Rushen Abbey is an abbey on the Isle of Man, located in Ballasalla. Home for monks of the Savignac order, it soon came under Cistercian control and remained so until its dissolution; the abbey is located two miles from Castle Rushen, the politically most important site on the island in medieval times. Both these sites are on the Awin Rosien, a river now called the Silver Burn; the abbey was founded under Óláfr Guðrøðarson's control. He granted the land to Savignac monks from Furness Abbey. In 1147 the abbey came under Cistercian rule following the merging of the Savignac and Cistercian orders; the abbey church dedicated to St Mary was completed in 1257. The abbey was dissolved in the 16th century. In 1853 the Isle of Man Government bought Rushen Abbey with the intention of turning it into a lunatic asylum, but it was never used for such a purpose, in 1864 an Act was passed revoking the sale. In the early 1900s, the abbey ruins became a popular tourist destination, famous for the strawberries and cream served in its gardens.
After falling into disrepair after World War II, the abbey was acquired by Manx National Heritage in May 1998, restorations have now been made. Soon afterwards, excavations began, archaeologists discovered more about the monks' way of life and practices; the abbey is now a heritage centre with a building containing artefacts and telling the history of Rushen Abbey and the surrounding area. The remains of the original abbey have been restored and walkways constructed to allow visitors to get a close look. Between April and October the abbey is open to the public and an admission fee is payable. Before accessing the abbey gardens, visitors must walk through a museum that explains the role of the abbey. There is interactive and video material available. At the end of the exhibition, there is an area designed for children, allowing them to build an arch and discover the monastery's history in a way, more appealing to them; the centre is advertised to children with the phrase "Monky business". The Chronicle of Mann was compiled at Rushen Abbey, as were many other important documents relating to the island.
The abbey is significant in this respect, as it would have been the centre of knowledge and literacy on the island. Monks from Rushen Abbey would sometimes have farms in the north of the island. A packhorse bridge was built in around 1350 to allow the monks to cross the nearby Silverburn River. Known today as The Monks' Bridge, it is one of few surviving packhorse bridges in the British Isles. Olaf the Black Magnús Óláfsson Rǫgnvaldr Óláfsson Rushen Abbey Centre for Manx Studies page about the abbey Rushen Abbey Information from Manx National Heritage Information about Rushen Abbey
Isle of Man
The Isle of Man, sometimes referred to as Mann, is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a lieutenant governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom; the island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century AD, the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, Norsemen established the Kingdom of the Isles. Magnus III, King of Norway, was King of Mann and the Isles between 1099 and 1103. In 1266, the island became part of Scotland after being ruled by Norway. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399; the lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the 18th-century Kingdom of Great Britain or its successors the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the present-day United Kingdom.
It retained its internal self-government. In 1881, the Isle of Man parliament, became the first national legislative body in the world to give women the right to vote in a general election, although this excluded married women. In 2016, the Isle of Man was awarded biosphere reserve status by UNESCO. Insurance and online gambling generate 17% of GNP each, followed by information and communications technology and banking with 9% each. Internationally, the Isle of Man is best known for the Isle of Man TT competition; the Manx name of the Isle of Man is Ellan Vannin: ellan is a Manx word meaning "island". The short form used in English, Mann, is derived from the Manx Mannin, though sometimes the name is written as Man; the earliest recorded Manx form of the name is Mana. The Old Irish form of the name is Mano. Old Welsh records named it as Manaw reflected in Manaw Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forth; the oldest known reference to the island calls it Mona, in Latin.
Latin references have Mevania or Mænavia, Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. It is found in the Sagas of Icelanders as Mön; the name is cognate with the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey, Ynys Môn derived from a Celtic word for'mountain', from a Proto-Celtic *moniyos. The name was at least secondarily associated with that of Manannán mac Lir in Irish mythology. In the earliest Irish mythological texts, Manannán is a king of the otherworld, but the 9th-century Sanas Cormaic identifies a euhemerised Manannán as "a famous merchant who resided in, gave name to, the Isle of Man". A Manannán is recorded as the first king of Mann in a Manx poem; the island was cut off from the surrounding islands around 8000 BC, but was colonised by sea some time before 6500 BC. The first residents were fishermen. Examples of their tools are kept at the Manx Museum; the Neolithic Period marked the beginning of farming, megalithic monuments began to appear, such as Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave at Laxey, Meayll Circle near Cregneash, Ballaharra Stones at St John's.
There were the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures. During the Bronze Age, burial mounds became smaller. Bodies were put in stone-lined graves with ornamental containers; the Bronze Age burial mounds created long-lasting markers around the countryside. The ancient Romans knew of the island and called it Insula Manavia although it is uncertain whether they conquered the island. Around the 5th century AD, large-scale migration from Ireland precipitated a process of Gaelicisation evidenced by Ogham inscriptions, giving rise to the Manx language, a Goidelic language related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic. Vikings arrived at the end of the 8th century, they introduced many land divisions that still exist. In 1266 King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the islands to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth. In 1290 King Edward I of England sent Walter de Huntercombe to take possession of Mann, it remained in English hands until 1313, when Robert Bruce took it after besieging Castle Rushen for five weeks. A confused period followed when Mann was sometimes under English rule and sometimes Scottish, until 1346, when the Battle of Neville's Cross decided the long struggle between England and Scotland in England's favour.
English rule was delegated to a series of magnates. The Tynwald passed laws concerning the government of the island in all respects and had control over its finances, but was subject to the approval of the Lord of Mann. In 1866, the Isle of Man obtained limited home rule, with democratic elections to the House of Keys, but an appointed Legislative Council. Since democratic government has been extended; the Isle of Man has designated more than 250 historic sites as registered buildings. The Isle of Man is located in the middle of t
A crucifix is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross. The representation of Jesus himself on the cross is referred to in English as the corpus; the crucifix is a principal symbol for many groups of Christians, one of the most common forms of the Crucifixion in the arts. It is important in the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, but is used in the Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, as well as by the Lutheran and Anglican Churches; the symbol is less common in churches of other Protestant denominations, which prefer to use a cross without the figure of Jesus. The crucifix emphasizes Jesus' sacrifice — his death by crucifixion, which Christians believe brought about the redemption of mankind. Most crucifixes portray Jesus on a Latin cross, rather than any other shape, such as a Tau cross or a Coptic cross. Western crucifixes have a three-dimensional corpus, but in Eastern Orthodoxy Jesus' body is painted on the cross, or in low relief. Speaking, to be a crucifix, the cross must be three-dimensional, but this distinction is not always observed.
An entire painting of the Crucifixion of Jesus including a landscape background and other figures is not a crucifix either. Large crucifixes high across the central axis of a church are known by the Old English term rood. By the late Middle Ages these were a near-universal feature of Western churches, but are now rare. Modern Roman Catholic churches have a crucifix above the altar on the wall; the standard, four-pointed Latin crucifix consists of an upright post or stipes and a single crosspiece to which the sufferer's arms were nailed. There may be a short projecting nameplate, showing the letters INRI; the Russian Orthodox crucifix has an additional third crossbar, to which the feet are nailed, and, angled upward toward the penitent thief Saint Dismas and downward toward the impenitent thief Gestas. The corpus of Eastern crucifixes is a two-dimensional or low relief icon that shows Jesus as dead, his face peaceful and somber, they are three-dimensional figures as in the Western tradition, although these may be found where Western influences are strong, but are more icons painted on a piece of wood shaped to include the double-barred cross and the edge of Christ's hips and halo, no background.
More sculptural small crucifixes in metal relief are used in Orthodoxy, including as pectoral crosses and blessing crosses. Western crucifixes may show Christ dead or alive, the presence of the spear wound in his ribs traditionally indicating that he is dead. In either case his face often shows his suffering. In Orthodoxy he has been shown as dead since around the end of the period of Byzantine Iconoclasm. Eastern crucifixes have Jesus' two feet nailed side by side, rather than crossed one above the other, as Western crucifixes have shown them since around the 13th century; the crown of thorns is generally absent in Eastern crucifixes, since the emphasis is not on Christ's suffering, but on his triumph over sin and death. The "S"-shaped position of Jesus' body on the cross is a Byzantine innovation of the late 10th century, though found in the German Gero Cross of the same date. More from Byzantine influence, it spread elsewhere in the West to Italy, by the Romanesque period, though it was more usual in painting than sculpted crucifixes.
It's in Italy that the emphasis was put on Jesus' suffering and realistic details, during a process of general humanization of Christ favored by the Franciscan order. During the 13th century the suffering Italian model triumphed over the traditional Byzantine one anywhere in Europe due to the works of artists such as Giunta Pisano and Cimabue. Since the Renaissance the "S"-shape is much less pronounced. Eastern Christian blessing crosses will have the Crucifixion depicted on one side, the Resurrection on the other, illustrating the understanding of Orthodox theology that the Crucifixion and Resurrection are two intimately related aspects of the same act of salvation. Another, depiction shows a triumphant Christ, clothed in robes, rather than stripped as for His execution, with arms raised, appearing to rise up from the cross, sometimes accompanied by "rays of light", or an aureole encircling His Body, he may be robed as a prophet, crowned as a king, vested in a stole as Great High Priest. On some crucifixes a skull and crossbones are shown below the corpus, referring to Golgotha, the site at which Jesus was crucified, which the Gospels say means in Hebrew "the place of the skull."
Medieval tradition held that it was the burial-place of Adam and Eve, that the cross of Christ was raised directly over Adam's skull, so many crucifixes manufactured in Catholic countries still show the skull and crossbones below the corpus. Large crucifixes have been built, the largest being the Cross in the Woods in Michigan, with a 31 feet high statue. Prayer in front of a crucifix, seen as a sacramental, is part of devotion for Christians those worshipping in a church privately; the person may sit, stand, or kneel in front of the crucifix, sometimes looking at it in contemplation, or in front of it with head bowed or eyes closed. During the Middle Ages small crucifixes hung on a wall, beca
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The first stable line-up consisted of bandleader Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Ian Stewart. Stewart was removed from the official line-up in 1963 but continued to work with the band as a contracted musician until his death in 1985; the band's primary songwriters and Richards, assumed leadership after Andrew Loog Oldham became the group's manager. Jones left the band less than a month before his death in 1969, having been replaced by Mick Taylor, who remained until 1974. After Taylor left the band, Ronnie Wood took his place in 1975 and continues on guitar in tandem with Richards. Since Wyman's departure in 1993, Darryl Jones has served as touring bassist; the Stones have not had an official keyboardist since 1963, but have employed several musicians in that role, including Jack Nitzsche, Nicky Hopkins, Billy Preston, Ian McLagan, Chuck Leavell. The Rolling Stones were at the forefront of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the United States in 1964 and were identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s.
Rooted in blues and early rock and roll, the band started out playing covers but found more success with their own material. After a short period of experimentation with psychedelic rock in the mid-1960s, the group returned to its "bluesy" roots with Beggars Banquet, which along with its follow-ups Let It Bleed, Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main St. is considered to be the band's best work and is seen as their "Golden Age." It was during this period they were first introduced on stage as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World."The band continued to release commercially successful albums through the 1970s and early 1980s, including Some Girls and Tattoo You, the two best-sellers in their discography. During the 1980s, the band infighting curtailed their output and they only released two more underperforming albums and did not tour for the rest of the decade, their fortunes changed at the end of the decade, when they released Steel Wheels, promoted by a large stadium and arena tour, the Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tour.
Since the 1990s, new material has been less frequent. Despite this, the Rolling Stones continue to be a huge attraction on the live circuit. By 2007, the band had four of the top five highest-grossing concert tours of all time: Voodoo Lounge Tour, Bridges to Babylon Tour, Licks Tour and A Bigger Bang. Musicologist Robert Palmer attributes the endurance of the Rolling Stones to their being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music", while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone"; the Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list and their estimated record sales are above 250 million, they have released 23 live albums and numerous compilations. Let It Bleed marked the first of five consecutive No. 1 studio and live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers was the first of eight consecutive No. 1 studio albums in the US.
In 2008, the band ranked 10th on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists chart. In 2012, the band celebrated its 50th anniversary; the band still continues to release albums to critical acclaim. S. and won a Grammy Award for Best Traditional Blues Album. The band continues to sell out venues, they have been on their No Filter Tour since September, 2017 and will wrap up the tour with a North American leg over Summer 2019. Keith Richards and Mick Jagger became childhood classmates in 1950 in Dartford, Kent; the Jagger family moved to Wilmington, five miles away, in 1954. In the mid-1950s, Jagger formed a garage band with his friend Dick Taylor. Jagger met Richards again on 17 October 1961 on platform two of Dartford railway station; the Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters records. A musical partnership began shortly afterwards. Richards and Taylor met Jagger at his house; the meetings moved to Taylor's house in late 1961 where Alan Etherington and Bob Beckwith joined the trio. In March 1962, the Blues Boys read about the Ealing Jazz Club in Jazz News newspaper, which mentioned Alexis Korner's rhythm and blues band, Blues Incorporated.
The group sent a tape of their best recordings to Korner, favourably impressed. On 7 April, they visited the Ealing Jazz Club where they met the members of Blues Incorporated, who included slide guitarist Brian Jones, keyboardist Ian Stewart and drummer Charlie Watts. After a meeting with Korner and Richards started jamming with the group. Jones, no longer in a band, advertised for bandmates in Jazz Weekly, while Stewart found them a practice space. Soon after, Jagger and Richards left Blues Incorporated to join Jones and Stewart; the first rehearsal included guitarist Geoff Bradford and vocalist Brian Knight, both of whom decided not to join the band. They objected to playing the Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley songs preferred by Jagger and R
Malew is one of the seventeen parishes of the Isle of Man. It is located in the south of the island in the sheading of Rushen. Administratively, part of the historic parish of Malew is now covered by the town of Castletown; as a result, there is a small exclave of the parish district. Other settlements in the parish include Derbyhaven and St Mark's. For the purposes of local government, The majority of the historic parish forms a single parish district with five elected Commissioners. Since 1883, an area in the south of the historic parish of Malew has been part of the separate town of Castletown, with its own town Commissioners; the Captain of the Parish is Roy H. Gelling. Malew parish is part of the Arbory, Castletown & Malew constituency, which elects two Members to the House of Keys. From 1986 until 2016 the majority of the historic parish was in the Malew and Santon constituency, before 1986 it was in the Rushen constituency. From 1867 until 2016 Castletown formed its own constituency, it is named after the Celtic saint, Malew known as Saint Moluag, whose feast day is 25 June.
Malew parish Scarlett up to Foxdale. The area includes the Isle of Man Airport; the parish is bordered on the east by Santon Burn. It contains about 15 square miles. Most of the parish is low and undulating, forming much of the southern plain of the island; the northern portion is more hilly, including the South Barrule, the highest point of the south of the island at 483 metres. The Silver Burn river rises near the South Barrule and flows under the Monks Bridge at Ballasalla, reaching the sea at Castletown harbour; the coast line is rocky and dangerous. Castletown Bay is a deep but dangerous inlet between Langness and Scarlett; the headlands are Dreswick Point and Langness Point, the two southern extremities of Langness peninsula. At the northern end of Langness is St Michael's Isle; the district is chiefly agricultural. Near the village of Ballasalla are the ruins of Rushen Abbey, founded in 1098, dissolved late in the reign of Elizabeth I of England, an ancient packhorse bridge over the Silver Burn, called the Crossag, or Monk's Bridge, too narrow for vehicles.
Derbyhaven is a tiny hamlet on an isthmus, with a natural harbour, protected by a small breakwater. St. Mark's, in the north of the parish, is a small agricultural village clustered round a chapel of ease; the Isle of Man census of 2016 returned a parish population of 2,167, a decrease of 10% from the figure of 2,385 in 2011. The former Manx Airlines had its head office on the grounds of Isle of Man Airport. BA Connect had an engineering base in Ronaldsway. After Flybe acquired BA Connect, Flybe announced. Manxnotebook - Malew Malew Parish Commissioners website Malew church website
Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses. It is a systematic error of inductive reasoning. People display this bias when they gather or remember information selectively, or when they interpret it in a biased way; the effect is stronger for charged issues and for entrenched beliefs. Confirmation bias is of particular current interest because of the increasing polarisation between left-wing and right-wing political viewpoints, the gullible acceptance of the current rapid spread of fake news. People tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization, belief perseverance, the irrational primacy effect and illusory correlation. A series of psychological experiments in the 1960s suggested that people are biased toward confirming their existing beliefs. Work re-interpreted these results as a tendency to test ideas in a one-sided way, focusing on one possibility and ignoring alternatives.
In certain situations, this tendency can bias people's conclusions. Explanations for the observed biases include wishful thinking and the limited human capacity to process information. Another explanation is that people show confirmation bias because they are weighing up the costs of being wrong, rather than investigating in a neutral, scientific way; however scientists can be prone to confirmation bias. Confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Poor decisions due to these biases have been found in organizational contexts. Confirmation bias is called confirmatory bias. An alternative name is myside bias. Confirmation bias is a variation of the more general tendency of apophenia - the tendency to mistakenly perceive connections and meaning between unrelated things. Confirmation biases are effects in information processing, they differ from what is sometimes called the behavioral confirmation effect known as self-fulfilling prophecy, in which a person's expectations influence their own behavior, bringing about the expected result.
Some psychologists restrict the term confirmation bias to selective collection of evidence that supports what one believes while ignoring or rejecting evidence that supports a different conclusion. Others apply the term more broadly to the tendency to preserve one's existing beliefs when searching for evidence, interpreting it, or recalling it from memory. Experiments have found that people tend to test hypotheses in a one-sided way, by searching for evidence consistent with their current hypothesis. Rather than searching through all the relevant evidence, they phrase questions to receive an affirmative answer that supports their theory, they look for the consequences that they would expect if their hypothesis were true, rather than what would happen if they were false. For example, someone using yes/no questions to find a number they suspect to be the number 3 might ask, "Is it an odd number?" People prefer this type of question, called a "positive test" when a negative test such as "Is it an number?" would yield the same information.
However, this does not mean. In studies where subjects could select either such pseudo-tests or genuinely diagnostic ones, they favored the genuinely diagnostic; the preference for positive tests in itself is not a bias, since positive tests can be informative. However, in combination with other effects, this strategy can confirm existing beliefs or assumptions, independently of whether they are true. In real-world situations, evidence is complex and mixed. For example, various contradictory ideas about someone could each be supported by concentrating on one aspect of his or her behavior, thus any search for evidence in favor of a hypothesis is to succeed. One illustration of this is the way the phrasing of a question can change the answer. For example, people who are asked, "Are you happy with your social life?" report greater satisfaction than those asked, "Are you unhappy with your social life?"Even a small change in a question's wording can affect how people search through available information, hence the conclusions they reach.
This was shown using a fictional child custody case. Participants read. Parent B had a mix of salient positive and negative qualities: a close relationship with the child but a job that would take them away for long periods of time; when asked, "Which parent should have custody of the child?" the majority of participants chose Parent B, looking for positive attributes. However, when asked, "Which parent should be denied custody of the child?" they looked for negative attributes and the majority answered that Parent B should be denied custody, implying that Parent A should have custody. Similar studies have demonstrated how people engage in a biased search for information, but that this phenomenon may be limited by a preference for genuine diagnostic tests. In an initial experiment, participants rated another person on the introversion–extroversion personality dimension on the basis of an interview, they chose the interview questions from a given list. When the i