United States Department of Veterans Affairs
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country. While veterans benefits have been provided since the American Revolutionary War, an veteran-focused federal agency, the Veterans Administration, was not established until 1930, became the cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs in 1989; the VA employs 377,805 people at hundreds of Veterans Affairs medical facilities, benefits offices, cemeteries. In Fiscal Year 2016, net program costs for the department were $273 billion, which includes VBA Actuarial Cost of $106.5 billion for compensation benefits. The long-term actuarial accrued liability is $2.491 trillion for compensation benefits. The agency is led by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, who—being a cabinet member—is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. In May 2014, it was revealed that veterans died while waiting for their appointments during extended delays in getting care at the Veterans Health Administration.
An investigation found that VA personnel falsified scheduling data to make it seem as if they had met scheduling targets. The Continental Congress of 1776 encouraged enlistments during the American Revolutionary War by providing pensions for soldiers who were disabled. Direct medical and hospital care given to veterans in the early days of the U. S. was provided by the individual communities. In 1811, the first domiciliary and medical facility for veterans was authorized by the federal government, but not opened until 1834. In the 19th century, the nation's veterans assistance program was expanded to include benefits and pensions not only for veterans, but their widows and dependents. After the end of the American Civil War in 1865, many state veterans' homes were established. Since domiciliary care was available at all state veterans homes, incidental medical and hospital treatment was provided for all injuries and diseases, whether or not of service origin. Indigent and disabled veterans of the Civil War, Indian Wars, Spanish–American War, Mexican Border period as well as discharged regular members of the Armed Forces were cared for at these homes.
Congress established a new system of veterans benefits when the United States entered World War I in 1917. Included were programs for disability compensation, insurance for service persons and veterans, vocational rehabilitation for the disabled. By the 1920s, the various benefits were administered by three different federal agencies: the Veterans Bureau, the Bureau of Pensions of the Interior Department, the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers; the establishment of the Veterans Administration came in 1930 when Congress authorized the president to "consolidate and coordinate Government activities affecting war veterans". The three component agencies became bureaus within the Veterans Administration. Brigadier General Frank T. Hines, who directed the Veterans Bureau for seven years, was named as the first Administrator of Veterans Affairs, a job he held until 1945; the close of World War II resulted in not only a vast increase in the veteran population, but a large number of new benefits enacted by Congress for veterans of the war.
In addition, during the late 1940s, the VA had to contend with aging World War I veterans. During that time, "the clientele of the VA increased five fold with an addition of nearly 16,000,000 World War II veterans and 4,000,000 World War I veterans". Prior to World War II, in response to scandals at the Veterans Bureau, programs that cared for veterans were centralized in Washington, D. C; this centralization caused delays and bottlenecks as the agency tried to serve the World War II veterans. As a result, the VA went through a decentralization process, giving more authority to the field offices; the World War II GI Bill was signed into law on 22 June 1944, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt."The United States government began serious consolidated services to veterans in 1930. The GI Bill of Rights, passed in 1944, had more effect on the American way of life than any other legislation - with the possible exception of the Homestead Act."The VA health care system has grown from 54 hospitals in 1930 to include 153 medical centers.
VA health care facilities provide a broad spectrum of medical and rehabilitative care. The responsibilities and benefits programs of the Veterans Administration grew enormously during the following six decades. Further educational assistance acts were passed for the benefit of veterans of the Korean War, the Vietnam Era, the introduction of an "all-volunteer force" in the 1970s, the Persian Gulf War, those who served following the attacks of September 11, 2001; the Department of Veterans Affairs Act of 1988 changed the former Veterans Administration, an independent government agency established in 1930 to see to the needs of World War I veterans, into a Cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs. It was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on 25 October 1988, but came into effect under the term of
Town Run Trail Park
Town Run Trail Park is a 127-acre natural resource park in Indianapolis, United States. The facility is owned by Indy Parks and Recreation and was made possible through donations from Martin Marietta Aggregates, Mr. Oliver Dougherty, R. N. Thompson Associates Inc, it is located near the White River on East 96th Street between Keystone Avenue and Allisonville Road. The main attraction at the park is a singletrack mountain bike course; the 6.9-mile course is maintained by the Hoosier Mountain Bike Association. It offers a variety of terrain for mountain bikers with beginner to intermediate skill leveled trails. Official website Indy Greenways Hoosier Mountain Bike Association
Military Park (Indianapolis)
Military Park is the oldest park in Indianapolis, covering 14 acres. It is located in western Downtown Indianapolis. Since the founding of Indianapolis in 1820, the grounds of Military Park called Military Ground, have seen various uses; the first documented celebration of Independence Day in Indianapolis occurred at Military Ground on July 4, 1822. The United States Congress gave the land to the state of Indiana in 1827, for use in training the local militias. Before 1860, its greatest use for militia training was for the Black Hawk War in 1836. In accordance with the 1851 Indiana Constitution, the land that forms Military Park cannot be sold; the first Indiana State Fair was held at the park in October 1852. Save for the years during which the fair traveled, the site was used for the state fair until it moved, in 1860, to the site where, during the Civil War, Camp Morton would be built. Stalls and exhibition halls were built on the grounds for such a purpose, surrounded by a large wooden fence.
The State Fair made one last appearance on Military Park in 1863. During the Civil War, Union soldiers were encamped at the Park. Governor Oliver P. Morton renamed the park Camp Sullivan, after the 13th Indiana Infantry's Colonel Jeremiah C. Sullivan, it was the first designated camp for the Federal army in Indiana. However, this use damaged the grounds, due to all of the different troops entering and leaving Camp Sullivan, as it was a marshaling center. Following the war, efforts by local resident George Merritt started to improve the grounds, with the addition of a fountain and a small pool with a considerable-size rock foundation. Relics from the war and playground equipment were added, as was a pavilion that still stands. William Jennings Bryan was notified that he would be the Democrat nominee for the Presidency of the United States on August 7, 1900; the two-hour rally was preceded by a march by the candidates from Indianapolis's Union Station. In 1916 the park was renamed Camp Sullivan Park.
Between World War I and World War II, the park began to deteriorate. By now again known as Military Park, its diminished status continued until 1980, when the Lilly Endowment and Krannert Charitable Trust granted funds for its improvement. In 1979 it become part of White River State Park. Military Park hosts several events, such as rallies, festivals, DCI marching band practices, outdoor concerts. In 2007 the park's shelter house was renovated for over $700,000
Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis
Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis is a public research university in Indianapolis, Indiana. A core campus of Indiana University that offers Purdue University degrees, it is the result of a merger in 1969 of the Purdue Indianapolis Extension Center and Indiana University Indianapolis. Located along the White River and Fall Creek, it sits upon a peninsula adjacent to Downtown Indianapolis. Among more than 200 degree programs, the urban university hosts the primary campuses for both the Indiana University School of Medicine, with more than 2,000 students, the Indiana University School of Dentistry. Represented among the graduate schools, the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law is one of only two law schools operated by Indiana University, with the Indiana University Maurer School of Law being the Bloomington equivalent. More than 8,000 students in 2014 were enrolled in professional schools. Total enrollment of 30,690 was reported in 2014, making it the third largest university in the state.
Nearly 89% of the student body is composed of native Hoosiers, with 6% coming from abroad and the remaining from out of state. The IUPUI Jaguars compete in the NCAA's Division I in the Horizon League. Several athletics venues are located on the campus, including the IU Michael A. Carroll Track & Soccer Stadium and Indiana University Natatorium, the largest indoor pool in the United States, with a seating capacity of 4,700. Founded in 1969, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis is an urban campus in Indianapolis, the 15th largest city in the United States, with a population of 2 million in the metropolitan statistical area; the campus is just west of downtown, within walking distance of the state capitol and other governmental offices, the site of numerous nationally renowned businesses and art, sports and health facilities. In 1968, Dr. Maynard K. Hine, dean of the IU School of Dentistry began working with then-Mayor of Indianapolis Richard Lugar, IU President Joseph L. Sutton, Purdue President Frederick L. Hovde, others to establish IUPUI in 1969 through the merger of the Indianapolis extension programs of both IU and Purdue.
Some schools, were established before the merger, including the IU School of Medicine, IU School of Dentistry, IU Robert H. McKinney School of Law, IU School of Liberal Arts, IU Herron School of Art. IUPUI includes the nation’s largest nursing school, the second largest medical school in the country, the only dental school in the state, the country’s oldest school of physical education. IUPUI is among the top 20 campuses in the nation; as a core campus of Indiana University, IUPUI is governed by the IU Board of Trustees. IUPUI includes two Purdue University schools; the campus offers more than 225 degrees provided by 18 different schools. IUPUI has more students from Indiana than any other campus in the state, the largest number of underrepresented minorities in the Indiana University system and the largest population of graduate and professional students of any university in Indiana. 75 percent of IUPUI classes have 25 or fewer students. IUPUI has tenure-track faculty members. With research expenditures of nearly $272 million in 2014, IUPUI is the second-largest site for research in Indiana.
Ranked among the Top 200 "National Universities", ranked 7th for "Up and Coming School", was recognized for its first-year experience, learning communities and efforts to help veterans and active-duty service members by U. S. News & World Report; as of 2013, for 13 consecutive years U. S. News has highlighted IUPUI for offering programs that help ensure a positive collegiate experience for new freshman and undergraduates. Ranked among the Academic Ranking of World Universities 2014 Listed "With Distinction" in the 2014 President's Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll Received the Carnegie Community Engagement Classification for 2015 by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Achieved Sustainability Tracking and Rating System silver rating by the Association for Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. Received the Higher Education Excellence in Diversity Award from INSIGHT into Diversity magazine Was named among the 30 best non-Historically Black Colleges and Universities for minorities in the United States by Diverse: Issues in Higher Education.
Ranked as "Best for Vets: Colleges 2014" by the Military Times Was designated a 2014 Military Friendly School by Victoria Media Inc. IUPUI has been accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools since 1972. In 2013, IUPUI, including its Columbus regional education center, received reaffirmation of its accreditation through 2022–2023. IUPUI maintains a full complement of disciplinary accreditations that can be found on the website dedicated to the accreditation process. IU Herron School of Art and Design Departments of: IU Kelley School of Business IU School of Dentistry Departments of: IU School of Education Departments of: Elementary Education • Secondary Education IU Fairbanks School of Public Health IU School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Departments of: IU School of Informatics and Computing Departments of: Human-Centered Computing, BioHealth Informatics, Library and Information Science. IU Robert H. McKinney School of Law IU School of Liberal Arts Departments of: IU School of Medicine Departments of: IU School of Nursing IU School of Physical Education and Tourism Management Departments of: O'N
Pendleton is a town in Fall Creek Township, Madison County, United States. It is part of Indiana Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 4,253 at the 2010 census. Pendleton was platted in 1830, incorporated as a town in 1854, it was named for town founder Thomas Pendleton. Pendleton is located at 40°0′10″N 85°44′48″W. According to the 2010 census, Pendleton has a total area of 11.24 square miles, of which 11.17 square miles is land and 0.07 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,253 people, 1,754 households, 1,154 families residing in the town; the population density was 380.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,893 housing units at an average density of 169.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.6% White, 1.0% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 1,754 households of which 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.2% were non-families.
30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age in the town was 37.6 years. 26.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.3% male and 52.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,873 people, 1,550 households, 1,052 families residing in the town; the population density was 577.6 people per square mile. There were 1,631 housing units at an average density of 243.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.27% White, 0.39% African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.21% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.52% of the population. There were 1,550 households out of which 34.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families.
27.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.94. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The 36 years was the median age. For every 100 females, there were 88.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $46,204, the median income for a family was $54,556. Males had a median income of $39,545 versus $25,753 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,074. About 3.7% of families and 4.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.7% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. The town houses the schools for its own South Madison Community School Corporation; the district has three elementary schools: Pendleton Elementary, East Elementary and Maple Ridge Elementary.
Pendleton Heights High School sits atop a hill on the edge of the east side of town and serves as the local high school. A newly constructed Pendleton Heights Middle School opened in August 2009 across from the high school; the former middle school, located in the downtown area just north of Pendleton Elementary, now serves as Pendleton Elementary School - Intermediate. The town has the Pendleton Community Public Library; the Pendleton Historic District, a U. S. Registered Historic District covers an area bounded by Fall Creek, the Conrail right-of-way and Adams Sts, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places along with Madison County Bridge No. 149. The Times-Post is a weekly newspaper serving the surrounding communities; the paper was known as The Pendleton Times, was the first to feature Jim Davis' original comic strip, "Gnorm Gnat". WEEM is a radio station located on the campus of Pendleton Heights High School and run by the students, it is a non-commercial, 1200 watt station that covers about 20 miles and supports a mobile application on both iOS and Google Play.
The format of the station is contemporary rock. WEEM has been operational since 1970. WEEM continues to compete each year in the IASB State Radio Contest and brings awards back to Pendleton Heights Highways Major highways and roads that serve Pendleton include I-69, State Road 9, State Road 38, State Road 67, U. S. Route 36 According to the Indiana EMS commission, Pendleton Emergency Ambulance operates one of only two volunteer Advanced Life Support ambulance services in Indiana. Three facilities of the Indiana Department of Corrections are in Fall Creek Township, near Pendleton Pendleton Correctional Facility Correctional Industrial Facility Pendleton Juvenile Correctional FacilityThe Pendleton Correctional Facility is located on the south edge of town. Famous former inmates include: John Dillinger, Harry Pierpont, Jim Ligon and Homer Van Meter; the Pendleton Reformatory is a maximum security prison and is located at 4490 Reformatory Rd. The Fall Creek Massacre is the name given to the brutal murders of a peaceful group of Seneca and Miami Indians by white settlers.
Delaware County, Indiana
Delaware County is a county located in the east central portion of the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 117,671; the county seat is Muncie. Delaware County is part of the Muncie, IN metropolitan statistical area. Delaware County was formed in Jan. 1820 out of the New Purchase lands south of the Wabash resulting from the Treaty of St. Mary's, 1818, it encompassed the drainage basin of the White River, along which the Delaware, a Native American people had settled, from which the County takes its name. The Delaware were moved to new lands west of the Mississippi River in the 1840s; the county was once home to Tenskwatawa, a brother of Tecumseh who instigated a major Indian uprising in 1811 culminating in the Battle of Tippecanoe. David Conner, a trader, was the first white settler. After formation, numerous counties were carved from the original, a remnant retaining the original name was organized in 1827. Following the American Civil War the county experienced an economic boom caused by the discovery of natural gas, which spurred rapid industrial growth in the surrounding area.
The first discovery of natural gas in Indiana occurred in 1876 in the town of Eaton. A company was drilling in search of coal, when they had reaching a depth of six-hundred feet, there was a loud noise and foul smelling fumes began coming from the well. After a brief investigation, it was decided they had breached the ceiling of Hell, the hole was filled in. In 1884, when natural gas was discovered in nearby Ohio, people recalled the incident, they opened Indiana's first natural gas well. The gas was so strong that when the well was lit, the flames could be seen from Muncie. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 395.91 square miles, of which 392.12 square miles is land and 3.78 square miles is water. The county is drained by Mississinewa rivers; the surface is level, the soil fertile. Albany Daleville Eaton Gaston Muncie Selma Yorktown Center Delaware Hamilton Harrison Liberty Monroe Mount Pleasant Niles Perry Salem Union Washington Interstate 69 U. S. Route 35 State Road 3 State Road 28 State Road 32 State Road 67 State Road 167 State Road 332 Blackford County Jay County Randolph County Henry County Madison County Grant County In recent years, average temperatures in Muncie have ranged from a low of 16 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −29 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 102 °F was recorded in June 1988.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.06 inches in January to 4.28 inches in June. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. There are seven members of the county council. Three are elected county-wide and four are elected from county districts; the county-wide members are elected in presidential election years and the districted members are elected in midterm election years. The current members are: District 1: Ryan Ballard District 2: Ron Quakenbush District 3: Mary Chambers District 4: Jane Lasater At-Large: Scott Alexander At-Large: Larry Bledsoe At-large: Jessica Piper The council members serve four-year terms, they are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending. The council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes.
Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners each represent a district where they must reside but are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term; the current commissioners are: District 1: James King District 2: Sherry Riggin District 3: Shannon Henry One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president. The commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government. Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases; the judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk.
Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county. Delaware County is part of Indiana's 6th congressional district; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 117,671 people, 46,516 households, 27,956 families residing in the county. The population density was 300.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 52,357 housing units at an average density of 133.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 89.1% white, 6.9% black or African American, 1.0% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.6% from other races, 2.1% fr
Indiana World War Memorial Plaza
The Indiana World War Memorial Plaza is an urban feature located in Indianapolis, United States built to honor the veterans of World War I. The five-city-block plaza was conceived in 1919 as a location for the national headquarters of the American Legion and a memorial to the state's and nation's veterans. At the north end of the plaza is the American Legion Mall, the site of the administration buildings of the Legion, as well as a memorial cenotaph. South of, the Veterans Memorial Plaza with its obelisk; the centerpiece of the plaza is the Indiana World War Memorial, modeled after the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, which contains "the Altar of the Flag" in the Shrine Room. There is a military museum and an auditorium. At the south end is University Park, the oldest part of the plaza, filled with statues and a fountain. On October 11, 1994, the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza was designated a National Historic Landmark District. In 2016, the district was enlarged to include in its scope the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument and was renamed the Indiana World War Memorial Historic District.
The origins of the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza lay in a 1919 attempt by the city of Indianapolis to lure the newly formed American Legion from its temporary headquarters in New York City. The American Legion, chartered by Congress in 1919 after World War I, is an organization of veterans that sponsors youth programs, promotes patriotism and national security, provides commitment to Americans who have served in the armed forces. Three Indianapolis veterans wanted to attract the Legion to the city, which had the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. At an American Legion national convention in Minneapolis during November 1919, cities sent representatives to lobby to become the new headquarters. Indianapolis drew support because of its central location within the United States and the city's shows of patriotism. Although Washington, D. C. received the most votes on the first ballot, Indianapolis gained a majority and won the second with 361 votes out of 684 cast. The city and state had to provide a location, one of the promises the city made was to erect a fitting memorial to those who served in World War I.
Thus, in January 1920 a public library, St. Clair Park, University Park, two occupied city blocks were designated as the site for the plaza, with one new building for the American Legion to use as their national headquarters, various public buildings, a war memorial; the Indiana War Memorial Bill was passed in July 1920 and appropriated $2 million for construction and land. Work began in 1921; the city and state reached an agreement whereby the city would pay for the site and maintenance costs, while the State of Indiana would pay for the memorial's construction. The Plaza was dedicated by the Legion in November 1921 with the laying of a cornerstone from the bridge over the River Marne at Château-Thierry. Various architects were invited by an appointed War Memorial Board to submit designs for a memorial intended to honor all who fought in World War I and to provide meeting places and offices for the American Legion; the partnership of Walker and Weeks of Cleveland, Ohio was chosen in 1923. Their plan consisted of a main memorial and two auxiliary buildings, an obelisk, a mall, a cenotaph.
Bids for the American Legion building, one of the two auxiliary buildings, were put out in 1925 and construction by the Craig-Curtiss Company began the same year. In style the structure complimented the nearby local library; the second auxiliary building was not constructed until 1950. When Congress authorized the payment of World War I veterans' bonuses in 1936, the state of Indiana used the money for construction of the memorial plaza, rather than paying it to the veterans; the Neoclassical design incorporated the existing library, federal building, University Park. One additional building was never built; the War Memorial and the parks in the plaza are an example of the City Beautiful movement, which supported classical and beautiful public architecture. The plaza covers a five-block strip north of Monument Circle between St. Clair, New York, Meridian Streets. In 1989, the plaza was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it was named a National Historic Landmark District in 1994.
The Historic District includes the plaza as well as the Indianapolis Public Library north of the plaza, the Birch Bayh Federal Building & U. S. Courthouse south; the Scottish Rite Cathedral is across the street on the west side of the plaza, the Minton-Capehart Federal Building is across the street on the east side. The Indiana World War Memorial Plaza is a popular location for celebrations, including the Fourth of July festival, Veterans Day, Memorial Day services. Salesforce Tower, located three blocks directly south of the Memorial building, has a roof with a design similar to the Memorial's; the two auxiliary buildings on the plaza are used by the American Legion. Both buildings were constructed from Indiana limestone in neoclassical style, similar to the public library just to the north; the west building at Meridian and St. Clair, designated building B on the original plan, houses the Indiana Department of the American Legion, the American Legion Auxiliary, the National Forty and Eight.
The four-story building served as the national headquarters. The larger east building at Pennsylvania and St. Clair, building C, serves as the Legion's national headquarters; the headquarters deals with the mail and other internal administrative functions of the Legion. C. office. Its two wings each mirror building B and are joined by a recessed central