An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1,500 metres or more. There are 1,524 such peaks on Earth; some peaks, such as the Matterhorn and Eiger, are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence. The term "Ultra" originated with earth scientist Stephen Fry, from his studies of the prominence of peaks in Washington in the 1980s, his original term was "ultra major mountain", referring to peaks with at least 1,500 metres of prominence. 1,515 Ultras have been identified above sea level: 637 in Asia, 353 in North America, 209 in South America, 119 in Europe, 84 in Africa, 69 in Australasia and 39 in Antarctica. Many of the world's largest mountains are Ultras, including Mount Everest, K2, Mont Blanc, Mount Olympus. On the other hand, others such as the Eiger and the Matterhorn are not Ultras because they do not have sufficient prominence. Many Ultras lie in visited and inhospitable parts of the world, including 39 in Greenland, the high points of the Arctic islands of Novaya Zemlya, Jan Mayen and Spitsbergen, many of the peaks of the Greater ranges of Asia.
In British Columbia, some of the mountains listed do not have recognized names. Thirteen of the fourteen 8,000m summits are Ultras, there are a further 64 Ultras over 7,000 metres in height. There are 90 Ultras with a prominence of over 3,000 metres, but only 22 with more than 4,000 metres prominence. A number of Ultras have yet to be climbed, with Sauyr Zhotasy, Mount Siple, Gangkar Puensum being the most candidates for the most prominent unclimbed mountain in the world. All of the Seven Summits are Ultras by virtue of the fact that they are the high points of large landmasses; each has its key col at or near sea level, resulting in a prominence value equal to its elevation. List of peaks by prominence gives the 125 most prominent peaks worldwide. List of islands by highest point gives the 75 highest island highpoints, all of which are Ultras List of Alpine peaks by prominence List of non-Alpine European Ultras, including Atlantic islands and the Caucasus List of Ultras in West Asia List of Ultras in Central Asia List of Ultras of the Karakoram and Hindu Kush List of Ultras of the Himalayas, including Sino-Nepal Provinces List of Ultras of Tibet, East Asia and neighbouring areas, including India List of Ultras in Northeast Asia List of Ultras in Japan List of Ultras in Southeast Asia List of Ultras in the Philippines List of Ultras of Malay Archipelago List of African Ultras List of Ultras in Oceania, including the Southern Indian Ocean List of ultra-prominent summits of Australia List of ultra-prominent summits of Indonesian New Guinea List of ultra-prominent summits of New Zealand List of ultra-prominent summits of Papua New Guinea List of ultra-prominent summits of the Hawaiian Islands List of ultra-prominent summits of the Pacific Islands List of ultra-prominent summits of the Southern Indian Ocean List of Ultras in Antarctica, including South Atlantic islands List of Ultras in North America List of Ultras in Canada List of Ultras in the United States List of Ultras in Alaska List of Ultras in Greenland List of Ultras in Mexico List of Ultras in Central America List of Ultras in the Caribbean List of Ultras in South America List of mountain lists List of peaks by prominence Prominence
Peshawar is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Situated in the broad Valley of Peshawar near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 BCE, making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest cities in the world. Peshawar was the capital of the ancient Kushan Empire, was home to what may have been the tallest building in the ancient world, the Kanishka stupa. Peshawar was sacked by the White Huns, before the arrival of Muslim empires; the city was an important trading centre during the Mughal era before serving as the winter capital of the Afghan Durrani Empire from 1757 until the city was captured by the Sikhs in 1818, who were followed by the British in 1849. The city of Peshawar has a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, making it the largest city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the sixth-largest in Pakistan, while Peshawar District has a population of 4,269,079.
The current name "Peshawar" is derived from the former Sanskrit name of Purushapura. The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as Parashāwar. After the Ghaznavid invasion, the name was again noted to be Parashāwar by Al-Biruni; the city began to be known as Peshāwar by the era of Emperor Akbar. The current name is said by some to have been based upon the Persian for "frontier town" or, more "forward city," though transcription errors and linguistic shifts may account for the city's new name. Akbar's bibliographer, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, lists the city's name by both its former name Parashāwar, transcribed in Persian as پَرَشَاوَر, Peshāwar. Peshawar was founded as the ancient city of Puruṣapura, on the Gandhara Plains in the broad Valley of Peshawar; the city first existed as a small village in the 5th century BCE, within the cultural sphere of eastern ancient Persia. Puruṣapura was founded near the ancient Gandharan capital city of Pushkalavati, near present-day Charsadda.
In the winter of 327–26 BCE, Alexander the Great subdued the Valley of Peshawar during his invasion of ancient India, as well as the nearby Swat and Buner valleys. Following Alexander's conquest, the Valley of Peshawar came under suzerainty of Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Empire. A locally-made vase fragment, found in Peshawar depicts a scene from Sophocles' play Antigone. Following the Seleucid–Mauryan war, the region was ceded to the Mauryan Empire in 303 BCE. Around 300 BCE, the Greek diplomat and historian Megasthenes noted that ancient Peshawar was the western terminus of a Mauryan road that connected the city to the empire's capital at Pataliputra, near the city of Patna in the modern-day Indian state of Bihar; as Mauryan power declined, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom based in modern Afghanistan declared its independence from the Seleucid Empire, seized ancient Peshawar around 190 BCE. The city was ruled by several Iranic Parthian kingdoms; the city was captured by Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom.
Gondophares established the nearby Takht-i-Bahi monastery in 46 CE. In the first century of the Common era, ancient Peshawar came under control of Kujula Kadphises, founder of the Kushan Empire; the city was made the empire's winter capital. The Kushan's summer capital at Kapisi was seen as the secondary capital of the empire, while Puruṣapura was considered to be the empire's primary capital. Ancient Peshawar's population was estimated to be 120,000, which would make it the seventh-most populous city in the world at the time. Around 128 CE, ancient Peshawar was made sole capital of the Kushan Empire under the rule of Kanishka; as a devout Buddhist, the emperor built the grand Kanishka Mahavihara monastery. After his death the magnificent Kanishka stupa was built in Peshawar to house Buddhist relics; the golden age of the Kushan empire in Peshawar ended in 232 CE with the death of the last great Kushan king, Vasudeva I. Around 260 CE, the armies of the Sasanid Emperor Shapur I launched an attack against Peshawar, damage Buddhist monuments and monasteries throughout the Valley of Peshawar.
Shapur's campaign resulted in damage to the city's monumental stupa and monastery. The Kushans were made subordinate to the Sasanids, their power dwindled, as the Sasanids blocked lucrative trade routes westward out of Puruṣapura. Kushan Emperor Kanishka III was able to temporarily reestablish control over the entire Valley of Peshawar after Shapur's invasion, but the city was captured by the Central Asian Kidarite kingdom in the early 400s CE; the White Huns devastated ancient Peshawar in the 460s CE, ravaged the entire region of Gandhara, destroying its numerous monasteries. The Kanishka stupa was rebuilt during the White Hun era with the construction of a tall wooden superstructure, built atop a stone base, crowned with a 13-layer copper-gilded chatra. In the 400s CE, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited the structure and described it as "the highest of all the towers" in the "terrestrial world", which ancient travelers claimed was up to 560 feet tall, though modern estimates suggest a height of 400 feet.
In 520 CE the Chinese monk Song Yun visited Gandhara and ancient Peshawar during the White Hun era, noted that it was in conflict with nearby Kapisa. The Chinese monk and traveler Xuanzang visited ancient Peshawar around 630 CE, after Kapisa victory, expressed lament that the city and its great Buddhist monuments had decayed to ruin—although some monks studying Hinayana Buddhism continued to study at the monastery's ruins
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
Saidū Sharīf is the Capital City of Swat District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The city serves as the capital city of Malakand division. Named after Saidu Baba, a prominent leader of the former Yusufzai State of Swat, Saidu Sharif is the third-largest city in Swat District after the city of Mingora and Kabal. Saidu Sharif is the hub of several official buildings, archeological sites such as the Swat Museum, the Tomb of Saidu Baba, Royal residential Palace of former Wali Swat and the archaeological remains of the Butkara Buddhist Stupa, it is home to the Govt: Girls Degree College, Govt: Jahanzeb college, DIG, DC, the Commissioner House. Since the ancient Buddhist era, the name of Saidu Sharif was "Baligram". Akhund Abdul Ghaffur known as Saidu Baba, settled here in 1835. From onward, the town was called "Saidu Sharif". However, there is still a calm region in the southwest of Saidu Sharif, called'Baligram' With a mild and warm and temperate climate, Saidu Sharif features a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification.
The average annual temperature in Saidu Sharif is 19.3 °C, while the annual precipitation averages 894 mm. In the driest months, there is a lot of precipitation. November is the driest month with 22 mm of precipitation, while August, the wettest month, has an average precipitation of 134 mm. June is the hottest month of the year with an average temperature of 29.2 °C. The coldest month January has an average temperature of 7.5 °C. The Swat museum is on the east side of the G. T road, halfway between Mingora and Saidu Sharif. Japanese aid has given a facelift to its seven galleries which now contain an excellent collection of Gandhara sculptures taken from some of the Buddhist sites in Swat; the galleries have been labeled to illustrate the Buddha's life story. Terracotta figurines and utensils, precious stones, coins and various metal objects are present from ancient Gandhara; the ethnographic section displays the finest examples of local embroidery, carved wood, tribal jewelry. It is under renovation with funds from the Pakistani-Italian debt swap agreement.
----- The pioneer alma mater of education & learning Govt: Wadudia High School is located in Saidu Sharif which has blessed thousands of students with the light of knowledge. The largest college of the district was built here in 1952 and offers MSc, BSc and Fsc degrees. Saidu medical college was built here in 1998. On 7 July 2010, the first university of the district was established in this area. Since the rule of the Mian family in Saidu Sharif, Swat has set the excellent ground for education and infrastructure improving its image as a well preserve touristic site. In the last few years, Swat has seen great changes in all aspects of its society including an increase in education, modern health care centers and a new university, along with private sector colleges; the reason that capital investment and charity, isn't predominant in Saidu Sharif is that the government views other cities as a more worthwhile investment due to the myriad of problems in this district. One of the most important Buddhist relics in Swat is near the museum.
The stupa, which dates from the 2nd century BC, was built by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka to house some of the ashes of the Buddha. In subsequent centuries, it was enlarged five times by encasing the existing structure in a new shell. Italian excavators working in 1955, exposed the successive layers of the stupa, each layer illustrating a stage in the evolution of building techniques. Saidu Sharif is an administrative unit, known as Union council or Ward in Tehsil Babuzai, of Swat District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. According to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013. District Swat has 67 Wards, of which total amount of Village Councils is 170, Neighbourhood Councils is 44. Saidu Sharif is Territorial Ward, further divided into three Neighbourhood Councils: Saidu Sharif i Saidu Sharif ii Saidu Sharif iii Swat District Babuzai Hidden Treasures of Swat, Book on Saidu Sharif Heritage http://www.saidusharif.com https://archive.is/20130915044603/http://education.yahoo.com/reference/encyclopedia/entry/Swat
Yamaguchi University is a national university in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. It has campuses at the cities of Ube; the root of the university was Yamaguchi Auditorium, a private school founded by Ueda Hōyō in 1815. In 1863 the school was renamed Yamaguchi Meirinkan. After the Meiji Restoration it became a prefectural secondary school, in 1894 it developed into Yamaguchi Higher School, a national institute of higher education, it served as a preparatory course for the Imperial University. In February 1905 the school was reorganized into Yamaguchi Higher School of Commerce, the third national commercial college in Japan, after Tokyo and Kobe. In 1944 the school was renamed Yamaguchi College of Economics. In 1949 Yamaguchi University was established by integrating six public schools in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Yamaguchi Higher School, Yamaguchi College of Economics, Ube Technical College, Yamaguchi Normal School, Yamaguchi Youth Normal School and Yamaguchi College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry.
In 1964 Yamaguchi Prefectural Medical College was merged into the university to constitute the School of Medicine. In 1966 Yoshida Campus was opened, the faculties moved to the campus in the following years. Yoshida Campus Faculty of Humanities Faculty of Education Faculty of Economics Faculty of Science Faculty of AgricultureKogushi Campus School of MedicineTokiwa Campus Faculty of Engineering Graduate School of Humanities Graduate School of Education Graduate School of Economics Graduate School of Medicine Graduate School of Science and Engineering Graduate School of Agriculture Graduate School of East Asian Studies Graduate School of Innovation and Technology Management United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tottori University Daishiro Yamagiwa - politician Official website