musician aboard the Titanic. Bricoux was 20 years old, his body was never recovered. In 1913, after his apparent disappearance, he was declared a "deserter" by the French army, it was not until 2000 that he was officially registered as dead in France due to the efforts of the Association Française du Titanic. On 2 November 2000, the same association unveiled a memorial plaque to Bricoux in Cosne-Cours-sur-Loire. Wallace Henry Hartley, an English violinist, was the bandleader on the Titanic, he died in the disaster. His body was recovered by the CS Mackay-Bennett, a cable repair ship owned by the Commercial Cable Company, registered in London.
John Law Hume was a Scottish violinist on the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage. He died in the disaster. John Law Hume was born on 9 August 1890 in Dumfries and lived with his parents at 42 George Street, Dumfries, he had played on at least five ships before the Titanic. He was recruited to play on the maiden voyage due to his good reputation as a musician, he boarded the Titanic on Wednesday 10 April 1912 in Southampton, UK. His ticket number was the ticket for all the members of Wallace Hartley's orchestra, his cabin was in the second class quarters. Hume was 21 years old when he died, unaware that his fiancée, Mary Costin, was pregnant with his child, his body was recovered by the CS Mackay-Bennett, a cable repair ship owned by the Commercial Cable Company, registered in London. He was buried in grave 193 at Fairview Cemetery, Nova Scotia, Canada on Wednesday 8 May 1912. A memorial was erected for John Law Thomas Mullin in Dock Park, Dumfries, it reads: In memory of John Law Hume, a member of the band and Thomas Mullin, natives of these towns who lost their lives in the wreck of the W
The Unknown Child
The Unknown Child refers to an unidentified body recovered by the Mackay-Bennett after sinking of the RMS Titanic. The grave's headstone read "Erected to the memory of an unknown child whose remains were recovered after the disaster to the Titanic April 15th 1912". Initial DNA testing in 2002 pointed to third class passenger Eino Viljami Panula as the probable individual; the body of a fair-haired toddler was the fourth pulled from the ocean by the recovery ship CS Mackay-Bennett, on 17 April 1912. The description read: NO. 4 – MALE – ESTIMATED AGE, 2 – HAIR, FAIR. CLOTHING – Grey coat with fur on collar and cuffs. No marks whatever. PROBABLY THIRD CLASS The sailors aboard the Mackay-Bennett, who were shocked by the discovery of the unknown boy's body, paid for a monument, he was buried on 4 May 1912 with a copper pendant placed in his coffin by recovery sailors that read "Our Babe". Before 2002, he was known as "The Unknown Child", his body, identified as that of a child around two years old, was believed to be that of either a two-year-old Swedish boy, Gösta Pålsson.
The American PBS television series Secrets of the Dead identified the body as Eino Viljami Panula, a 13-month-old Finnish baby, based on DNA testing of three teeth and a small, weathered bone. However, with improved DNA testing available in 2007, Canadian researchers at Lakehead University in Thunder Bay tested the child's HVS1, a type of mitochondrial DNA molecule, it did not match the Panula family. DNA extracted from the exhumed remains and DNA provided by a surviving maternal relative helped positively match the remains to Sidney, the re-identification was announced on 30 July 2007. Although the bodies of two other children, both older boys, were recovered, it was Sidney who came to be a symbol of all the children lost in the sinking, he is buried in Fairview Cemetery, Nova Scotia, a marker was added to the memorial with his name and dates of birth and death. A pair of his shoes were donated to Halifax's Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in 2002 by the descendants of a Halifax police officer who guarded the bodies and clothing of Titanic victims.
Eino Viljami Panula was a young Finnish boy. From 2002 to 2007, he was believed to be "The Unknown Child". Eino was traveling with his mother, Maria Emilia Panula, four older brothers, Ernesti Arvid, Jaakko Arnold, Juha Niilo, Urho Abraham. Three other children died before the voyage: Juho Eemeli, Emma Iida and Lyydia; the family was heading to Pennsylvania, to join their father, Juha. All six members perished in the disaster; the American PBS television series Secrets of the Dead played a key role in the initial 2002 identification of Panula's identity as the "Unknown Child" when they featured the story of the unknown Titanic victim on an episode and traced the child's DNA to a Finnish woman by the name of Magda Schleifer whose grandmother's sister was Maria Emilia Panula. Another relative of the Panula family, Hildur Panula-Heinonen, has written several extensive articles related to the family. On 1 August 2007 it was reported a test on the child's HVS1, a type of mitochondrial DNA molecule, did not match the Panula family.
The original DNA testing was proved wrong and researchers from Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario identified the boy as a 19-month-old English child, Sidney Leslie Goodwin. Eino Panula's body was never recovered. Sidney Leslie Goodwin was a 19-month-old English boy. In 2008, mitochondrial DNA testing by the Armed Forces lab revealed his identity. Sidney Goodwin was the only member of his family whose body has been recovered and subsequently identified. Sidney was born on 9 September 1910 in Melksham, England, he was the youngest child born to Augusta Goodwin. Sidney had five older siblings – Lillian, William and Harold. Frederick's brother, had left England and was living in Niagara Falls, New York. Thomas wrote to Frederick, it has been speculated that the famed Schoellkopf Hydroelectric Power Station, due to open in 1912, would have been his employer had he lived. Frederick, a compositor, packed up six children to prepare for the move, they booked third-class passage on the S. S. New York out of Southampton, but due to a coal strike that year the vessel's passage was delayed, they were transferred to the RMS Titanic.
They boarded the Titanic in Southampton as third-class passengers. Not much is known about the Goodwins' activities during the voyage, except that they may have been separated by sex in opposite ends of the ship and his older sons in the bow, Augusta with Sidney and the girls in the stern. Harold met and spent some time with Frank Goldsmith, who survived. By the time the Goodwins received a warning about the collision with the iceberg, all the lifeboats had been launched; the entire family perished in the sinking. In his book, The Night Lives On, historian Walter Lord devoted
Legends and myths regarding RMS Titanic
There have been several legends and myths surrounding the RMS Titanic over the years. These have ranged from the myth about the ship being unsinkable, to the myth concerning the final song played by the ship's orchestra. Contrary to popular mythology, Titanic was never described as "unsinkable", without qualification, until after she sank. Three trade publications described Titanic as unsinkable prior to her sinking. Many survivors recalled in video interviews as well as in testimony that they had considered the ship "unsinkable." Shipbuilder Harland and Wolff did not claim she was unsinkable, but a promotional item from the White Star Line stressed the safety of Olympic and Titanic, claiming that "as far as it is possible to do so, these two wonderful vessels are designed to be unsinkable". Claims by trade publications that vessels were unsinkable or being unsinkable were not unique to the Olympic class liners or other White Star ships. Similar claims were made about the Cunarders Lusitania and Mauretania, German liners Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse and Kaiser Wilhelm II.
Advanced safety features on these liners were publicized, de-emphasizing the likelihood of these ships' sinking in a serious accident. The Titanic was designed to comply with the Grade 1 subdivision proposed by the 1891 Bulkhead Committee, meaning that it could stay afloat with any 2 adjoining out of its 16 main compartments open to the sea; the height of the bulkhead deck above the water line in flooded condition was well above the requirements, the vessel would have been able to float with 3 adjoining compartments flooded in 11 of 14 possible combinations. The subdivisions could be sealed from communication with each other with cast iron watertight doors. To somewhat lower the chance of a sailor being caught in them, a geared system dropped the doors over 25 to 30 seconds, by sliding them vertically on hydraulic cataract cylinders; the first unqualified assertion of Titanic's unsinkability appeared in The New York Times on 16 April 1912, a day after the tragedy. Philip A. S. Franklin, vice president of the International Mercantile Marine Company stated after being told of the sinking, "I thought her unsinkable, I based my opinion on the best expert advice available.
I do not understand it." This comment was seized upon by the press, the idea that the White Star Line had declared Titanic unsinkable gained immediate and widespread currency. An often-quoted story, blurred between fact and fiction states that the first person to receive news of the sinking was David Sarnoff, who would lead media giant RCA. In modified versions of this legend, Sarnoff was not the first to hear the news, but he and others did staff the Marconi wireless station atop the Wanamaker Department Store in New York City, for three days, relayed news of the disaster and names of survivors to people waiting outside; however this version lacks support in contemporary accounts. No newspapers of the time, for example, mention Sarnoff. Given the absence of primary evidence, the story of Sarnoff should be properly regarded as a legend. Despite popular belief, the sinking of Titanic was not the first time the internationally recognised Morse code distress signal "SOS" was used; the SOS signal was first proposed at the International Conference on Wireless Communication at Sea in Berlin in 1906.
It had been in widespread use since then. The SOS signal was, however used by British wireless operators, who preferred the older CQD code. First Wireless Operator Jack Phillips began transmitting CQD until Second Wireless Operator Harold Bride half jokingly suggested, "Send SOS. Phillips began to intersperse SOS with the traditional CQD call. There are reports that, in 1936, a ham radio operator named Gordon Cosgrave claimed to be receiving long delayed echo SOS messages from the Carpathia and Titanic 24 years after their transmission. One of the most famous stories of Titanic is of the ship's band. On 15 April the eight-member band, led by Wallace Hartley, had assembled in the first-class lounge in an effort to keep passengers calm and upbeat, they moved on to the forward half of the boat deck. The band continued playing when it became apparent the ship was going to sink, all members perished. There has been much speculation about. A first-class Canadian passenger, Mrs. Vera Dick, several other passengers, alleged that the final tune played was that of the hymn "Nearer, My God, to Thee".
Hartley once said to a friend if he were on a sinking ship, "Nearer, My God, to Thee" would be one of the songs he would play. But Walter Lord's book A Night to Remember popularised wireless operator Harold Bride's 1912 account that he heard the song "Autumn" before the ship sank, it is considered Bride either meant the hymn tune known as "Autumn" or the tune of the then-popular waltz "Songe d'Automne" but neither was in the White Star Line songbook for the band. Bride is one of only two witnesses who were close enough to the band, as he floated off the deck before the ship went down; some consider his statement to be reliable. Mrs. Dick had left by lifeboat an hour and 20 minutes earlier and could not have heard the band's final moments; the notion that the band played "Nearer, My God, to Thee" as a swan song is a myth originating from the wrecking of SS Valencia, which had received wide press coverage in Canada in 1906 and so may have influenced Mrs. Dick's recollection. There are three different vers
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Second and Third-class facilities on the RMS Titanic
Second-Class accommodation and facilities on board the Titanic were the equivalent in comfort and space to many First-Class facilities on other ships of the time. Although the 2nd and 3rd-Class sections of the ship occupied a much smaller proportion of space overall than those of First-Class, there were several comfortable, large public rooms and elevators for the passengers to enjoy. Third-Class was remarkably comfortable by the standards of the time and had elevators. A Dining Saloon provided steerage passengers with simple but hearty meals thrice daily, at a time when many ships forced 3rd-Class passengers to bring their own food provisions for the voyage; the bulk of Second-Class passenger staterooms were located aft between D and F Decks. The majority of E-Deck staterooms were designated Second-Class. A good indication of how similar the rooms were is that large sections of the 2nd-Class accommodation on E-Deck were First-Class alternative, meaning they were reserved for 2nd-Class but were prioritized for 1st-Class passengers when there was high demand.
Staterooms E1-E42 were Second/First-Class alternative cabins, which could accommodate either of the classes if one was overbooked.2nd-Class staterooms were comfortable, featuring oak paneling painted a glossy white, linoleum floors, mahogany furniture consisting of a large sofa and dressing table with washbasin and storage shelves. All the taps were connected to huge freshwater tanks located deep within the ship and many rooms contained "tipped" washbasins on shelves that could be folded back into the cabinet to save room. Shared staterooms were segregated by sex so that single women or men shared staterooms with one another. Unlike in First-Class, which offered many staterooms with private bathrooms, Second-Class bathroom facilities were all shared. Communal lavatories and bathrooms were divided by sex. A bath could be had on request to a steward and bed linen was changed daily. Second-Class offered passengers a spacious library/area, smoking room, outdoor promenade, dining room. There was a barber shop of the main staircase on E-Deck and a Purser's Office where passengers could store their valuables.
There were two staircases for Second-Class passengers - the main forward one communicated between the Boat Deck all the way down to F-Deck and featured an elevator, the first to be featured in Second-Class aboard an ocean liner. The second directly accessed the Library and Smoking Room. Both stairways were more modestly designed than their First-Class counterparts. There were three separate outdoor Promenade areas for Second-Class; the main one was a 145 ft. long unsheltered stretch at the aft-end of the Boat Deck that encompassed the raised roof of the First-Class Smoking Room. A small deckhouse was installed acting as the Second-Class entrance, from where the elevator and main staircase were reached. There were wooden-slatted wrought iron benches installed along this deck and teak deck chairs could be rented for three shillings/1 dollars per person for the voyage; the two other Promenades were on C-Decks, surrounding the Smoking Room and Library. The C-Deck level was 84 ft. long and enclosed in steel framing with glass windows.
It was used as a children's play area. The Library was located on C-Deck at the aft end of the Titanic's superstructure, overlooking the aft well-deck and poop deck. Decorated in the Adam style, it was paneled in contrasting light Sycamore and dark mahogany with columned accents. There were fluted, white-painted wooden columns throughout the room supporting a coffered plaster ceiling. Mahogany chairs and tables furnished the room, with writing desks by the windows with lamps and a large bookcase which functioned as the lending library; this room combined the functions of the library, writing room, drawing room. The Smoking Room, like its First-Class counterpart, was a male-only domain. Located directly above the Library, it was decorated in the Louis XVI style, paneled in oak and laid with linoleum tiles. Oak club chairs upholstered in green Morocco leather surrounded square tables for card playing. There was an adjoining bar for stewards to supply an adjoining lavatory; the Second-Class Dining Saloon was located aft on D-Deck and shared the same galley as the First-Class Dining Saloon further forward.
Although only about half the size of its First-Class counterpart, it was nonetheless a large room at 70 ft. long that could accommodate 394 in one sitting. Supplied with natural light by portholes, the room was paneled in oak and lined with linoleum flooring. There were parallel rows of long, rectangular dining tables in contrast to the cozy seating groups in First-Class, the mahogany swivel chairs upholstered in red leather were bolted to the floor None of the 2nd-Class public areas of the Titanic survive in an appreciable form because they are located in the stern section, the decks of which have pancaked upon one another; the C-Deck steel housing which once contained the stairway and Library for 2nd-Class are discernible, along with the once-covered promenade area with its enclosed windows. Sections of RMS Olympic's Second-Class public areas survived for many years at the Haltwhistle Paint Factory in Northumberland, England before they were auctioned in 2004; these included paneling, a pilastered doorway with cornice, moulding from the Dining Saloon, the window and surrounding frame from the Second-Class Purser's Office, paneling and windows from the Second
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour; the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth and Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality. Halifax is located within the traditional ancestral lands of the Mi'kmaq indigenous peoples, known as Mi'kma'ki; the Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries.
The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took". The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula; the establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal. The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre's War; the war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax, the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Father Rale's War. Cornwallis brought along their families. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown, all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.
December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others; the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston; the four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, although "Halifax" has remained in common usage for brevity.
On April 15, 2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials as "Halifax", although "Halifax Regional Municipality" would remain the region's official name; the proposed rebranding was met with mixed reaction from residents, some of whom felt that the change would alienate other communities in the municipality through a perception that the marketing scheme would focus on Metropolitan Halifax only, while others expressed relief that the longer formal name would no longer be primary. Mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating: "I'm a Westphal guy, I'm a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax. Why does that matter? Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, there isn’t a person out there who cares what HRM means." Unlike most municipalities with a sizeable metropolitan area, the Halifax Regional Municipality's suburbs have been incorporated into the "central" municipality by referendum.
For example, the community of Spryfield, in the Mainland South area, voted to amalgamate with Halifax in 1968. The most recent amalgamation, which brought the entirety of Halifax County into the Municipality, has created a situation where a large "rural commutershed" area encompasses half the municipality's landmass; the Halifax Regional Municipality occupies an area of 5,577 km2, 10% of the total land area of Nova Scotia. The land area of HRM is comparable in size to the total land area of the province of Prince Edward Island, measures 165 km in length between its eastern and western-most extremities, excluding Sable Island; the nearest point of land to Sable Island is not in HRM, but rather in adjacent Guysborough County. However, Sable Island is considered part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Council; the coastline is indented, accounting for its length of 400 km, with the northern boundary of the municipality being between 50–60 km inland. The coast is rock with small isolated sand beaches in sheltered bays.
The largest coastal features include St. Margarets Bay, Halifax Harbour/Bedford Basin, Cole Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbou
Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio is an American actor and film producer. He has been nominated for six Academy Awards, four British Academy Film Awards and nine Screen Actors Guild Awards, winning one of each award from them and three Golden Globe Awards from eleven nominations. DiCaprio began his career by appearing in television commercials in the late 1980s, he next had recurring roles in various television series, such as the soap opera Santa Barbara and the sitcom Growing Pains. He debuted in his film career by starring as Josh in Critters 3, he starred in the film adaptation of the memoir This Boy's Life, received acclaim and his first Academy Award nomination for his supporting role in What's Eating Gilbert Grape. He gained public recognition with leading roles in The Basketball Diaries and the romantic drama Romeo + Juliet, he achieved international fame as a star in James Cameron's epic romance Titanic, which became the highest-grossing film of all time to that point. Since 2000, DiCaprio has received critical acclaim for his work in a wide range of film genres.
DiCaprio's subsequent films include The Man in the Iron Mask, the biographical crime drama Catch Me If You Can, the epic historical drama Gangs of New York, which marked his first of many collaborations with director Martin Scorsese. He was acclaimed for his performances in the political war thriller Blood Diamond, the neo-noir crime drama The Departed, the espionage thriller Body of Lies, the drama Revolutionary Road, the psychological thriller Shutter Island, the science fiction thriller Inception, the biographical film J. Edgar, the western Django Unchained, the period drama The Great Gatsby. DiCaprio's portrayals of Howard Hughes in The Aviator and Hugh Glass in The Revenant won him the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama, his performance as Jordan Belfort in The Wolf of Wall Street won him the Golden Globe award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy. He won the Academy Award and BAFTA Award for Best Actor for his performance in The Revenant. DiCaprio is the founder of Appian Way Productions.
Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio was born on November 1974, in Los Angeles. He is the only child of Irmelin, a legal secretary, George DiCaprio, an underground comix artist and producer and distributor of comic books. DiCaprio's father is of German descent. DiCaprio's maternal grandfather, Wilhelm Indenbirken, was German, his maternal grandmother, Helene Indenbirken, was a Russian-born German citizen. In an interview in Russia, DiCaprio referred to himself as "half-Russian" and said that two of his late grandparents were Russian. DiCaprio's parents met while subsequently moved to Los Angeles, California. DiCaprio was named Leonardo because his pregnant mother was looking at a Leonardo da Vinci painting in the Uffizi museum in Florence, when he first kicked, his parents separated when he was a year old, he lived with his mother. The two lived in several Los Angeles neighborhoods, such as Echo Park and Los Feliz, while his mother worked several jobs. DiCaprio attended Seeds Elementary School and John Marshall High School a few blocks away, after attending the Los Angeles Center for Enriched Studies for four years.
He dropped out of high school following his third year earning his general equivalency diploma. DiCaprio spent part of his childhood in Germany with his maternal grandparents and Helene, he is conversant in Italian. In 1979, DiCaprio was removed, at the age of five, from the set of the children's television series Romper Room for being disruptive, he began his career by appearing in several commercials and educational films, following his older stepbrother Adam Farrar into television commercials, landing an ad at age 14 for Matchbox cars by Mattel, which he considered his first role. Throughout his teens he was seen in commercials for Kraft Foods, Bubble Yum, Apple Jacks, many more. In 1989, he played. In 1990, he started acting on television; this started with a role in the pilot of The Outsiders, one episode of the soap opera Santa Barbara, playing the young Mason Capwell. That same year, DiCaprio got a break on television. A series based on a successful comedy film by the same name, his works that year earned him two nomination at the Young Artist Award in Best Young Actor in a Daytime Series and Best Young Actor Starring in a New Television Series.
DiCaprio was a celebrity contestant on the children's game show Fun House. One of the stunts he performed on the show was going fishing in a small pool of water by catching the fish only with his teeth. In 1991, he played an un-credited role in one episode of Roseanne; that year, DiCaprio's debut film role was in the comedic science fiction horror film Critters 3, in which he played the stepson of an evil landlord, a role that DiCaprio described as "your average, no-depth, standard kid with blond hair." Released in March that year, the movie went direct-to-video. Shortly after, he became a recurring cast member on the successful ABC sitcom Growing Pains, playing Luke Brower, a homeless boy, taken in by the Seaver family. DiCaprio was nominated for the Young Artist Award for Best Young Actor Co-starring in a Television Series. In 1992, alongside Drew Barrymore, Sara Gilbert, Tom Skerritt, an