The Marlborough Region known as Marlborough, is one of the regions of New Zealand, located in the northeast of the South Island. Marlborough is a unitary authority, both a region and a district, its council is located at Blenheim, it has a population of 46,600. Marlborough is known for its dry climate, the picturesque Marlborough Sounds, Sauvignon blanc wine, it takes its name from the earlier Marlborough Province, named after His Grace General The 1st Duke of Marlborough, an English general and statesman. Marlborough's geography can be divided into four sections. Two of these sections, in the south and the west, are mountainous; this is true of the southern section, which rises to the peaks of the Kaikoura Ranges. These two mountainous regions are the final northern vestiges of the ranges that make up the Southern Alps, although that name is applied to mountains this far north. Between these two areas is the long straight valley of the Wairau River; this broadens in the centre of which stands the town of Blenheim.
This region has fertile soil and temperate weather, enabling it to become the centre of the New Zealand wine industry. The fourth geographic zone lies along its north coast. Here the drowned valleys of the Marlborough Sounds make for a attractive coastline; the town of Picton is located at the southern end of one of the larger sounds, Queen Charlotte Sound. The town of Havelock is located at the southern end of the Pelorus Sound, the Pelorus Sound feeds into the Kenepuru Sound. Marlborough is administered by the Marlborough District Council. Between 1859 and 1876 Marlborough had its own provincial government, was known as the Marlborough Province, which ended when the Abolition of the Provinces Act came into force on 1 Nov 1876. Much of the region's population is found around the coastal plains around and to the south of the mouth of the Wairau, in smaller settlements along the coast of the Sounds. Apart from the main urban areas of Blenheim and Picton, Marlborough's towns include Havelock, Renwick and Seddon.
Marlborough's world-famous former residents include rocket scientist William Pickering and Nobel Prize-winning physicist Ernest Rutherford. The Marlborough Region has only two urban areas with a population over 1,000: Blenheim, which includes the adjoining towns of Grovetown and Renwick. Together they are home to 77.1% of the region's population. There are two other rural townships with a population over 300: Havelock and Seddon The sub-national GDP of the Marlborough region was estimated at US$1.193 billion in 2003, 1% of New Zealand's national GDP. Marlborough is a well-known wine-producing region in New Zealand. Thanks to aggressive growth in the export market, the Marlborough wine region is now responsible for the production of 77% of New Zealand's wine; the most popular varietal is Sauvignon blanc followed by Pinot noir and Chardonnay. Marlborough's first vines, a small block of Brown Muscat, were planted in 1873 by local David Herd. However, in 1931 his son pulled up the last of his vines and no others were planted in the region until the 1970s.
Wine giant Montana Wines returned wine making to Marlborough with the purchase of 1173 hectares in 1973. The strong contrast between hot sunny days and cool nights help vintners extend the ripening period of their vines like nowhere else, resulting in unique expressions of their grapes. For example, Sauvignon blanc from Marlborough offer unique aromas and flavors, which earns them much praise from wine lovers around the world; the majority of Marlborough's extensive vineyard plantings are around Renwick and Cloudy Bay in the Wairau valley. Further south in the Awatere valley are plantings near Seddon; these are for the most part on old terraces of the Awatere rivers. The area is considered by many critics to produce some of the world's best Sauvignon blanc. One wine critic said that "no other region in the world can match Marlborough, the northeastern corner of New Zealand's South Island, which seems to be the best place in the world to grow Sauvignon blanc grapes." Wairau River, Forrest Wines, Marisco Vineyards, Brancott Estate, Oyster Bay, Te Pa Wines, Hunters Wines, OTU Wines, Mud House, Cloudy Bay Vineyards, Framingham Wines, Saint Clair Estate Winery, Wither Hills and Grove Mill are notable vineyards in the region.
Important is the production of Methode Traditionelle sparkling wines near Renwick, from Riesling, Pinot noir and Chardonnay. New Zealand wine List of schools in Marlborough Marlborough travel guide from Wikivoyage Marlborough District Council Discover Marlborough: The Marlborough Web Directory Marlborough Online
The New Zealand green-lipped mussel known as the New Zealand mussel, the greenshell mussel and kutai, is a bivalve mollusc in the family Mytilidae. P. canaliculus has economic importance as a cultivated species in New Zealand. The word "canaliculus" is a noun, not an adjective, so it is invariable and does not agree grammatically in gender with the genus that it is combined with. P. canaliculus occurs around all of New Zealand's mainland. It is found below the intertidal zone, but it can occur in the intertidal zone. P. canaliculus feeds on various types of phytoplankton. This shellfish is economically important to New Zealand, it differs from other mussel species in that it has dark brown/green shells with green lips around the edges, has only one adductor muscle. It is one of the largest mussel species, reaching 240 mm in length. P. canaliculus inhibits the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. Many of the products of these pathways have inflammation-supporting properties. However, a systematic review of scientific research on supplementation with green-lipped mussel suggests a lack of compelling evidence for its use in humans with inflammation-associated arthritis.
P. canaliculus is endemic to New Zealand. When grown for aquaculture there, it is marketed under the trademark name Greenshell; this industry produces over 140,000 tonnes annually and in 2009 was valued in excess of NZ$250 million. The aquaculture of the New Zealand greenshell mussel relies on the production of mussel seed, or spat, by wild mussel populations. Around 270 tonnes of wild spat, attached to beach-cast seaweed are collected from Ninety Mile Beach in northern New Zealand each year to supply the aquaculture industry. Nowhere else in the country are such large quantities of mussel-covered seaweed washed ashore; the density of spat varies from 200 to 2 million per kilogram of seaweed. This single beach provides around 80% of the seed mussels required for this aquaculture industry; the remaining 20 % is caught using fibrous ropes. With this industry’s heavy dependency on wild spat, the biological and environmental processes by which the spat arrives on Ninety Mile Beach and on spat collection ropes are unknown.
Furthermore, the amount of mussel spat that lands on Ninety Mile Beach is variable. This uncertainty of supply has resulted in major production problems for the industry which must endure periods up to a year without the arrival of any spat. ‘Spatfall’ events are affected by El Niño periods and can result in delays in mussel farm production due to the insufficient seed landing on Ninety Mile Beach. New Zealand greenshell mussel cultivation began in the 1970s and has since undergone massive expansion, with production growth of 708% from 1988 to 2000. Initial farms were based on the 700-year-old European floating raft method of mussel cultivation, suitable at small scales. An adaption of the Japanese longline shellfish aquaculture system led to the methods used today for commercial greenshell aquaculture and facilitated the transition to large-scale production by incorporating mechanized harvesting; this adaptation of the Japanese longline method consists of a series of large plastic buoys connected by two ropes forming a backbone, held in place by concrete anchor blocks or steel anchors screwed into the seabed.
Once the spat have been transported from the beach to mussel farms around the country, they are transferred into a stocking that holds the spat-covered seaweed material around a “dropper rope”, suspended in the water column hanging at regular intervals off the backbone ropes. Soon after, the stocking and seaweed rots away. Subsequent loss of spat from the dropper ropes is high over 50% and as high as 95%; this loss is due to the secondary settlement behaviour of mussels, whereby the spat can release their point of attachment to the growing rope and exude a mucous “parachute” to help move to an alternative settlement site using water currents. This loss of spat from mussel farms is a significant problem for the industry. A 2007 study identified two stressors. Steps to reduce these stressors on the spat during transport could improve retention rates. Growing mussels are removed from the dropper ropes and reseeded once and sometimes twice before reaching harvesting size of around 100 mm. Harvesting is achieved using specially designed vessels which allow the dropper ropes to be pulled on board to strip the mussels from the dropper rope.
From the initial seeding of mussels onto farms. Productivity of the mussel farming industry in the year 2000 in New Zealand was calculated to be 9.85 tonnes per hectare per year, or $NZ59,649 per hectare per year. Mussel farming is a fast-growing industry in New Zealand. In 2000, 3000 hectares of mussel farms were with proposals for another 30,000 ha. Individual farms are less than 50 ha and placed in sheltered waters close to the shore. With more recent technological developments larger mussel farms can now be constructed further offshore and in more exposed waters. After 15 years of research and development into hatchery production of spat, the industry still remains completely reliant on wild spat, because collecting wild spat is markedly cheaper th
A water taxi or a water bus known as a sightseeing boat, is a watercraft used to provide public or private transport but not always, in an urban environment. Service may be scheduled with multiple stops, operating in a similar manner to a bus, or on demand to many locations, operating in a similar manner to a taxi. A boat service shuttling between two points would be described as a ferry rather than a water bus or taxi; the term water taxi is confined to a boat operating on demand, water bus to a boat operating on a schedule. In North American usage, the terms are synonymous; the earliest water taxi service was recorded as operating around the area that became Manchester, United Kingdom. Cities and other places operating water buses and/or taxis include: Alexandria, Virginia Amsterdam Astana Auckland Baltimore Baltimore Water Taxi Bangkok Chao Phraya Express Boat Khlong Saen Saep boat service Bordeaux Boats BatCub Boston Bratislava Bratislava Propeler Bremen Brisbane CityCat CityFerry Bristol Bristol Ferry Boats Brunei Bucharest Budapest Buenos Aires, Tigre Bydgoszcz, Poland Cardiff Cardiff Waterbus Cap-Haïtien, Haiti Cape Town Caye Caulker Charleston Chicago Copenhagen Copenhagen Harbour Buses Davao City Davao water taxi service Dhaka Buriganga River water bus Hatirjheel water taxi Dubai Abras RTA water taxis Erie, Pennsylvania Presque Isle Water Taxi Fort Lauderdale Galápagos Islands Gothenburg Älvsnabben ferry Paddan Guangzhou, China Halifax Regional Municipality Hamburg HADAG Helsinki Ho Chi Minh City Hong Kong: Cheung Chau, Chi Ma Wan, Peng Chau, Silvermine Bay New World First Ferry Istanbul Jacksonville, Florida Jacksonville Water Taxi Karachi Kobe Kochi Kragerø and surrounding area, Norway Kristiansund, Norway Lake Ozark, Missouri Laughlin and Bullhead City, Arizona Leeds Lisbon London London River Services Thames Clippers Long Beach, California Long Beach Transit Malta Dghajsa Manila Pasig River Ferry Service Moscow Mumbai Nantes Navibus National Harbor, Maryland New York City Liberty Water Taxi New York Water Taxi NYC Ferry New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Louisiana Mississippi River from mouth to Baton Rouge, Louisiana Belle Chasse Marine, Port Ship Service, Crescent Ship Service and Weber Marine.
New Zealand Niigata Oklahoma City Orlando, Florida Osaka Osaka Suijō Bus Oslo NBDS Oslo-Fergene Panama Paris Voguéo Pittsburgh Plymouth Portland, Maine Potsdam, Germany Quad Cities, Illinois/Iowa Rotterdam/Dordrecht Sacramento Saint Petersburg Aquabus Seattle King County Water Taxi Seoul Sha Lo Wan, Tai O, Tuen Mun, Tung Chung Shizuoka Singapore Spalding Stockholm Sydney Tallinn Tampa The Woodlands, Texas Timișoara Tokyo Tokyo Cruise Ship Tokyo Mizube Line Toronto Toronto water taxis Trinidad Water Taxi Service, Port of Spain to San Fernando – service implemented in December 2008 Vancouver The Aquabus Coastal Link Ferries English Bay Launch False Creek Ferries Granville Island Water Taxi Services SeaBus Venice Gondola Vaporetto Victoria, British Columbia Victoria Harbour Walt Disney World Wellington Ferries in Wellington Winnipeg Xochimilco, Mexico City Chalupa Yokohama Keihin Ferry Boat The Port ServiceOn demand water taxis are commonly found in marinas and cottage areas, providing access to boats and waterfront properties that are not directly accessible by land.
On March 6, 2004, a water taxi on the Seaport Taxi service operated by the Living Classrooms Foundation capsized during a storm on the Patapsco River, near Baltimore's Inner Harbor. A total of five passengers died in the accident, which the National Transportation Safety Board determined was caused by insufficient stability when the small pontoon-style vessel encountered strong winds and waves; the company no longer operates water taxi vessels in Baltimore harbor. Duffy-Herreshoff watertaxi Ferry, including hydrofoil and hovercraft Klotok Moskvitch-class motorship - Soviet "water tramway" Pleasure barge Rower woman Ship's tender Media related to Water taxis at Wikimedia Commons
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Havelock, New Zealand
Havelock is a coastal township in the Marlborough region of New Zealand. It sits at the head of Pelorus Sound, one of the Marlborough Sounds, at the mouth of the Pelorus and Kaituna Rivers; the 2013 census recorded its population as 486, a decrease of 3 since 2006. State Highway 6 from Nelson to Blenheim passes through the town. Queen Charlotte Drive, which provides a shorter but winding road to Picton proceeds east along the edge of the Sounds. Canvastown lies 10 kilometres to the west. Renwick is 31 km to the south. Picton lies 35 km to the east. Havelock serves as the centre for much of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel industry, is called the greenshell mussel capital of the world, it functions as the base for a mail boat servicing the remote communities in the Marlborough Sounds, as well as for many fishing and recreational boats. The name "Havelock" commemorates Sir Henry Havelock, known from the Siege of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857; the streets were laid out with Lucknow Street as the main thoroughfare.
The gold rush to the Wakamarina Valley in 1864 boosted the growth of the township, with sawmilling becoming the main activity until the 1910s joined by dairying. The valleys around Havelock contain many pine plantations. Across the Kaituna River estuary, the Cullen Point Scenic Reserve and the Mahakipawa Hill Scenic Reserve offer a coastal walking-track to a lookout at Cullen Point. William Pickering, space scientist and former director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Ernest Rutherford, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Havelock School is a coeducational full primary school, with a decile rating of 7 and a roll of 86; the school was founded in 1861. Moenui Havelock School website Havelock Community and Information Website Havelock Info Centre Havelock travel guide from Wikivoyage
The little penguin is the smallest species of penguin. It grows to an average of 33 cm in height and 43 cm in length, though specific measurements vary by subspecies, it is found on the coastlines of southern Australia and New Zealand, with possible records from Chile. In Australia, they are called fairy penguins because of their small size. In New Zealand, they are more known as little blue penguins or blue penguins owing to their slate-blue plumage; the little penguin was first described by German naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster in 1781. Several subspecies are known; the holotypes of the subspecies E. m. variabilis and Eudyptula minor chathamensis are in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. The white-flippered penguin is sometimes considered a subspecies, sometimes a distinct species, sometimes a morph. Genetic analyses indicate that the Australian and Otago little penguins may constitute a distinct species. In this case the specific name minor would devolve on it, with the specific name novaehollandiae suggested for the other populations.
This interpretation suggests that E. novaehollandiae individuals arrived in New Zealand between AD 1500 and 1900 while the local E. minor population had declined, leaving a genetic opening for a new species. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence suggests the split between Eudyptula and Spheniscus occurred around 25 million years ago, with the ancestors of the white-flippered and little penguins diverging about 2.7 million years ago. Like those of all penguins, the little penguin's wings have developed into flippers used for swimming; the little penguin grows to between 30 and 33 cm tall and weighs about 1.5 kg on average. The head and upper parts are blue in colour, with slate-grey ear coverts fading to white underneath, from the chin to the belly, their flippers are blue in colour. The dark grey-black beak is 3–4 cm long, the irises pale silvery- or bluish-grey or hazel, the feet pink above with black soles and webbing. An immature individual will have lighter upperparts. Like most seabirds, they have a long lifespan.
The average for the species is 6.5 years, but flipper ringing experiments show in exceptional cases up to 25 years in captivity. The little penguin breeds along the entire coastline of New Zealand, southern Australia. Australian colonies exist in New South Wales, Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia. Little penguins have been reported from Chile and South Africa, but it is unclear whether these birds were vagrants; as new colonies continue to be discovered, rough estimates of the world population are around 350,000-600,000 animals. Overall, little penguin populations in New Zealand have been decreasing; some colonies have gone extinct and others continue to be at risk. Some new colonies have been established in urban areas; the species is not considered endangered in New Zealand, with the exception of the white-flippered subspecies found only on Banks Peninsula and nearby Motunau Island. Since the 1960s, the mainland population has declined by 60-70%. Australian little penguin colonies exist on offshore islands, where they are protected from feral terrestrial predators and human disturbance.
Colonies are found from Port Stephens in northern New South Wales around the southern coast to Fremantle, Western Australia. An endangered population of little penguins exists in Sydney's North Harbour; the population is protected under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 and has been managed in accordance with a Recovery Plan since the year 2000. The population once has decreased to around 60 pairs of birds; the decline is believed to be due to loss of suitable habitat, attacks by foxes and dogs and disturbance at nesting sites. The largest colony in New South Wales is on Montague Island. Up to 8000 breeding pairs are known to nest there each year. A population of about 5,000 breeding pairs exists on Bowen Island; the colony has increased from 500 pairs in 1979 and 1500 pairs in 1985. During this time, the island was leased; the island was vacated in 1986 and is controlled by the federal government. In South Australia, many little penguin colony declines have been identified across the state.
In some cases, colonies have declined to extinction, while others have declined from thousands of animals to few. A report released in 2011 presented evidence supporting the listing of the statewide population or the more monitored sub-population from Gulf St. Vincent as Vulnerable under South Australia's National Parks & Wildlife Act 1972; as of 2014, the little penguin is not listed as a species of conservation concern, despite ongoing declines at many colonies. Tasmanian little penguin population estimates range from 110,000–190,000 breeding pairs of which less than 5% are found on mainland Tasmania. Ever-increasing human pressure is predicted to result in the extinction of colonies on mainland Tasmania; the largest colony of little penguins in Victoria is located at Phillip Island, where the nightly'parade' of penguins across Summerland Beach has been a major tourist destination, more a major conser
Pelorus Sound / Te Hoiere is the largest of the sounds which make up the Marlborough Sounds at the north of the South Island, New Zealand. The Marlborough Sounds is a system of drowned river valleys, which were formed after the last ice age around 10,000 years ago. Pelorus Sound has a main channel which winds south from Cook Strait for about 55 kilometres, between steeply sloped wooded hills, until it reached its head close to Havelock town. Pelorus has several major arms, notably Tennyson Inlet, Tawhitinui Reach, Kenepuru Sound and the Crail/Clova/Beatrix Bay complex, its shoreline runs for 380 kilometres. Industry in Pelorus Sounds is based around pine forestry and some tourism. Private holiday homes are becoming more common. Most of the settled places are hard to reach overland, are serviced by the Pelorus Express, a mail boat which does three different weekly runs from Havelock. Maud Island called Te Hoiere in the Māori language, is a 310-hectare island in the Pelorus Sounds, it is an important nature reserve to which only conservationists have access.
The local iwi of the indigenous people of New Zealand is the Ngāti Kuia. According to Ngāti Kuia oral tradition, their founding father, a descendant of Kupe, came to the South Island in his waka Te Hoiere. In 1642, Abel Tasman sailed past D'Urville Island. French and Russian explorers followed and in the 1770s Captain James Cook arrived. In 1838, Philip Chetwode in command of the Cruizer class brig-sloop, HMS Pelorus, carried out the first survey of Pelorus Sound; the sound was named in honour of this survey. A pelorus was a navigational instrument used on sailing ships; the instrument, in turn, was named after the pilot for Hannibal, circa 203 BC. In 1864, gold was discovered in the Wakamarina Valley and, for a brief time, Havelock became a boom town as several thousand prospectors flooded the area. In 1865, the first timber mill started at an upper arm of Pelorus Sound. More mills were established, native timber was shipped around New Zealand and to Australia. By the start of the 20th century the timber camps had given way to dairy and sheep farms.
In 1939 the last mill was closed. About 325 million feet of timber had been sawn over a period of sixty years, only two small areas of native timber remained. In 1888, a Risso’s dolphin appeared in the sounds; this dolphin became famous as Pelorus Jack and became the first dolphin in the world to receive the protection of the law. Pelorus Jack would accompany boats to and from the notorious French Pass, he would join boats bound for Nelson at the entrance to Pelorus Sound and for eight kilometres would ride their bow waves to Pelorus Sound. He would met returning boats as they exited the pass. Pelorus Jack was last seen in April 1912; the lightkeeper at French Pass claimed. During World War II, coastal fortifications were constructed on Maud Island to protect Cook Strait, the entrance to the sound; these fortifications included a 6in Mk 7 gun emplacement, range finding equipment, still there today. In 1906, New Zealand purchased its first naval ship, a sail training ship called NZS Amokura, it became a coal hulk in 1922, in 1953 was towed into St Omer Bay in Kenepuru Sound, an arm of Pelorus Sound.
It was used there as jetty. Reported broken up in 1955, her remains lie on the beach in the southern end of the bay. In August 2014, the name of the sound was altered to Pelorus Sound / Te Hoiere. Over 80 percent of New Zealand’s aquaculture exports - worth more than $NZ 200 million per annum - come from the Marlborough Sounds. Most of the marine farms are in Pelorus Sound. Most of the exports involve green-lipped mussels. A New Zealand sea sponge, Mycale hentscheli, which grows in Pelorus Sound, may hold the key to an anti-cancer drug. Scientists are working to see how peloruside, a substance produced by the sponges, might be used as a cancer-fighting drug. Marine farmers are helping Victoria University of Wellington and NIWA develop a method for growing the sponge on an existing mussel farm. Trial mussel farms began in the Marlborough Sounds in the late 1960s. In the Pelorus Sound waters, mussel farms started in Crail Bay. Subsequently, Pelorus has become the major mussel-producing area in New Zealand.
The mussels were cultured on ropes suspended from rafts. It was a labour-intensive method which has since been replaced with a modified Japanese longline system, where mussel spat is packed into stockings and suspended from parallel rows of looped ropes, supported by buoys. In 1981 the first specially designed mussel-processing factory started operations at Havelock, at the head of the sounds. Havelock has become the main centre for landing harvested mussels, with other smaller processing plants at French Pass, Elaine Bay, Okiwi Bay and Rai Valley. People are needed to manage and work the farms, to harvest and transport the mussels to the processing plants; as a result, the mussel-farming industry has become linked to several local communities. Heavy rain can result in high sediment-levels in rivers and land runoff, can contain bacterial contamination from livestock; this can result in mussel-farming areas being closed to harvesting. Applications to increase mussel farms in Admiralty Bay have been opposed on the grounds that the area is a special feeding site for the dusky dolphin.
A claim has been made, a study carried out in New Zealand, that marine farms may affect the feeding ability of Dusky dolphins which round up shoals of schooling fish such as pilchard. The farming of Chinook Salmon occurs in the outer Pelorus, with sites at Bulwer and the Waitata Reach. Salmon farming