Administrative divisions of Uttar Pradesh
The northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which borders Nepal, comprises 18 administrative divisions. Within these 18 divisions, there are 75 smaller districts; the following table shows the name of each division, its administrative capital city, its constituent districts, a map of its location. Districts of Uttar Pradesh List of RTO districts in Uttar Pradesh
The Bareilly district pronunciation belongs to the state Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Its capital is Bareilly city and it is divided in six administrative division or tehsils: Aonla, Bareilly city, Faridpur and Nawabganj; the Bareilly district is a part of the Bareilly Division and occupies an area of 4120 km² with a population of 4,448,359 people according to the census of 2011. The region was a part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire; the modern City of Bareilly was founded by Mukrand Rai in 1657. It became the capital of the Rohilkhand region before getting handed over to Nawab Vazir of Awadh and to the East India Company, becoming an integral part of India; the region was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Panchala. The Panchalas occupied the country to the east of the Kurus, between the upper Himalayas and the river Ganges; the country was divided into Dakshina-Panchala. The northern Panchala had its capital at Ahichatra tehsil of Bareilly district, while southern Panchala had it capital at Kampilya or Kampil in Farrukhabad district.
The famous city of Kannauj or Kanyakubja was situated in the kingdom of Panchala. The last two Panchala clans, the Somakas and the Srinjayas are mentioned in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. King Drupada, whose daughter Draupadi was married to the Pandavas belonged to the Somaka clan. However, the Mahabharata and the Puranas consider the ruling clan of the northern Panchala as an offshoot of the Bharata clan. Divodasa, Srinjaya and Drupada were the most notable rulers of this clan. During 176 -- 166 BC, Panchala coins were minted at the surrounding areas, it was the Gupta kings who established mints here. The city's continued status as a mint town since the beginning of the Christian era was helped by the fact that Bareilly was never a disturbed area. Found at Ganga Ghati in abundance were the Adi Vigraha and Shree Vigraha coins of the Pratihara Kings that were minted here between the 4th to the 9th centuries. Dating to this period are the silver coins — similar to those of Firoz Second — known as Indo-Sasanian.
After the fall of the Kingdom of Panchala, the City was under the rule of local rulers. In the twelfth century, it was ruled by different clans of Rajputs referred to by the general name of Katehriyas Rajputs. According to British historian Matthew Atmore Sherring the district of Bareilly was a dense jungle inhabited by a race of Ahirs and was called Tappa Ahiran. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, when the Delhi Sultanate was established, Katehr was divided into the provinces of Sambhal and Budaun, but the thickly forested country infested with wild animals provided just the right kind of shelter for rebels. And indeed, Katehr was famous for rebellions against imperial authority. During the Sultanate rule, there were frequent rebellions in Katehr. All were ruthlessly crushed. Sultan Balban ordered vast tracts of jungle to be cleared so as to make the area unsafe for the insurgents; the slightest weakening of the central authority provoked acts of defiance from the Katehriya Rajputs. Thus the Mughals initiated the policy of allotting lands for Afghan settlements in Katiher.
Afghan settlements continued to be encouraged throughout the reign of Aurangzeb and after his death. These Afghans, known as the Rohilla Afghans, caused the area to be known as Rohilkhand; the city of Bareilly was founded in 1537 by a Katehriya Rajput. The city is mentioned in the histories for the first time by Budayuni, who he writes that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of Bareilly and Sambhal in 1568; the divisions and revenue of the district fixed by Todar Mal were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. In 1658, Bareilly was made the headquarters of the province of Budaun; the foundation of the'modern' City of Bareilly was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. The tract of land forming the subah or province of Rohilkhand was called Katehr/Katiher; the Mughal policy of encouraging Afghan settlements for keeping the Katehriyas in check worked only as long as the central government was strong. After Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans, having themselves become local potentates, began to seize and occupy neighbouring villages.
In 1623 two Afghan brothers of the Barech tribe, Shah Alam and Husain Khan, settled in the region, bringing with them many other Pashtun settlers. The Rohilla Daud Khan was awarded the Katehr region in the northern India by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir to suppress Rajput uprisings, which had afflicted this region; some 20,000 soldiers from various Pashtun Tribes were hired by Mughals to provide soldiers to the Mughal armies and this was appreciated by Aurangzeb Alamgir, an additional force of 25,000 men was given respected positions in Mughal army. However most of them settled in the Katehar region during Nadir Shah's invasion of northern India in 1739 increasing their population up to 100,0000. Due to the large settlement of Rohilla Afghans, the Katehar region gained fame as Rohilkhand. Meanwhile, Ali Muhammad Khan, grandson of Shah Alam, captured the city of Bareilly and made it his capital uniting the Rohillas to form the state of'Rohilkhand', between 1707 and 1720, making Bareilly his capital.
He rose to power and got confirmed in possession of the lands he had seized. The Emperor made him a Nawab in 1737, he was recognised as the governor of Rohilkhand in 1740. According to 1901 cen
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Faizabad is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which forms a municipal corporation with Ayodhya. It is the headquarters of Faizabad Faizabad division. On 6 November 2018 the Chief Minister of UP, Yogi Adityanath, announced that the district will be renamed to Ayodhya and now it has been approved by the UP cabinet. Faizabad is situated on the banks of river Ghaghra about 130 km east of state capital Lucknow, it was the first capital of the Nawabs of Awadh and has monuments built by the Nawabs, like the Tomb of Bahu Begum, Gulab Bari. The earliest reference made to Ayodhya is said to be in the Ramayana, in which the city is referred to as Saket, the mythical private estate of King Dashrath father of Lord Ram but the other sources indicate that Saket, which means Heaven in Sanskrit, is the ancient name of holy city of Ayodhya not Faizabad. However, more the reference is found in Medieval and Modern history, when Nawab Saadat Ali Khan, Burhan-ul-Mulk was given the charge of the Subah of Awadh around 1722 by the Mughal Court.
Nawab Sa'adat Khan made the first settlements along the banks of Ghaghra with a cantonment consisting of a fortress and mud barracks. Due to these temporary dwellings, Faizabad was first known as'Bangla'. Avadh, a princely state of India, was established around 1722 AD with Faizabad as its capital and Saadat Ali Khan I as its first Nawab and progenitor of Nawabs of Awadh, he laid the foundation for his own palace at Saket on the outskirt of ancient city of Ayodhya, renamed that city to Faizabad, which became the capital of the new government. Due to his management policy state's income rose from Rs.7 to 20 million. Faizabad further developed as a township during the reign of Safdar Jang, the second nawab of Avadh, who made it his military headquarters while his successor Shuja-ud-daula made it full-fledged capital city, it was developed by Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula the third Nawab of Awadh into a full-fledged capital city, with gardens, markets and other infrastructure. He built a fort known as Chhota Calcutta, now in ruins.
He built it on the banks of Saryu after he lost the battle of Buxar in 1764. In 1765 he built the Chowk and Tirpaulia and subsequently laid out the Anguribagh and Motibagh to the south of it, Asafbagh and Bulandbagh to the west of the city. Under Shuja-ud-Daula's reign Faizabad achieved its culmination as an important centre of trade and commerce in northern India and attracted travellers, merchants and courtesans from all over Europe and Asia. During the reign of Shuja-Ud-Daula, Faizabad attained such a prosperity; the Nawabs graced Faizabad with several significant buildings, notable among them being the Gulab Bari, Moti Mahal and the tomb of Bahu Begum. Gulab Bari stands in a garden surrounded by approachable through two large gateways; these buildings are interesting for their assimilative architectural styles. Shuja-ud-daula's wife was the well known Bahu Begum, who married the Nawab in 1743 and continued to reside in Faizabad, her residence being the Moti-Mahal. Close by at Jawaharbagh lies her Maqbara, where she was buried after her death in 1816.
It is considered to be one of the finest buildings of its kind in Avadh, built at the cost of three lakh rupees by her chief advisor Darab Ali Khan. A fine view of the city is obtainable from top of the begum's tomb. Bahu Begum was a woman of great rank, bearing dignity. Most of the Muslim buildings of Faizabad are attributed to her. From the date of Bahu Begum's death in 1815 until the annexation of Avadh, the city of Faizabad fell into decay; the glory of Faizabad eclipsed with the shifting of capital from Faizabad to Lucknow by Nawab Asaf-ud-daula. Faizabad was a centre of one of many battles of the Mutiny of 1857. A detailed history of Faizabad can be read in'Tareekh-e-Farahbaksh', written by Munshi Mohd. Faiz Baksh, a courtier in the Shuja-ud-Daula's court; this book has been translated into English by Hamid Afaq Qureshi as'Memoirs of Faizabad'. Faizabad finds a prominent and detailed mention in'Guzishta Lakhnau' written by Maulvi Abdul Halim'Sharar'; the fourth nawab of Awadh, Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula, shifted the Capital of Avadh to Lucknow in 1775 after his terms with his mother became sour.
Ashfaqulla Khan was detained in the Faizabad jail, as a consequence of the Kakori conspiracy, a case filed against him. His brother, Riyasat Ulla Khan employed Kripa Shankar Hajela, a senior advocate to plead his case in court, but was unsuccessful. Death sentences were awarded to four defendants; the other sixteen defendants were sentenced to imprisonment from four years to life. As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Faizabad in 2011 is 167,544; the sex ratio of Faizabad city is 920 per 1000 males. In education section, total literates in Faizabad city are 130,700 of which 70,243 are males while 60,457 are females. Average literacy rate of Faizabad city is 86.52 percent of which male and female literacy was 89.34 and 83.45 percent. Total children in Faizabad city are 16,479 as per figure from Census India report on 2011. There were 8,658 boys. Child sex ratio of girls is 903 per 1000 boys. Summer temperatures can range from 35 to 45 degrees Celsius. Winters temperatures can range from 6 to 25 degrees Celsius.
Rains during monsoon season. Faizabad is situated on National Highway 28 and has good connectivity with Kanpur, Varana
Gonda district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city of Gonda is the district headquarters, the administrative centre for the Devipatan Division. With an area of 3,404 square kilometres, Gonda has borders with Shrawasti district to the north and Siddharthnagar districts to the northeast, Basti district to the east, Faizabad district to the south, Bara Banki district to the southwest, Bahraich district to the northwest; the district lies between 26 ° 47' and 81 ° 30' and 82 ° 46' east longitude. The territory covered by the present district of Gonda formed part of the ancient Kosala Kingdom. After the going of lord Rama, the celebrated sovereign of the Solar line who ruled Kosala, the kingdom was divided into two portions defined by the Ghaghara river; the northern portion was ruled by his son, Lava with the city of Sravasti as his capital. More ancient Buddhist remains dating to the early days of Buddhism have been found throughout the region, including at Sravasti. Gonda played a significant part in the Indian struggle for independence, with many people from the region involved: including Maharaja Aksh Valmikan, who escaped to Nepal, freedom fighters like Sh.
Chandra Shekhar Azad took shelter in the district, Rajendra Lahiri was incarcerated and hanged in the Gonda Jail. India's 5th president Hon'ble Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed was educated at the Government High School in Gonda district. In more recent times, the district received media attention throughout India due to the protracted court case surrounding the murder of 13 people known as the 1982 Gonda Encounter. There are rice mills and many other small industries and handicraft industry. One of the India's six Indian Telephone Industries is situated at Mankapur, the largest sugar mill in India is situated at Kundarkhi. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Gonda one of the country's 250 most backward districts, it is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. According to the 2011 census Gonda district has a population of 3,433,919 equal to the nation of Panama or the US state of Connecticut; this gives it a ranking of 95th in India.
The district has a population density of 857 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 24.17%, higher than the average of Uttar Pradesh. Gonda has a sex ratio of 921 females for every 1000 males, a sex ratio among children 0–6 years old of 926, both higher than the state average; the human development index of the Gonda district is low. Languages spoken in the district include Awadhi, a tongue of the Hindi continuum spoken by over 38 million people in the Awadh region; the literacy rate is 58.71%, much behind the state average. The backwardness of the region and slow developmental rate is reflected by literacy gap of 23.10% in the district as compared to 19.98% gap for the state. The government of India has created a special scheme for such district through the backward region grant fund. Gonda is one of the recipients of this fund; the primary schools of Gonda District are functioning well, which provides a path to raising the education standard of the district.
All colleges of Gonda are affiliated with Faizabad University. Meena Shah Degree College - First Regular Profession Degree College of Gonda City. Generation Next Place For Computer Education Gonda City. Baba Gayadeen Vaidya Babu Ram Mahavidyalaya Baikunth Nath Mahavidyalaya Bhagirathi Singh Memorial Mahavidyalaya, Gonda Chandra Shekhar Shyamraji Mahavidyalaya Dashrath Singh Memorial Mahavidyalay Dr. Bheem Rao Ambedkar Mahavidyalaya Hakikullah Chaudhary Mahavidyalaya Jagdamba Sharan Singh Educational Institute Kamta Prasad Mathura Prasad Janta Mahavidyalaya Kisan Degree College L. B. S. Mahavidyalaya Lakhan Lal Sharan Singh Mahavidyalaya Maa Gayatri Ram Sukh Pandey Mahavidyalaya Mahakavi Tulsidas Mahavidyalaya Nandini Nagar Mahavidyalaya Nawabgang Nandini Nagar Vidhi Mahavidyalaya Nawabgang Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gramoday Mahavidyalaya Pt. Jag Narain Shukla Gramoday Mahavidyalaya Pt. Ram Dutt Shukla Mahavidyalaya Raghoram Diwakar Dutt Gyanoday Mahavidyalaya Raja Raghuraj Singh Mahavidyalaya Mankapur Ram Nath Memorial Mahavidyalaya Ravindra Singh Memorial Mahavidyalaya Saraswati Devi Nari Gyansthali Mahavidyalaya Sardar Mohar Singh Memorial Mahila Mahavidyalaya Mankapur Saryu Degree College situated in tehshil Colonelganj of Gonda district.
Smt. J. Devi Mahila Mahavidyalaya Sri Raghukul Mahila Vidyapeeth Subhash Chandra Bose Memorial MahavidyalayaVipin Bihari Sharan Singh Mahavidyalaya Tarabganj Gonda India Guru Vashishth Mahavidyalaya Mankapur GONDA Gonda has 15 hospitals, 27 Ayurvedic hospitals, 11 Homeopathic hospitals and 2 Unani hospitals, in addition to 66 Government Primary Health Centres. Gonda is one of the districts in the list of top 100 districts in order of Infant Mortality Rate in 2011 census data, it comes in the top 57 districts with the highest maternal mortality rateGonda has been listed as the dirtiest city in India according to the Swachh Sarvekshan 2017. Official website Alternative Web Site Of the Gonda District Gonda District at The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1908, v. 12, p. 311-319
Barabanki district is one of four districts of Ayodhya division, lies at the heart of Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh state of India, forms as it were a centre from which no less than seven other districts radiate. It is situated between 27°19' and 26°30' north latitude, 80°05' and 81°51’ east longitude. With its most northern point it impinges on the Sitapur district, while its north-eastern boundary is washed by the waters of the Ghagra, beyond which lie the districts of Bahraich district and Gonda district, its eastern frontier marches with Faizabad district, the Gomti forms a natural boundary to the south, dividing it from the Sultanpur district. On the west it adjoins the Lucknow district; the extreme length of the district from east to west may be taken at 57 miles, the extreme breadth at 58 mi. Barabanki city is the district headquarters; the district under British rule had an area of 1,769 sq mi. In 1856 it came, under British rule. During the Sepoy war of 1857-1858 the whole of the Barabanki talukdars joined the mutineers, but offered no serious resistance after the capture of Lucknow.
It stretches out in a level plain interspersed with numerous marshes. In the upper part of the district the soil is sandy, while in the lower part it is clayey and produces finer crops; the district is well fed by rivers Ghaghra and Kalyani and their tributaries, for the major part of the year. Some rivers dry out in the summer, get flooded during the rainy season; the changing course of the river Ghagra changes the land area in the district, year to year. The principal crops are rice, wheat and other food grains and sugarcane. Trade in agricultural produce is active. Both the bordering rivers are navigable, it has good road connectivity including National Highways NH 28, State Highways and various link roads. The district was known before the Muslim conquest as Jasnaul, from Jas, a raja of the Bharpasi tribe, said to have founded it before 1000 AD. With a change of proprietors came a change of name; the Muslim owners divided the lands into twelve shares, over which the respective proprietors quarrelled so incessantly that they were called the Barah Banke, or twelve quarrelsome men.
Banka, in Awadhi, meaning a bully or brave. Others derive the name from ban, meaning wood or jungle, interpret Barabanki as the twelve shares of jungle. Parijaat tree a sacred baobab tree in the village of Kintoor on the banks of Ghaghra. Located near the Kunteshwar Mahadeva temple, the tree is said to grow from Kunti's ashes; the tree is old. Greater part of Barabanki was included in Pachhimrath country, one of the five divisions of the kingdom of Rama. Before 1000 AD, Jas, a raja of the Bharpasi tribe is said to have founded the locality of Jasnaul which after the Muslim conquest of the region, came to be known as Bara Banki or Barabanki; the Muslims had made their first permanent settlement in this district at Satrikh, in 421 AH. / 1030 AD. Sihali, was conquered, its sovereign, a Siharia Chhattri, was killed. Kintur was captured, its Bhar queen, Kintama slain; the battle in which bhar-pasi chief Sohil Deo of Sahet-Mahet a small northern kingdom was subversed by Sri Chandradeo, the Rathor monarch of Kannauj was fought in Satrikh village of the district.
In 1049 AD / 441 AH, the Kings of Kanauj and Manikpur were defeated and driven from Oudh by Qutub-ud-din of Medina. The Muslim invasion was more successful in Bara Banki than elsewhere. In 586 AH. / 1189 AD, Sihali was conquered by Shekh Nizam-ud-din of Herat, Ansari. Zaidpur was occupied by them in 636 AH, when Sayyad Abd-ul-Wahid turned out the Bhar-pasi, altering the name of the town from Suhalpur; the colony of Musalman Bhattis is reported to have arrived about the same time, although some place it as early as 596 AH. / 1199 AD. They settled at Mawai Maholara. After 1350 AD Muslim immigrants started to settle in great number in the district until nearly to middle of eighteenth century. At the Muslims first permanently settled in Oudh. Rudauli was occupied about 700 AH, in the reign of Alla-ud-din Khilji, whose forces had just about the same time destroyed Anhalwara, Dcogir, Jessulmere, Bundi, in fact nearly every remaining seat of Chhattri power. Rasulpur was conquered about 1350 AD / 756 AH.
Daryabad was founded by Dariab Khan Subahdar. Fatehpur was colonized by Fateh Khan, a brother of Dariab Khan, about the same time; the villages of Barauli and Barai, near Rudauli, were occupied, gave their name to large estates about the middle of the fifteenth century. However, with this latter immigration of the Muslims there was one of Chhattris; the mysterious tribe of Kalhans, which numbers some twenty thousand persons, are said to be descended from Achal Singh, who came in as a soldier of fortune with Dariab Khan about 1450 AD. Raja Achal Singh is a great name in the Middle Ages of Oudh. At this time Ibrahim Shah Sharqi, reigned at Jaunpur. Oudh was the battle ground—the border land between Sharqis of Jaunpur and the Lo
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go