Archaeology of Samoa
Archaeology of Samoa began with the first systematic survey of archaeological remains on Savaii island by Jack Golson in 1957. Since then and studies in the rest of Samoa have uncovered major findings of settlements and earth mounds including star mounds, Lapita pottery remains and pre-historic artifacts. The oldest date so far from pre-historic remains in Samoa has been calculated by New Zealand scientists to a true age of circa 3,000 BP from a Lapita site at Mulifanua during the 1970s. Earlier accounts of earthmounds and monumental architecture were known but no surveys were carried out until Golsons in-depth work in 1957. Golson carried out work on Upolu where he discovered the first pottery sherds in Samoa at Vailele village on the islands north coast. At the 10th Pacific Science Congress in Honolulu in 1961, archaeologists decided to make an approach in investigating the regions pre-history. During 1963-1964, this work was carried out by a team led by Roger Curtis Green under the Polynesian Archaeology Programme of Auckland University.
Building on Golsons surveys, the team carried out work on the islands of Savaii, Upolu. Another team leader was New Zealand archaeologist Janet Davidson who has made contributions to the field of archaeology in Samoa. Green and Davidson laid the groundwork for archaeology in Samoa, among the many findings of this project were ceramics on Upolu and Apolima. However, a key finding near the end of this trip was the discovery of Lapita pottery remains at Mulifanua with radio carbon dates of 930-800 BC, up to 2008, all known pottery in Samoa is plain ware except for those excavated at Mulifanua. An important part of Davidsons work in Samoa over the years focused on settlement patterns before European contact and she became the first to make a case based on archaeological field work for the distribution of a much greater Samoan population in the 17th and 18th centuries AD. Early population estimates in the 19th century had been vastly different, there were other archaeologists who carried out important field work in Samoa, including American Jesse D.
Jennings and Richard Holmer in the 1970s. Jennings led studies at Mt Olo Plantation on Upolu and inland from Sapapalii on Savaii, extensive pre-historic settlement ruins were surveyed and excavated in August and October 1974,1976 and 1977 under the University of Utah Samoan Archaeological Program. From 1978 to 1979, further work was carried out with extensive surveys of a pre-historic settlement in the Palauli district. This survey at Palauli was done by Gregory Jackmond, an American Peace Corps volunteer who had previously done work of pre-historic ruins inland from Sapapalii village. Archaeological work at Sapapalii was carried out by Jackmond, who surveyed a 20 hectare area, the data from Jackmonds work at Sapapalii tended to replicate the data collected at the Mt Olo Plantation site on Upolu with similar stone walls, raised walkways and platforms. One important difference were the number of earth ovens uncovered at the Savaii site
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
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Matautu is the name of different villages in Samoa. Places named Matautu are found on the two largest islands and Savaii, on Upolu island, Matautu, a village located on the central north coast of the island to the east of the capital Apia. Apia Harbor, the main port is located in Matautu. The village has been subdivided into two parts, matautu-tai is led by High Chief Toomalatai. Legend has it that wayfarers and travelers by sea must stop, Moaula is amongst the most revered spirits of Samoa. Matautu village, a sub-village or pito-nuu of Lefaga, situated south west coast, the film location of Return to Paradise starring Gary Cooper. On the island of Savaii, Matautu is a village district on the central north coast in the electoral constituency of Gagaemauga. Matautu is made up of smaller villages including Fagamalo, Lelepa, Safai. In more recent history Satoalepai has become part of Matautu, situated inland from Lelepa are Vaipouli College and Itu-o-Tane High School. Matautu share strong kinship and cultural ties as well as natural resources including water which is piped from a river at Vaipouli.
During the late 1800s and the era of Samoa, Fagamalo. The centre included a hospital and court houses, tui Fiti a spirit deity in Samoan mythology resides in a sacred grove vao sa in Fagamalo. The Reverend George Pratt, a missionary of the London Missionary Society lived in Matautu for many years, Pratt authored the first Samoan English language dictionary A Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language, with English and Samoan Vocabulary, first printed in 1862. According to oral history, Matautu is the district takes the lead in the attack during war. Matautu is said to have settled by Fijians or people from a place called Fiti
New Zealand Dominion Museum building
The New Zealand Dominion Museum building was completed in 1936, and is located on Buckle Street in Wellington next to the National War Memorial. The building originally housed the National Museum, the National Art Gallery of New Zealand and it currently houses part of the Massey University Wellington Campus. Prior to 1913, the Dominion Museum was known as the Colonial Museum, the Colonial Museum was originally housed in a small wooden building behind what is now the New Zealand Parliament Buildings. In 1930, the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum Act 1930 established a board of trustees, the building housed the Dominion Museum, the National Art Gallery of New Zealand and the New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts. In 1972, an act of Parliament updated the Dominion Museums name to the National Museum, in 1992 Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Act 1992 combined the National Museum and the National Art Gallery to form the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. The Dominion Museum building was featured in Peter Jacksons 1996 film the Frighteners, and in Peter Webbers 2012 film Emperor
In French Polynesia it has nearly disappeared, except for some villages in the Marquesas. The cloth is known by a number of local names although the term tapa is international, the word tapa is from Tahiti and the Cook Islands, where Captain Cook was the first European to collect it and introduce it to the rest of the world. In Tonga, tapa is known as ngatu, and here it is of social importance to the islanders. In Samoa, the cloth is called siapo, and in Niue it is hiapo. In Hawaiʻi, it is known as kapa, in Rotuma, a Polynesian island in the Fiji group, it is called ‘uha and in other Fiji islands it is called masi. In the Pitcairn islands it was called ahu and it is known as tapia. All these words give some clue to the origin, masi could mean the dye-fig, endemic to Oceania, and probably the one originally used to make tapa. Somewhere in history, during the voyages of migration the hiapo or siapo was introduced from Southeast Asia, the bark of this tree is much better to use, and put the use of the dye-fig into oblivion.
Only its name remained in Fiji, Tapa finally has the meaning of border or strip. It seems likely that before the process became common to make large sheets only narrow strips were produced. Tapa can be decorated by rubbing, stencilling, smoking or dyeing, traditional dyes are usually black and rust-brown, although other colours are known. In former times the cloth was used for clothing, but now cotton. The major problem with tapa clothing is that the tissue loses its strength when wet and it is labour-intensive to manufacture. Tapa cloth was made by both the men and women in ancient times, an example is the Hawaiian men, who made their own weapons. Nowadays tapa is often worn on occasions such as weddings. Another use is as a blanket at night or for room dividers and it is highly prized for its decorative value and is often found hung on the walls as decoration. In Tonga a family is considered poor, no matter how much money they have, if they do not have any tapa in stock at home to donate at life events like marriages, funerals and so forth.
If the tapa was donated to them by a chief or even the royal family and it has been used in ceremonial masks in Papua New Guinea and the Cook Islands
New Zealand Expeditionary Force
The New Zealand Expeditionary Force was the title of the military forces sent from New Zealand to fight alongside other British Empire and Dominion troops during World War I and World War II. Ultimately, the NZEF of World War I became known as the First New Zealand Expeditionary Force, the NZEF of World War II was known as the Second New Zealand Expeditionary Force. The New Zealand Expeditionary Force was the title of the forces sent from New Zealand to fight for Britain during World War I. Upon the outbreak of war, New Zealand immediately offered to provide two brigades—one of infantry and one of mounted troops—with a total of 8,500 men. This contingent sailed for Australia within two months of the start of the war and joined with the Australian Imperial Force in a convoy sailing for Egypt. New Zealand, like Australia, had a policy of compulsory military training. Conscription was introduced on 1 August 1916 and by the end of the war 124,000 men—nearly half the male population of 250. Of these, about 100,000 had been sent overseas, the NZEF was closely tied to the AIF for much of the war.
This division, along with the Australian 1st Division, formed the famous Australian, after the end of the Gallipoli campaign, the NZEF formed its own infantry division, the New Zealand Division, which served on the Western Front for the rest of the war. General Godley was promoted to a command and given II ANZAC Corps. The mounted arm of the NZEF was the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade, the brigade remained in Egypt and, combined with the 1st and 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigades, made up the ANZAC Mounted Division which served through the Sinai and Palestine campaign. The New Zealand Expeditionary Force was finally disbanded on 31 December 1921, at the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, it was decided that New Zealand should provide an Expeditionary Force of one division, under Major-General Bernard Freyberg. This force became known as the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force, the first echelon of 2NZEF Headquarters and a Brigade Group landed in Egypt in February 1940. The second echelon, a Brigade Group, was diverted to Britain on Italys entry into the war, the third echelon arrived in Egypt in September 1940 and concentration of the division was completed just before it was deployed to northern Greece in March 1941.
Under the command of Major-General William Stevens, the 2NZEF began demobilising in late 1945, the 2NZEF had a Pacific Section, which was initially responsible for the defence of Fiji. The basis for the Pacific Section was initially an infantry brigade—the —which arrived on Viti Levu, following the entry of the Japanese Empire into the war, in early 1942, the 2NZEF contingent in Fiji was expanded to two brigades, and formally designated Pacific Section, 2NZEF. Under the command of Major General Owen Mead, the Pacific Section was withdrawn from Fiji back to New Zealand when the United States 37th Division took over defence responsibility, the Pacific Section became the 3rd Division, the main unit of the 2NZEF in the Pacific. In order to cope with this crisis the New Zealand Government saw no other than to disband one of the countrys two infantry divisions
The Polynesian Society is a non-profit organization based at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, dedicated to the scholarly study of the history and mythology of Oceania. The society was co-founded in 1892 by Percy Smith and Edward Tregear, largely in response to a conviction, widely held at the time, the initial membership of the society was 112, which had grown to 1,300 by 1965. The present president is Dr Richard Benton, the journal is a rich repository of the traditions of Oceania. Its first editors were S. Percy Smith and Edward Tregear, Smith was its chief contributor until his death in 1922. The list of subsequent editors includes W. H. Skinner, Elsdon Best, andersen, H. D. Skinner, C. R. H. Taylor, W. R. Geddes, W. C. Groves, Bruce Biggs, Melvyn McLean and Richard Moyle, the present editors are Judith Huntsman and Melinda Allen. Andersen, Maori Music, and C. R. H. Taylor, A Pacific Bibliography, and two catalogues of the Oldman Collection of Māori and Polynesian artifacts. A history of the society and its journal, M. P. K.
Sorrensons Manifest Duty, The Polynesian Society over 100 years, société des océanistes Brown, Centennial Index 1892-1991. Byrnes, Giselle M. Smith, Stephenson Percy 1840 -1922, Manifest Duty, The Polynesians Society over 100 Years. Encyclopedia of New Zealand Polynesian Society, archived from the original on 6 March 2010. The Polynesian Society website Journal of the Polynesian Society – online issues
John Derek Freeman was a New Zealand anthropologist best known for his criticism of Margaret Meads work on Samoan society, as described in her 1928 ethnography Coming of Age in Samoa. His effort ignited controversy of a scale and ferocity never before seen in anthropology, Freeman initially became interested in Boasian cultural anthropology while an undergraduate in Wellington, and went to live and work as a teacher in Samoa. After entering the New Zealand Naval Reserve in World War II, he did graduate training with British social anthropologists Meyer Fortes and he did two and a half years of fieldwork in Borneo studying the Iban people. His 1953 doctoral dissertation described the relations between Iban agriculture and kinship practices, returning to Borneo in 1961 he suffered a nervous breakdown induced by an intense rivalry with ethnologist and explorer Tom Harrisson. This experience profoundly altered his view of anthropology, changing his interests to looking at the ways in which behavior is influenced by universal psychological and biological foundations.
In 1966-67 Freeman conducted fieldwork in Samoa, trying to find Meads original informants and he argued that Samoan culture in fact put greater emphasis on female virginity than Western culture and had higher indices of juvenile delinquency, sexual violence and suicide. Freemans critique of Mead sparked intense debate and controversy in the discipline of anthropology, Freemans critique has not been accepted in the anthropological community. Several Samoan scholars who had been discontent with Meads depiction of them as happy, the so-called Mead-Freeman controversy spanned three decades, and Freeman published his last rebuttal of a critique of his arguments only weeks before his death in 2001. Freeman was raised in Wellington by an Australian father and a New Zealand mother who had been reared in Presbyterian tradition, in particular, Freemans mother took an active interest in his education, urging him to excel. He maintained a relationship with her for most of his adult life. In 1934 he entered Wellingtons Victoria University College as an undergraduate and studied psychology, Freeman commented that if anthropology had been offered he would likely have chosen to study that.
He studied education and was issued a certificate in 1937. In 1938 he attended a seminar taught by Ernest Beaglehole. Beaglehole encouraged Freemans interest in Meads groundbreaking 1928 work, and this sparked his interest in visiting Samoa, during this period he met Jiddu Krishnamurti who instilled in Freeman an interest in free will and choice as a counterpoint to the forces of social and cultural conditioning. And he was adopted into a Samoan family of the community of Saanapu and he made archaeological field studies around the island of Upolu including the Falemauga Caves and earth mounds in Vailele village. Even though he was working as a teacher, he had time to studies of socialization in children of the same age group with which he had worked in New Zealand. Freeman collected Samoan artefacts of material culture, which was deposited in the Otago Museum of Dunedin. Having served in the Samoan defence force since 1941, in 1943 and this experience inspired him to return to do fieldwork in Sarawak
Savaiʻi is the largest and highest island in Samoa and the Samoa Islands chain. The island is the fifth largest in Polynesia, behind the two islands of New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands of Hawaii and Maui. The island of Savaii is referred to by Samoans as Salafai, the island is home to 43,142 people who make up 24% of the countrys population. The only township and ferry terminal is Salelologa, the entry point to the island. A tar sealed road serves as the one highway, connecting most of the villages with local buses reaching most settlements. Savaii is made up of six itūmālō, each district is made up of villages with strong traditional ties of kinship, history and matai chief titles. There is some limited ecotourism development which operates mostly within the villages, the Mau, Samoas non-violent movement for political independence during colonialism in the early 1900s, had its beginnings on Savaii with the Mau a Pule movement. The island is the largest shield volcano in the South Pacific with recent eruptions in the early 1900s, the central region comprises the Central Savaii Rainforest with 72,699 hectares that forms the largest continuous patch of rainforest in Polynesia.
It is dotted with more than 100 volcanic craters and contains most of Samoas native species of flora and fauna, Samoan society is communal and based on extended family relationships and socio-cultural obligations, so that kinship and genealogies are important. These faa Samoa values are associated with concepts of love, service to family and community, respect. Most families are made up of a number of different households situated close to each other, like the rest of Samoa, Savaii is made up of villages with most of the land collectively owned by families or aiga. Most people on Savaii, 93% of the population, live on customary land. The heads of the family are called Matai, the holders of family names and titles, an extended family can have a number of chiefs with different chief titles. Men and women in Samoa have equal rights to chief titles which are bestowed by consensus of the extended family, traditionally and female roles are defined by labours and tasks, chiefly status and age. Women play an important role contributing to family decisions as well as village governance, social relationships are dictated by cultural etiquettes of politeness and common greetings.
The Samoan language has a polite and formal variant used in Samoan oratory and ceremony as well as in communication with elders, people of rank and strangers. In all villages, the majority of people are largely sustained by plantation work, most people live in coastal villages although there are some settlements inland such as the villages of Aopo and Sili. There is a church in village, mostly Christian denominations
The swifts are a family, Apodidae, of highly aerial birds. They are superficially similar to swallows, but are not closely related to any of the passerine species, Swifts are placed in the order Apodiformes, which they share with hummingbirds. The treeswifts are closely related to the swifts, but form a separate family. Resemblances between swifts and swallows are due to convergent evolution, reflecting similar life styles based on catching insects in flight. The family name, Apodidae, is derived from the Greek ἄπους, meaning footless, the tradition of depicting swifts without feet continued into the Middle Ages, as seen in the heraldic martlet. Some species of swifts are among the fastest animals on the planet, the taxonomy of the swifts is complicated, with genus and species boundaries widely disputed, especially amongst the swiftlets. A prehistoric genus sometimes assigned to the swifts, might be a distant ancestor. There are around 100 species of swifts, normally grouped into two subfamilies and four tribes, cypseloidinae Tribe Cypseloidini Apodinae Tribe Collocaliini Tribe Chaeturini – needletails Tribe Apodini – typical swifts Swifts are the fastest of birds.
Larger species are amongst the fastest fliers in the animal kingdom, even the common swift can cruise at a maximum speed of 31 metres per second. In a single year the common swift can cover at least 200,000 km, compared with typical birds, swiftlet wings have proportionately large wingtip bones. By changing the angle between the bones and the forelimb bones, they are able to alter the shape and area of their wings, maximizing their efficiency. This flight arrangement could have benefits for the birds control, the swiftlets or cave swiftlets have developed a form of echolocation for navigating through dark cave systems where they roost. One species, Aerodramus papuensis, has recently found to use this navigation at night outside its cave roost too. Swifts occur on all the continents except Antarctica, and not in the far north, in large deserts, the swifts of temperate regions are strongly migratory and winter in the tropics. Some species can survive periods of cold weather by entering torpor.
Many have a shape, with a short forked tail. The flight of some species is characterised by a flicking action quite different from swallows. Swifts range in size from the pygmy swiftlet, which weighs 5.4 g and measures 9 cm long, to the purple needletail, which weighs 184 g and measures 25 cm long