Penrhys is a village in the county borough of Rhondda Cynon Taf, situated on a hillside overlooking both valleys of Rhondda Fawr and Rhondda Fach. It is a district of Tylorstown; until the late 16th century, Penrhys was one of the holiest sites for Christian pilgrims in Wales. The site of Penrhys has a rich religious history dating back to mediaeval times, though few settlements other than farmsteads can be traced to the area. Penrhys is significant for a mediaeval monastery, the holy shrine of "Our Lady" built at the holy spring of Ffynnon Fair. During the early 16th century the antiquarian John Leland wrote during his visit to the area that he saw "Penrise Village, where the Pilgrimage was", suggesting that a settlement had built up in the area. In 1538 the shrine was destroyed during the English Reformation, the area appeared to fall into decline. With the arrival of industrialisation in the Rhondda Valley during the 19th century interest in the religious history of Penrhys increased. An archaeological dig at the old chapel was carried out in 1912 and a new statue of the Virgin Mary was unveiled in 1953.
In February 1927 the first burial took place at Penrhys cemetery. In 1904 the mining population of Rhondda was over 110,000 and still expanding rapidly. Although a'fever hospital' had been constructed in nearby Ystrad, the threat of smallpox had become a concern to the Medical Officer of Health, who recommended a separate containment site. In 1906 the Health Committee purchased three acres of land at Penrhys, chosen for its accessibility to both Rhondda valleys and its distance from other habitable buildings; the smallpox hospital was completed in 1907 and at first served the Rhondda and all of South Wales. In the 1970s the building was deemed unnecessary and was burnt to the ground by the South Wales Fire Service in 1971. In 1927 Penrhys was chosen as the starting point for'Red Sunday in Rhondda Valley' hunger march; the march was organised by the South Wales Miners' Federation and the Rhondda District, but lost support due to opposition from the TUC. It was supported by the Communist party and the march went ahead supported by 270 marchers.
The village of Penrhys that exists today was first developed in 1966 as a new modern council housing development. Built between 1966 and 1969 by Alex Robertson, Peter Francis & Partners, the houses consisted of short two and three storey terraces with cement rendered concrete walls and monpitch roofs; when it was opened in 1968, it consisted of 951 houses, at the time the largest public sector housing venture in Wales. One of the innovative features of Penrhys village was the district heating system; this was designed and built during a period of low bulk energy costs, but proved expensive following the Oil Crisis of 1973 which increased the cost of energy. As heating cost increases had to be absorbed into the rent, the village became uneconomic for those residents who were not reliant on state benefits, many of those in employment left the estate to move to other housing where they could have more control of heating costs; the outflow of employed residents led to a process of social engineering whereby those on unemployment or other state benefits were relocated into Penrhys from other council run estates.
As a result of the concentration of impoverished residents during the 1970s and 1980s the village gained a poor reputation and was seen by many as an undesirable location. In an attempt to rejuvenate the village, the Priority Estate Programme was undertaken in the late 1980s with all houses refurbished and environmental improvements made throughout the community. This, proved unsuccessful as the reputation of Penrhys was so low that new occupants could not be found; this in turn fueled the area's negative reputation. By the 1990s the local authorities had begun a relocation program for Penrhys, with many buildings demolished once the tenants had been relocated. By the early 21st century much of the village had been demolished, leaving around 300 buildings remaining. Many legends surround the old monastery at Penrhys, though the historicity of most has now been dismissed, it was believed that the monastery was Franciscan and built under the orders of Henry I. Both these tales have been disproven.
The village takes its name from one of the legends as it was called Pen-Rhys ap Tewdwr. Surviving documents refer to the site as a'manor' belonging to Cistercian Abbey of Llantarnam in Gwent and the first mention of Penrhys was in a document regarding a grant of land to the abbey in 1203; the manor may have been an outlying sheep farm or grange, but by the 15th century had become a place of pilgrimage. The manor consisted of three large buildings, a well and hostelry. Ffynnon Fair, St. Mary's Well, is a holy well which lies on the hillside overlooking the village of Llwynypia; the well has been the focus of religious activity in Penrhys and is the oldest recorded Christian site in the Rhondda. It is recognised by some historians that the site may date back further, could be pagan in
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Llanfoist is a village, near Abergavenny, in Monmouthshire, Wales. The name of the village derives from that of Ffwyst, an early Christian Welsh saint, although the anglicised name of the church patron is St Faith. 1901 Kelly's Directory of Monmouthshire describes the parish church of St Faith's: "".. an ancient building of small dimensions, in the Gothic style, consisting of chancel, south porch and a western bell gable with two bells" adding "The windows are stained. The east window and two small ones in the chancel were erected by the neighbouring gentry to the memory of Crawshay Bailey esq. the great ironmaster of Nant-y-glo, buried here. A three-light window on the north side was given by his tenantry as a memorial to the same; the chancel was restored in 1877 by Crawshay Bailey esq. son of the above, since, deceased. There are 80 sittings. In the churchyard are two ancient yew trees, an ancient stone cross." The church holds records for baptisms from 1736–1975, for marriages from 1736–1971, for banns from 1824–47 and 1890–1933, for burials from 1736-1945.
There are Bishops Transcripts for 1725-32, 1734–51, 1753-4, 1756–75, 1777–1806, 1808–10, 1813, 1815–16, 1820–37, 1841–58, 1862–1865, 1869 and 1880. The parish of Llanelen has been held with Llanfoist, although since the retirement of the last resident Rector, the Reverend Thomas Arthur Foster in 1992 the parishes have been served from Govilon. At the time of his departure, Father Foster was the longest serving incumbent in the Diocese of Monmouth, having held the benefice since 1959, his predecessor, the Reverend Harold Stanley Richards served between 1930-59. The village had a Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, erected in 1839. In 1851 the attendance was 200 for morning worship, 200 scholars in the afternoon and 40 for evening worhsip with 50 scholars. Llanfoist was home to Crawshay Bailey. Before 1851 he had retired to Llanfoist House in the village. Llanfoist Primary School had a house named after him until 2008 when the House was renamed'Skirrid', he died in 1872, aged 83, after at least seventy years in industry.
His only son and heir Crawshay Bailey, inherited his estate. The novelist Alexander Cordell, most famously author of Rape of the Fair Country is buried at Llanfoist; the village is located beneath the hill known as Blorenge, part of the Brecon Beacons National Park, rising 1,838 feet above sea level over the vale of the River Usk. The hill can be ascended on foot from Llanfoist, straight up its'front', a direct route but very steep; the rewarding views from the top are among the best in South Wales. The Monmouthshire and Brecon Canal runs just above the village offering an excellent flat route for contour walking along the valley side, with views across to the Black Mountains. Llanfoist Wharf, at a picturesque location, a quarter of the way up the Blorenge, is now owned by a narrowboat hire company; the village has a church hall, situated on the Merthyr Road. The Llanfoist Fawr Primary School moved to a new location in the Barratt estate on Gypsy Lane and was opened in 2008. On 2 January 2012 an ancient yew tree in the grounds of St Faith's Church, believed to be up to 1,000 years old, was brought down by high winds.
Old Photos of the canal McDonalds Garden Centre www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Llanfoist and surrounding area Llanfoist at genuki.org
Welsh Ambulance Service
The Welsh Ambulance Service, formally the Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust, is the national ambulance service for Wales and one of the three NHS trusts in the country. It was established on 1 April 1998 and has 2,576 staff providing ambulance and related services to the 3.1 million residents of Wales. The Welsh Ambulance Service's headquarters is located at H. M. Stanley Hospital, St Asaph, Denbighshire; the service is divided into three regions: Central and West Region – based at Ty Maes Y Gruffudd, Cefn Coed Hospital, Swansea North Region – based at H. M. Stanley Hospital, St Asaph, Denbighshire South-East Region – based at Vantage Point House, Ty Coch Industrial Estate, CwmbranThe service is investing as part of a five-year modernisation plan, this will see the end of Regions and management will be via Heads of Services aligned to the Health Board areas along with a Head of Service for the Clinical Contact Centres and Head of Service for Production which oversees the resources available within the geographical areas.
The Welsh Ambulance Service provides: Emergency Medical Services - This service responds to emergency 999 calls and GP's urgent calls. A standard crew combination for this service would consist of a Paramedic and an Emergency Medical Technician; however double Paramedic / double Technician crews are not uncommon. As of 2013, the majority of the EMS fleet consists of Wilker Mercedes Benz 519 Sprinter Ambulances and Honda CRV / Ford Focus Rapid Response Vehicles. Non Emergency Patient Transport Service - This service deals with the planned care aspect of ambulance work. NEPTS staff provide transport between home and healthcare facilities or some inter-hospital transfers. Urgent Care Service - This service bridges the gap between NEPTS and EMS, allowing for patients to be transferred between home and hospital or hospital to hospital while meeting the advanced needs that some of these patients may have. UCS ambulance crews may be allocated to EMS calls at times of high demand and following clinical telephony triage by a nurse or face to face triage by Advanced Paramedic Practitioners or Paramedic Practitioners working from a Rapid Response Vehicle.
NHS Direct Wales / 111 Wales is a 24-hour telephone and internet health advice service provided by NHS Wales to enable people to obtain advice when use of the national emergency telephone number does not seem to be appropriate but there is some degree of urgency. NHS Direct Wales / 111 Wales supports EMS Operations by providing clinical triage for "Green 3" calls that are deemed suitable. More than 45% of 999 calls have a disposition of not requiring 999 conveyance. In addition during times of escalation other calls deemed suitable are triaged, it does not replace any of the existing emergency or non-emergency medical services but complements those existing and enables callers who might not be able to diagnose themselves to be directed to care of an appropriate level of urgency, including transport to hospital if the diagnosis merits that action. Community First Responders - CFRs are volunteers from the community trained in basic first aid, oxygen administration and the use of an Automated External Defibrillator.
They are used by the ambulance service in rural areas to provide basic care, such as Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation before an EMS crew arrives. As CFRs are only sent to local calls in specified communities, they arrive before an EMS ambulance crew without the use of blue lights and sirens. Whilst most CFR teams are the sole responsibility of WAST, a number of teams are made up of regular divisions from St John Ambulance in Wales although this does not give them any exemptions. There are developing numbers of Advanced Paramedic Practitioners in the service who through their extended scope of practice are working toward advancing the service their patients receive with "see and treat" and "see and refer" models of care; this removes the need for some patients to travel in an ambulance to A&E. In 2012 a strategic review of the service was commissioned by the Welsh Government and was conducted by Professor Siobhan McClelland and published in April 2013. National Health Service NHS Direct Wales Welsh Ambulance Service NHS Direct Wales
In the United Kingdom, a scheduled monument is a "nationally important" archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorised change. The various pieces of legislation used for protecting heritage assets from damage and destruction are grouped under the term ‘designation’; the protection provided to scheduled monuments is given under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979, a different law from that used for listed buildings. A heritage asset is a part of the historic environment, valued because of its historic, architectural or artistic interest. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have extra legal protection through designation. There are about 20,000 scheduled monuments in England representing about 37,000 heritage assets. Of the tens of thousands of scheduled monuments in the UK, most are inconspicuous archaeological sites, but some are large ruins. According to the 1979 Act, a monument cannot be a structure, occupied as a dwelling, used as a place of worship or protected under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973.
As a rule of thumb, a protected historic asset, occupied would be designated as a listed building. Scheduled monuments are defined in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. In England and Scotland they are referred to as a scheduled ancient monument, although the Act defines only ancient monument and scheduled monument. A monument can be: A building or structure, cave or excavation, above or below the surface of the land. A site comprising any vehicle, aircraft or other moveable structure. In Northern Ireland they are designated under separate legislation and are referred to as a scheduled historic monument or a monument in state care; the first Act to enshrine legal protection for ancient monuments was the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882. This identified an initial list of 68 prehistoric sites that were given a degree of legal protection; this was the result of strenuous representation by William Morris and the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, founded in 1877.
Following various previous attempts, the 1882 legislation was guided through parliament by John Lubbock, who in 1871 had bought Avebury, Wiltshire, to ensure the survival of the stone circle. The first Inspector of Ancient Monuments, as set up by the act, was Augustus Pitt Rivers. At this point, only the inspector, answering directly to the First Commissioner of Works, was involved in surveying the scheduled sites and persuading landowners to offer sites to the state; the act established the concept of guardianship, in which a site might remain in private ownership, but the monument itself become the responsibility of the state, as guardian. However the legislation could not compel landowners, as that level of state interference with private property was not politically possible; the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1900 extended the scope of the legislation to include medieval monuments. Pressure grew for stronger legislation. In a speech in 1907, Robert Hunter, chairman of the National Trust, observed that only a further 18 sites had been added to the original list of 68.'Scheduling' in the modern sense only became possible with the passing of the Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Act 1913.
When Pitt Rivers died in 1900 he was not replaced as Inspector. Charles Peers, a professional architect, was appointed as Inspector in 1910 in the Office of Works becoming Chief Inspector in 1913; the job title'Inspector' is still in use. Scheduling offers protection because it makes it illegal to undertake a great range of'works' within a designated area, without first obtaining'scheduled monument consent'. However, it does not affect the owner’s freehold title or other legal interests in the land, nor does it give the general public any new rights of public access; the process of scheduling does not automatically imply that the monument is being poorly managed or that it is under threat, nor does it impose a legal obligation to undertake any additional management of the monument. In England and Wales the authority for designating, re-designating and de-designating a scheduled monument lies with the Secretary of State for the Department for Culture and Sport; the Secretary of State keeps the schedule, of these sites.
The designation process was first devolved to Scotland and Wales in the 1970s and is now operated there by the Scottish Government and the Welsh Assembly respectively. The government bodies with responsibility for archaeology and the historic environment in Britain are: Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland; the processes for application and monitoring scheduled monuments is administered in England by Historic England. In Northern Ireland, the term "Scheduled Historic Monument" is used; these sites protected under Article 3 of the Historic Monuments and Archaeological Objects Order 1995. The schedule contains over 1,900 sites, is maintained by the Department for Communities. There is no positive distinction yet for a single method of registering sites of heritage; the long tradition of legal issues did not lead to a condensed register nor to any single authority to take care of over the course of the last 130 years. The UK
Pontnewydd is a suburb of Cwmbran in the county borough of Torfaen, south-east Wales. An 18th century settlement within the historical parish of Llanfrechfa Upper, Pontnewydd became an important part of the Industrial Revolution in the Eastern Valley of South Wales; the canal and river encouraged Victorian industries to flourish in this area which resulted in a steady rise in population. Pontnewydd is an electoral ward of Torfaen County Borough Council; the electoral ward includes Northville. Cwmbran was designated as a new town under the New Towns Act 1946, with the aim of housing new workers to the growing post-war industries that landscaped the valley. After the Second World War, Cwmbran’s population was 12,000 - living in the original settlements surrounding what is now known as Old Cwmbran; the Monmouthshire & Brecon Canal is the main environmental feature to Pontnewydd. The area hosts a golf course, rugby football and social clubs, several churches and pubs and two community hubs. For 200 years the area was dominated by heavy industry, revolving around the local coal, iron and tin plate works.
In 1802 George Conway and Edward Jenkins of Ynys-Pen-llwch in Glamorgan, built a tin-works on the side of the Afon Llwyd at Lower Pontnewydd. In 1804 a similar works was established higher up the river at Pontrhydyrun, by John Conway, eldest son of George Conway; the Pontnewydd Works declined with the death of Charles Conway in 1884. Pontrhydyrun manufactured tinplate until 1930; the Tynewydd Tinworks opened by Charles Roberts in 1875 alongside Upper Pontnewydd Staion and other tinworks established by H. D. Griffiths taken over by the Avondale Company in 1894. By 1832 Llantarnam Abbey and its estate was owned by Reginald James Blewitt MP, he opened the Porthmawr Colliery in Upper Cwmbran known as the Mine Slope. The Adit followed in 1879. At its peak the colliery was employing over 1000 men before closing in 1927. In 1840, John Lawrence erected a blast furnace on the side of the Monmouthshire Canal. By 1865 the Nut and Bolt works of Weston and Grice, the ironworks of William Roper had been established further along the canal.
By 1902 the entire site was owned by Guest and Nettlefolds in what became known as Forge Hammer. The works closed in 1980. Since the New Town, Pontnewydd has lost all that heritage to light industry in Avondale and Somerset Road; the Monmouthshire & Brecon Canal was constructed in the 1790s and Pontnewydd grew as a settlement from that. The Monmouthshire Railway and Canal Company railway line from Newport to Blaenafon ran through Pontnewydd from the 1850s until it was replaced by Cwmbran Drive in 1988; the railway was such an important asset to the community that there were two stations just 300 metres away from each other. At the 2011 Census, the population for the ward was 6305, the community population was 4,954. At the 2001 Census, the following information was collected for the ward: Population 6132; the community population was 4725. 47.9% Male, 52.1% Female Age Structure 21.9% aged between 0-15 37.2% aged between 16-44 19.0% aged 45–59/64 21.9% of pensionable age