Air Force Academy, Colorado
The Air Force Academy is a census-designated place in El Paso County, United States. The CDP includes a large portion of the grounds of the United States Air Force Academy, including the cadet housing facilities; the population was 6,680 at the 2010 census. The USAF Academy Post Office serves the area; the Air Force Academy is located at 38°59′26″N 104°51′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 10.0 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,526 people, 1,128 households, 1,112 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 750.9 people per square mile. There were 1,238 housing units at an average density of 123.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 83.6% White, 5.8% African American, 0.8% Native American, 2.8% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 3.1% from other races, 3.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.7% of the population. There were 1,128 households out of which 82.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 90.2% were married couples living together, 5.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.4% were non-families.
1.3% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.60 and the average family size was 3.62. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 49.2% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 2.0% from 45 to 64, 0.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 191.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 235.8 males. All these statistics are typical for United States military bases; the median income for a household in the CDP was $43,417, the median income for a family was $43,264. Males had a median income of $7,307 versus $15,464 for females; the per capita income is $11,088. 3.2% of families and 2.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.6% of those under the age of 18 and none of those 65 and older. Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado census designated places Colorado counties El Paso County, Colorado Colorado metropolitan areas Front Range Urban Corridor South Central Colorado Urban Area Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area Rampart Range United States Air Force Academy United States Air Force Academy website
A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight. The rockets are used to carry instruments from 30 to 90 miles above the surface of the Earth, the altitude between weather balloons and satellites. Certain sounding rockets have an apogee between 620 and 930 miles, such as the Black Brant X and XII, the maximum apogee of their class. Sounding rockets use military surplus rocket motors. NASA flies the Terrier Mk 70 boosted Improved Orion, lifting 600–1,000-pound payloads into the exoatmospheric region between 60 and 125 miles; the origin of the term comes from nautical vocabulary to sound, to throw a weighted line from a ship into the water to measure the water's depth. The term itself has its etymological roots in the Portuguese, Italian and French words for probe, which are "sonda" and "sonde", respectively. Sounding in the rocket context is equivalent to taking a measurement.
The basic elements of a sounding rocket are a science payload. Larger, higher altitude rockets have two to three stages to increase efficiency and payload capability; the freefall part of the flight is an elliptic trajectory with vertical major axis allowing the payload to appear to hover near its apogee. The average flight time is less than 30 minutes; the rocket consumes its fuel on the first stage of the rising part of the flight separates and falls away, leaving the payload to complete the arc and return to the ground under a parachute. Sounding rockets are advantageous for some research because of their low cost, short lead time and their ability to conduct research in areas inaccessible to either balloons or satellites, they are used as test beds for equipment that will be used in more expensive and risky orbital spaceflight missions. The smaller size of a sounding rocket makes launching from temporary sites possible allowing for field studies at remote locations, in the middle of the ocean, if fired from a ship.
Weather observations, up to an altitude of 75,000 m, are done with rocketsondes, a kind of sounding rocket for atmospheric observations that consists of a rocket and radiosonde. The latter one record data on temperature, wind speed and direction, wind shear, atmospheric pressure, air density during the flight. Position data may be recorded. Common meteorological rockets are the Loki and Super Loki a 3.7 m tall and powered by a 10 cm diameter solid fuel rocket engine. The rocket engine separates at an altitude of 1500 m and the rest of the rocketsonde coasts to apogee; this can be set to an altitude of 20,000 m to 113,000 m. Rocketsondes were used in the fictional television miniseries Category 7: The End of the World. Sounding rockets are used for: Research in aeronomy, the study of the upper atmosphere, which requires this tool for in situ measurements in the upper atmosphere Ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, which require being above the bulk of the Earth's atmosphere Microgravity research, which benefits from a few minutes of weightlessness on rockets launched to altitudes of a few hundred kilometers Andøya Space Center in Norway operates two sounding rocket launch sites, one at Andøya and one at Svalbard.
Has launched sounding rockets since 1962. Poker Flat Research Range is owned by the University of Alaska Fairbanks; the British Skylark rocket was first designed in 1955 and was used for 441 launches before it was terminated in 2005 ISRO's VSSC developed the Rohini sounding rockets series starting in 1967 that reached altitudes of 500 km Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering from the Delft University of Technology operates the Stratos sounding rocket program, which reached 21.5 km in 2015 and aims to reach 100 km in 2019. The Australian Space Research Institute operates a Small Sounding Rocket Program for launching payloads to altitudes of about 7 km Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology launched a Sounding Rocket in May, 2012, which reached an altitude of 15 km. Vyom Mk-II is in its conceptual design stage with an objective to reach 70 km altitude with 20 kg payload capacity; the University of Queensland operates Terrier-Orion sounding rockets as part of their HyShot hypersonics research Iranian Space Agency operated its first sounding rocket in February 2007 UP Aerospace operates the SpaceLoft XL sounding rocket that can reach altitudes of 225 km TEXUS and MiniTEXUS, German rocket programmes at Esrange for DLR and ESA microgravity research programmes Astrium operates missions with sounding rockets on a commercial basis, as prime contractor to ESA or the German Aerospace Centre.
MASER, Swedish rocket programme at Esrange for ESA microgravity research programmes MAXUS, German-Swedish rocket programme at Esrange for ESA microgravity research programmes Pakistan's SUPARCO launched Rehbar series of sounding rockets from 1962 to 1971. REXUS, German-Swedish rocket programme at Esrange for DLR and ESA student experiment programmes The NASA Sounding Rocket Program The JAXA operates the sounding rockets S-Series: S-310 / S-520 / SS-520. USA/New Zealand company Rocket Lab developed the adaptable Ātea series of sounding rockets to carry 5–70 kg payloads to altitudes of 250 km or greater The Meteor rockets were built in Poland between 1963 and 1974; the Kartika I rocket was built and launched in Indonesia by
Falcon 9 is a two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX in the United States. It is powered by Merlin engines developed by SpaceX, burning liquid oxygen and rocket-grade kerosene propellants, its name is from the nine engines of the rocket's first stage. The rocket evolved with versions v1.0, v1.1, v1.2 "Full Thrust", its Block 5 variant, flying since May 2018. Unlike most rockets, which are expendable launch systems, Falcon 9 is reusable, with the first stage capable of re-entering the atmosphere and landing back vertically after separating from the second stage; this feat was achieved for the first time on flight 20 with the v1.2 version in December 2015. Falcon 9 can lift payloads of up to 22,800 kilograms to low Earth orbit, 8,300 kg to geostationary transfer orbit when expended, 5,500 kg to GTO when the first stage is recovered; the heaviest GTO payloads were Intelsat 35e with 6,761 kg, Telstar 19V with 7,075 kg, although the latter was launched into a lower-energy GTO orbit achieving an apogee well below the geostationary altitude.
In 2008, SpaceX won a Commercial Resupply Services contract in NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program to deliver cargo to the International Space Station using the Falcon 9 and Dragon capsule. The first mission under this contract launched on October 8, 2012. SpaceX intends to certify the Falcon 9 to be human-rated for transporting NASA astronauts to the ISS as part of the Commercial Crew Development program; the initial Falcon 9 version 1.0 flew five times from June 2010 to March 2013. The "Full Thrust" version has been in service since December 2015, with several additional upgrades within this version; the latest variant of it, Block 5, was introduced in May 2018. It features increased engine thrust, improved landing legs, other minor improvements to help recovery and reuse; the Falcon Heavy derivative, introduced in February 2018, consists of a strengthened Falcon 9 first stage as its center core, attached to two standard Falcon 9 first stages used as boosters. As early as October 2005, SpaceX had publicly announced plans to launch Falcon 9 in the first half of 2007.
In the event, the first launch would occur in 2010. While SpaceX spent its own money to develop its previous launcher, the Falcon 1, development of the Falcon 9 was accelerated by NASA funding parts of development costs and committing to purchase several commercial flights if specific capabilities were demonstrated; this started with seed money from the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program in 2006. The contract was structured as a Space Act Agreement "to develop and demonstrate commercial orbital transportation service" including the purchase of three demonstration flights; the overall contract award was US$278 million to provide development funding for Dragon, Falcon 9, demonstration launches of Falcon 9 with Dragon. In 2011 additional milestones were added. NASA became an anchor tenant for the vehicle in 2008, when they contracted to purchase 12 Commercial Resupply Services launches to the International Space Station, whereby funds would be disbursed only after the initial COTS demonstration missions were completed and deemed successful.
The space logistics delivery contract was worth US$1.6 billion for a minimum of 12 missions to carry supplies to and from the station. Musk has said that, without the NASA money, development would have taken longer. SpaceX has only come this far by building upon the incredible achievements of NASA, having NASA as an anchor tenant for launch, receiving expert advice and mentorship throughout the development process. SpaceX would like to extend a special thanks to the NASA COTS office for their continued support and guidance throughout this process; the COTS program has demonstrated the power of a true private/public partnership and we look forward to the exciting endeavors our team will accomplish in the future. In 2011, SpaceX estimated. NASA evaluated that development costs would have been $3.6 billion if a traditional cost-plus contract approach had been used. In 2014, SpaceX released total combined development costs for both the Falcon 9 and the Dragon capsule. NASA provided US$396 million while SpaceX provided over US$450 million to fund rocket and capsule development efforts.
A 2011 NASA report "estimated that it would have cost the agency about US$4 billion to develop a rocket like the Falcon 9 booster based upon NASA's traditional contracting processes" while "a more'commercial development' approach might have allowed the agency to pay only US$1.7 billion."Congressional testimony by SpaceX in 2017 suggested that the unusual NASA process of "setting only a high-level requirement for cargo transport to the space station leaving the details to industry" had allowed SpaceX to design and develop the Falcon 9 rocket on its own at lower cost. "According to NASA's own independently verified numbers, SpaceX's development costs of both the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 rockets were estimated at US$390 million in total." SpaceX intended to follow its light Falcon 1 launch vehicle with an intermediate capacity vehicle, the Falcon 5. In 2005, SpaceX announced it was instead proceeding with development of the Falcon 9, a "fully reusable heavy lift launch vehicle", had secured a government customer.
The Falcon 9 was described as being capable of launching 9,500 kg to low Earth orbit, was proj
The Space Shuttle was a reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Space Shuttle program, its official program name was Space Transportation System, taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. In addition to the prototype whose completion was cancelled, five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, the Hubble Space Telescope; the Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds. Shuttle components included the Orbiter Vehicle with three clustered Rocketdyne RS-25 main engines, a pair of recoverable solid rocket boosters, the expendable external tank containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.
The Space Shuttle was launched vertically, like a conventional rocket, with the two SRBs operating in parallel with the OV's three main engines, which were fueled from the ET. The SRBs were jettisoned before the vehicle reached orbit, the ET was jettisoned just before orbit insertion, which used the orbiter's two Orbital Maneuvering System engines. At the conclusion of the mission, the orbiter fired its OMS to re-enter the atmosphere; the orbiter glided as a spaceplane to a runway landing to the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida or Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards Air Force Base, California. After landing at Edwards, the orbiter was flown back to the KSC on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a specially modified Boeing 747; the first orbiter, was built in 1976, used in Approach and Landing Tests and had no orbital capability. Four operational orbiters were built: Columbia, Challenger and Atlantis. Of these, two were lost in mission accidents: Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003, with a total of fourteen astronauts killed.
A fifth operational orbiter, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger. The Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of Atlantis's final flight on July 21, 2011; the U. S. has since relied on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to transport astronauts to the International Space Station, pending the Commercial Crew Development and Space Launch System programs on schedule for first flights in 2019 and 2020. The Space Shuttle was a reusable human spaceflight vehicle capable of reaching low Earth orbit and operated by the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration from 1981 to 2011, it resulted from shuttle design studies conducted by NASA and the U. S. Air Force in the 1960s and was first proposed for development as part of an ambitious second-generation Space Transportation System of space vehicles to follow the Apollo program in a September 1969 report of a Space Task Group headed by Vice President Spiro Agnew to President Richard Nixon. Nixon's post-Apollo NASA budgeting withdrew support of all system components except the Shuttle, to which NASA applied the STS name.
The vehicle consisted of a spaceplane for orbit and re-entry, fueled from an expendable External Tank containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, with two reusable strap-on solid rocket boosters. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982, all launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida; the system was retired from service in 2011 after 135 missions, with Atlantis making the final launch of the three-decade Shuttle program on July 8, 2011. The program ended after Atlantis landed at the Kennedy Space Center on July 21, 2011. Major missions included launching numerous satellites and interplanetary probes, conducting space science experiments, servicing and construction of space stations; the first orbiter vehicle, named Enterprise, was used in the initial Approach and Landing Tests phase but installation of engines, heat shielding, other equipment necessary for orbital flight was cancelled. A total of five operational orbiters were built, of these, two were destroyed in accidents.
It was used for orbital space missions by NASA, the U. S. Department of Defense, the European Space Agency and Germany; the United States funded Shuttle development and operations except for the Spacelab modules used on D1 and D2—sponsored by Germany. SL-J was funded by Japan. At launch, it consisted of the "stack", including the dark orange external tank; some payloads were launched into higher orbits with either of two different upper stages developed for the STS. The Space Shuttle was stacked in the Vehicle Assembly Building, the stack mounted on a mobile launch platform held down by four frangible nuts on each SRB, which were detonated at launch; the Shuttle stack launched vertically like a conventional rocket. It lifted off under the power of its two SRBs and three main engines, which were fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the ET; the Space Shuttle had a two-stage ascent. The SRBs provided additional thrust during first-stage flight. About two minutes after liftoff, frangible nuts were fired, releasing the SRBs, which parachuted into the ocean, to
Falcon Heavy is a reusable heavy-lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX. It is derived from the Falcon 9 vehicle and consists of a strengthened Falcon 9 first stage as a central core with two additional first stages as strap-on boosters. Falcon Heavy has the highest payload capacity of any operational launch vehicle, the third-highest capacity of any rocket to reach orbit, trailing the American Saturn V and the Soviet Energia. SpaceX conducted Falcon Heavy's maiden launch on February 6, 2018, at 3:45 p.m. EST; the rocket carried a Tesla Roadster belonging to SpaceX founder Elon Musk. The second Falcon Heavy launch occurred on April 11, 2019 and all three booster rockets returned to earth. Falcon Heavy was designed to carry humans into space beyond low Earth orbit, although as of February 2018, Musk does not plan to apply for a human-rating certification to carry NASA astronauts. Falcon Heavy and Falcon 9 will be replaced by the Super Heavy launch system. Concepts for a Falcon Heavy launch vehicle were discussed as early as 2004.
The concept for three core booster stages of the company's as-yet-unflown Falcon 9 was referred to in 2005 as the Falcon 9 Heavy. SpaceX unveiled the plan for the Falcon Heavy to the public at a Washington DC news conference in April 2011, with initial test flight expected in 2013. A number of factors delayed the planned maiden flight by 5 years to 2018, including two anomalies with Falcon 9 launch vehicles, which required all engineering resources to be dedicated to failure analysis, halting flight operations for many months; the integration and structural challenges of combining three Falcon 9 cores were much more difficult than expected. In July 2017, Elon Musk said, "It ended up being way harder to do Falcon Heavy than we thought.... Way, way more difficult than we thought. We were pretty naive about that."The initial test flight for a Falcon Heavy lifted off on February 6, 2018, at 3:45 pm EST, carrying its dummy payload, Musk's personal Tesla Roadster, beyond Mars orbit. Musk mentioned Falcon Heavy in a September 2005 news update, referring to a customer request from 18 months prior.
Various solutions using the planned Falcon 5 had been explored, but the only cost-effective, reliable iteration was one that used a 9-engine first stage — the Falcon 9. The Falcon Heavy was developed with private capital with Musk stating that the cost was more than $500 million. No government financing was provided for its development; the Falcon Heavy design is based on Falcon 9's fuselage and engines. By 2008, SpaceX had been aiming for the first launch of Falcon 9 in 2009, while "Falcon 9 Heavy would be in a couple of years". Speaking at the 2008 Mars Society Conference, Musk indicated that he expected a hydrogen-fueled upper stage would follow 2–3 years later. By April 2011, the capabilities and performance of the Falcon 9 vehicle were better understood, SpaceX having completed two successful demonstration missions to LEO, one of which included reignition of the second-stage engine. At a press conference at the National Press Club in Washington, DC. on April 5, 2011, Musk stated that Falcon Heavy would "carry more payload to orbit or escape velocity than any vehicle in history, apart from the Saturn V Moon rocket... and Soviet Energia rocket".
In the same year, with the expected increase in demand for both variants, SpaceX announced plans to expand manufacturing capacity "as we build towards the capability of producing a Falcon 9 first stage or Falcon Heavy side booster every week and an upper stage every two weeks". In 2015, SpaceX announced a number of changes to the Falcon Heavy rocket, worked in parallel to the upgrade of the Falcon 9 v1.1 launch vehicle. In December 2016, SpaceX released a photo showing the Falcon Heavy interstage at the company headquarters in Hawthorne, California. By May 2013, a new underground test stand was being built at the SpaceX Rocket Development and Test Facility in McGregor, Texas to test the triple cores and twenty-seven rocket engines of the Falcon Heavy. By May 2017, SpaceX conducted the first static fire test of flight-design Falcon Heavy center core at the McGregor facility. In July 2017, Musk discussed publicly the challenges of testing a complex launch vehicle like the three-core Falcon Heavy, indicating that a large extent of the new design "is impossible to test on the ground" and could not be tested independent of actual flight tests.
By September 2017, all three first stage cores had completed their static fire tests on the ground test stand. The first Falcon Heavy static fire test was conducted on January 24, 2018. In April 2011, Musk was planning for a first launch of Falcon Heavy from Vandenberg Air Force Base on the West Coast in 2013. SpaceX refurbished Launch Complex 4E at Vandenberg AFB to accommodate Heavy; the first launch from the Cape Canaveral East Coast launch complex was planned for late 2013 or 2014. Due to the failure of SpaceX CRS-7 in June 2015, SpaceX rescheduled the maiden Falcon Heavy flight in September 2015 to occur no earlier than April 2016, but by February 2016 had postponed it again to late 2016; the flight was to be launched from the refurbished Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39A. In August 2016, the demonstration flight was moved to early 2017 to summer 2017, to late 2017 and was launched in February 2018. A second flight occurred on 11 April 2019, launching Arabsat-6A; the STP-2 payload is scheduled to be launched in June 2019.
The payload is composed of 25 small spacecraft. Operational GTO missions for Intelsat and Inmarsat, which were planned for late 2017, were moved to the Falcon 9 Full Thrust rocket v
United States Air Force Academy, Cadet Area
The United States Air Force Academy, Cadet Area is a portion of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Its use of modern architecture stands in contrast with the traditional designs of West Point and the United States Naval Academy, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2004. The buildings in the Cadet Area were designed in a distinct, modernist style, make extensive use of aluminum on building exteriors, suggesting the outer skin of aircraft or spacecraft; the elevation is 7,200 feet above sea level. The main buildings in the Cadet Area are set around a square pavilion known as The Terrazzo; the name comes from the fact that the walkways are made of terrazzo tiles, set among a checkerboard of marble strips. The east quarter of the Terrazzo, known as the "Air Gardens," is a 700-foot-long space with an ordered geometry of lighted pools, lowered grass sections and maze-like walkways; the Terrazzo area was designed by landscape architect Dan Kiley. The center of the Cadet Area was a wooded, sloping hill that extended from the middle of the Terrazzo south to the valley below, creating a blend of natural and man-made environments.
With the building of Sijan Hall on the south side of the Terrazzo in 1968, the Terrazzo area was enclosed into a large quadrangle, this natural part of the landscape was eliminated. Only the top of the hill, now known as "Spirit Hill", remains in the central grassy area of the Terrazzo; the most recognizable building in the Cadet Area is the 17-spired Cadet Chapel. The subject of controversy when built, it is now considered among the most beautiful examples of modern American academic architecture; the structure consists of 100 identical aluminum tetrahedrons, with colored glass in the spaces between the tetrahedrons. The chapel reaches a height of 150 feet, with a width of 84 feet. Architect Walter Netsch said he was inspired in his design by the Sainte-Chapelle cathedral in Paris, the Cathedral of Chartres and the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi in Italy. Built on two levels, the upper portion houses a 1,300-seat multi-denomination Protestant chapel. Cadets live in Vandenberg Hall and Sijan Hall.
The former is the original dormitory and honors General Hoyt Vandenberg, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force from 1948 to 1953. Sijan Hall was built on the south side of the Cadet Area in 1968, in order to accommodate the expansion of the Cadet Wing to a strength of 4,417 cadets. Known as the "New Dorm" until its dedication on May 31, 1976, it was named after Captain Lance Sijan'65, the first USAFA graduate to be awarded the Medal of Honor. Several buildings in the Cadet Area are used for academics. Fairchild Hall, named after General Muir S. Fairchild, the first commander of Air University and Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force, is the main academic building. Fairchild Hall houses academic classrooms, research facilities, faculty offices; the Robert F. McDermott Library is a separate building; the Aeronautics Research Center is just south of Fairchild Hall and contains numerous aeronautical research facilities, including transonic, low speed and cascade wind tunnels and rocket test cells and simulators.
The Consolidated Education and Training Facility was built in 1997 as an annex to Fairchild Hall. It contains chemistry and biology classrooms and labs and dental clinics and civil engineering and astronautics laboratories; the Cadet Area contains an observatory and a planetarium for academic use. Mitchell Hall, named after air power pioneer Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell, is the cadet dining facility, which has the ability to feed the entire Cadet Wing at one time; the cadet social center is Arnold Hall, named after General of the Air Force Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, commanding general of the U. S. Army Air Forces during World War II. Arnold Hall is located just outside the Cadet Area and houses a 3,000-seat theater, a number of lounge and recreation facilities for cadets and visitors. Harmon Hall is the primary administration building, which houses the offices of the Superintendent and supporting staff, it is named after the academy's first superintendent. The Cadet Area contains extensive facilities for use by cadets participating in intercollegiate athletics, intramural athletics, physical education classes and other physical training.
Set amid numerous outdoor athletic fields, the Cadet Gymnasium contains basketball gyms, indoor tennis courts, an Olympic-size swimming and diving pool, a water polo pool, numerous squash and racquetball courts, two weight-training rooms with state-of-the-art equipment and specialized facilities for volleyball, gymnastics and the rifle team. The gymnasium houses a human performance laboratory complete with hydrostatic weighing equipment, sports psychology and vision testing capabilities and aerobic testing equipment, including an elevation chamber; the Cadet Fieldhouse contains the 6,000-seat Clune Arena, a 2,600-seat ice hockey rink and an indoor track that doubles as a practice facility for a number of sports throughout the year. National Register of Historic Places listings in El Paso County, Colorado Official United States Air Force Academy website
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, electric power distribution and use. Subsequently and recording media made electronics part of daily life; the invention of the transistor, the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in any household object. Electrical engineering has now divided into a wide range of fields including electronics, digital computers, computer engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing and microelectronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics and waves, microwave engineering, electrochemistry, renewable energies, electrical materials science, much more.
See glossary of electrical and electronics engineering. Electrical engineers hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may be members of a professional body; such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Electrical engineers work in a wide range of industries and the skills required are variable; these range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software. Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century. William Gilbert was a prominent early electrical scientist, was the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity, he is credited with establishing the term "electricity". He designed the versorium: a device that detects the presence of statically charged objects.
In 1762 Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke invented a device named electrophorus that produced a static electric charge. By 1800 Alessandro Volta had developed the voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of Hans Christian Ørsted who discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field that will deflect a compass needle, of William Sturgeon who, in 1825 invented the electromagnet, of Joseph Henry and Edward Davy who invented the electrical relay in 1835, of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, of Michael Faraday, of James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism. In 1782 Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin the world's first form of electric telegraphy, using 24 different wires, one for each letter of the alphabet.
This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph. In 1795, Francisco Salva Campillo proposed an electrostatic telegraph system. Between 1803-1804, he worked on electrical telegraphy and in 1804, he presented his report at the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. Salva’s electrolyte telegraph system was innovative though it was influenced by and based upon two new discoveries made in Europe in 1800 – Alessandro Volta’s electric battery for generating an electric current and William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle’s electrolysis of water. Electrical telegraphy may be considered the first example of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering became a profession in the 19th century. Practitioners had created a global electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK and USA to support the new discipline. Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in 1816 and documented his vision of how the world could be transformed by electricity.
Over 50 years he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort. By the end of the 19th century, the world had been forever changed by the rapid communication made possible by the engineering development of land-lines, submarine cables, from about 1890, wireless telegraphy. Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure, they led to the international standardization of the units volt, coulomb, ohm and henry. This was achieved at an international conference in Chicago in 1893; the publication of these standards formed the basis of future advances in standardisation in various industries, in many countries, the definitions were recognized in relevant legislation. During these years, the study of electricity was considered to be a subfield of physics since the early electrical technology was considered electromechanical in nature; the Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the world's first department of electrical engineering in 1882.
The first electrical engineering degree program was started at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the physics department