Texas State Highway 6
State Highway 6 runs from the Red River, the Texas–Oklahoma boundary, to northwest of Galveston, where it is known as the Old Galveston Highway. In Sugar Land and Missouri City, it is known as Alvin-Sugarland Road and runs perpendicular to I-69/US 59. In the Houston area, it runs north to FM 1960 northwest along US Highway 290 to Hempstead, south to Westheimer Road and Addicks, is known as Addicks Satsuma Road. In the Bryan–College Station area, it is known as the Earl Rudder Freeway. In Hearne, it is known as Market Street. In Calvert, it is known as Main Street. For most of its length, SH 6 is not a limited-access road. In 1997, the Texas Legislature designated SH 6 as the Texas Korean War Veterans Memorial Highway. State Highway 6 was one of the original 25 state highways proposed on June 21, 1917, overlying the King of Trails Highway. From 1919, the routing followed present-day U. S. Highway 75 from Oklahoma to Dallas U. S. Highway 77 to Waco. On August 21, 1923, SH 6 was extended along the eastern Gulf Division branch of State Highway 2 to keep SH 2 from having two separate highways with the same number.
In 1926, US 75 and US 77 were overlaid on northern SH 6 from Waco northward through the Dallas area to Denison, US 75 was overlaid on the section from Houston to Galveston. In 1935, US 290 was overlaid on the section from Hempstead to Houston. While the routes were marked concurrently, the concurrent SH 6 kept its numbering until September 26, 1939, when SH 6 was truncated to the Gulf Division routing ending at Waco, it was rerouted south from Hempstead to Galveston, replacing SH 242 and SH 38. On September 26, 1945, the roadway was extended northwest to Breckenridge over SH 67, continuing northwest to near Throckmorton along SH 157, decommissioned; that same day, the section in southeast Texas between Hempstead and Sugar Land was cancelled, as it was redundant with the new Farm to Market Road 359. On August 20, 1952, the route was truncated on the north side; this section was transferred to U. S. Highway 183. On September 26, 1967, SH 6 was rerouted to bypass Bremond, with the old route through Bremond transferred to SH 14 and FM 46.
On November 1, 1968, the section between Hempstead and Sugar Land was re-established, as it was routed along U. S. Highway 290 until it reached Farm to Market Road 1960 replacing FM 1960 southward to where the southern branch of SH 6 intersected to what is now Interstate 69/U. S. Highway 59 in Sugar Land; that portion of FM 1960 from 290 to Highway 90 at Addicks was built in the 1950s, replacing and rerouting some of what was known as Jackrabbit Road. In the early 1970s, the northern section underwent a massive rerouting due to realignments of numerous U. S. and state routes. On August 4, 1971, the section from Breckenridge south to Eastland was redesignated as State Highway 69. SH 6 was instead rerouted west along U. S. Highway 80 to Cisco replaced U. S. Highway 380 northwest to near Old Glory; the route was again extended on July 31, 1975, replacing State Highway 283 between Old Glory and Stamford northward to the Texas/Oklahoma border, completing the current routing of SH 6. The old route of SH 6 was transferred to new SH 283.
On October 27, 1989, a section from US 90A to McKeever Road was added. A spur, SH 6A was designated on August 1928 from SH 6 to Texas City. On March 19, 1930, this route was renumbered as State Highway 146. In June 2016, a section of the highway in Eastland County between Cisco and Albany was destroyed due to major flooding. SH 6 has three business routes. Business State Highway 6-N is a business loop; the road was bypassed on November 30, 1978 by SH 6 and designated Loop 23. The road was redesignated as Business SH 6-N on June 21, 1990; the number was used for Spur 23 on September 25, 1939 as a renumbering of SH 5 Spur, running from US 82 to Annona. On May 19, 1942, this was cancelled and transferred to FM 44. Business State Highway 6-R is a business loop that runs through College Station; the route runs on Texas Avenue in both cities. The route, created in 1972 when SH 6 was routed further north and east, is 12.5 miles long. The road was redesignated as Business SH 6-R on June 21, 1990, it serves as the eastern boundary of Texas A&M University.
Business State Highway 6-S is a business loop. The route was created in 1972 when SH 6 was rerouted further east around town; the road was redesignated as Business SH 6-S on June 21, 1990. SH 6 begins at an intersection with Interstate 45 and SH 3 in Bayou Vista, proceeds to the northwest, paralleling the ATSF railroad tracks; the highway makes a straight line through Galveston and Fort Bend Counties, passing through the city of Alvin. As the highway traverses through Sugar Land, it makes a turn to the north after passing intersections with Interstate 69/US Route 59 and Alternate US Route 90; the highway continues north into western Harris County, reaching the Westpark Tollway and Interstate 10. It intersects US Route 290 in CyFair, joining it as they travel to the northwest, thus finishing a large routing around the southern and western portions of Houston; the route continues northwest with US 290 as a limited-access highway. At Hockley, the highway veers to the right, forking from an old alignment of the highway, bypassing the cities of Waller and Hempstead to the north.
At Hempstead, it splits from US 290 and turns northward into Grimes County, where it bypasses the city of Navasota, while Business SH 6 passes through town. The highway turns northwest again, crossing into Brazos County; the highway starts
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Texas's 17th congressional district
Texas District 17 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves a strip of central Texas stretching from Waco to Bryan-College Station, including former President George W. Bush's McLennan County ranch; the district is represented by Republican Bill Flores. From 2002 to 2013, it was an oblong district stretching from south of Tarrant County to Grimes County in the southeast; the 2012 redistricting made its area more square, removing the northern and southeastern portions, adding areas southwest into the northern Austin suburbs and east into Freestone and Leon counties. The district includes two major universities, Texas A&M University in College Station and Baylor University in Waco. Before 2002, TX-17 was a West Texas district in the Abilene area. After the 2003 Texas redistricting, engineered by former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, TX-17 was the most Republican district in the nation represented by a Democrat, according to the Cook Partisan Voting Index, which rated it R+20.
The district was drawn to make it Republican-dominated and unseat its longtime then-incumbent, conservative Democrat Chet Edwards. While several of his colleagues went down to defeat, Edwards held on to the seat in the 2004, 2006 and 2008 elections. However, in the 2010 Congressional elections, the district elected Republican Bill Flores over Edwards by a margin of 61.8% to 36.6%. Flores is the only Republican elected to represent the district since its creation in 1919. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Marlin is a city in Falls County, United States. The population was 6,628 at the 2000 census but decreased by 10% to 5,967 in 2010. Since 1851, it has been the third county seat of Falls County. Marlin has been given the nickname "the Hot Mineral Water City of Texas". Mineral waters were found there in 1892; the city of Marlin is located 4 miles east of the Brazos River, which runs through the center of the county. The low falls on the river southwest of present-day Marlin was the site of Sarahville de Viesca, established in 1834 by Sterling C. Robertson. Marlin was incorporated in 1867, it is named after John Marlin. His son-in-law, Samuel A. Blain, drafted a map around a square. Three churches – Presbyterian and Baptist — were given lots first and relocated to the east side of the square. Zenas Bartlett's General Store was the first business to be established in Marlin; when Bartlett's wife died, the store was used as a town hall. A simple brick building temporarily stood as a school; the first of four county courthouses was a log cabin.
It was used for county business and court, a school, a church, a meeting place for political and community events, as a dance hall. The fourth and present courthouse was constructed in 1938 and 1939, after the third courthouse, built in 1887, was declared unsafe. Before Falls County was organized, the settlement of Marlin had established private schools. A tuition school, Marlin Male and Female Academy, was located on Ward Street in 1871, north of the public square; the school was renamed and relocated before being sold in 1886, only to be destroyed by fire in 1900. A new public brick school was constructed in 1903; the Marlin Independent School District was established in 1923. Nearly half a century before in 1875, two other schools for African Americans were organized; the two black schools were dependent on state funds, met in the African and Baptist churches. In 1916, the city council voted to build a school for blacks, which after it was first built, it was moved to Commerce Street, named "Booker T. Washington".
The two school districts merged in 1968 into the Marlin Independent School District. In 1900, the town's Jewish residents organized a Sunday school. Despite not going over 8,000 Marlin did get many tourists from around the country for its famous mineral water, believed to heal any sickness or pain by bathing in it. Though the waters had a smell to them, they still seemed to be "magic" when people bathed in the stuff, felt better. Bath houses were opened around the town of Marlin so people could come and takes baths in the mineral water, after it was discovered in 1892 during the search for an artesian well; the mineral water had put the town on the map as hundreds of thousands of tourists flocked to the area. With the end of World War II and the advent of penicillin, there began a national and local decline in the hot mineral bath industry; the Bank of Marlin was operated until the early 1960s. The Chicago White Sox baseball team held spring training in Marlin in 1904; the Cincinnati Reds baseball team held spring training in Marlin in 1907.
The New York Giants baseball team held spring training in Marlin from 1908 to 1918. In 1929, Conrad Hilton built the eighth Hilton Hotel in his chain in Marlin, the nine-floor, 110-room Falls Hotel, which could be seen for miles. Across the street was the Marlin Sanitarium Bathhouse. An underground tunnel connected the two buildings. A fire destroyed the underground tunnel, the Sanitarium Bath House, Buie Clinic. Except for three businesses located on the ground floor, the Falls Hotel was subsequently closed; the hotel building remains the tallest building in Falls County. The location of the bath house is adjacent to the city post office, a gazebo and park occupy the site of the bathhouse and clinic buildings; the Arlington Hotel was first built as a three-floor hotel in 1895, burned in 1899. An more grand structure made of brick and stone followed, was the headquarters of the New York Giants baseball team from about 1900–1920; when in about 1930 the Moody family of Galveston bought the Marlin Hilton Hotel from Conrad Hilton's first venture into his failed hotel business, the Moodys bought and tore down the Arlington Hotel to eliminate any competition.
The first floor of the Falls Hotel is the only part of the hotel. Original rooms of the hotel are now a Mexican restaurant, a beauty salon, an eye doctor. City events are held in the ballroom of the Falls Hotel. Along with the decline of the hot mineral industry all other "bathhouse-related" businesses were, over the years and their structures demolished. Mineral water now can only be obtained from a fountain outside the Marlin Chamber of Commerce. Phones began appearing in households in Marlin in the year 1900. Automobiles and Lone Star Gas followed shortly. By the mid-1900s, Marlin had a bottling company, stock pens, a brickyard, a turkey-processing plant, a saddlery, a water crystallization plant, a pottery plant. At the census in 2000, Marlin had a population of 6,628, an increase of 242 people from 1990, when Marlin had a population of 6,386; the population of Marlin had declined to 5967 residents as of 2010. Wallace, a business-form printing company, the employer of hundreds in Marlin, closed in the mid-2000s.
Marlin Mills, a carpet manufacturing company, closed with the 1980s economic decline. A styrofoam company, open in another building in Mar
Conrad Nicholson Hilton was an American hotelier and the founder of the Hilton Hotels chain. Conrad Hilton was born in New Mexico, his father, Augustus Halvorsen Hilton, was an immigrant from Norway, his Catholic mother, Mary Genevieve, was an American of German descent from Iowa. Hilton had seven siblings: Felice A. Hilton, Eva C. Hilton, Carl H. Hilton, Julian Hilton, Rosemary J. Hilton, August H. Hilton and Helen A. Hilton; the Hilton name comes from the farm Hilton in Kløfta, where Conrad's father was born. Hilton attended the Goss Military Academy and St. Michael's College, the New Mexico School of Mines, he was a member of the international fraternity Tau Kappa Epsilon – Alpha Omicron Chapter. In his early twenties, Hilton was a Republican representative in the first New Mexico Legislature, when the state was newly formed, he served two years in the U. S. Army during World War I, his father was killed in a car accident. The most enduring influence to shape Hilton's philanthropic philosophy beyond that of his parents was the Roman Catholic Church and his sisters.
He credited his mother with guiding him to prayer and the church whenever he was troubled or dismayed—from the boyhood loss of a beloved pony to severe financial losses during the Great Depression. His mother continually told him that prayer was the best investment he would make; as a young boy, Hilton developed entrepreneurial skills working at his father's general store in Socorro County, New Mexico, converted into a 10-room hotel. This was followed by varied experiences, including a stint as a representative in New Mexico's first State Legislature and a career decision to become a banker, it was with the intention of buying a bank. He bought his first hotel instead, the 40-room Mobley Hotel in Cisco, Texas, in 1919, when a bank purchase fell through; the hotel did such brisk business that rooms changed hands as as three times a day, the dining room was converted into additional rooms to meet the demand. He went on to buy and build hotels throughout Texas, including the highrise Dallas Hilton, opened in 1925.
He built his first hotel outside of Texas in 1939 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, today known as the Hotel Andaluz. During the Great Depression, Hilton was nearly forced into bankruptcy and lost several of his hotels, he was retained as manager of a combined chain, regained control of his remaining eight hotels. Over the next decade, he expanded west to California and east to Chicago and New York, crowning his expansions with such acquisitions as the Stevens Hotel in Chicago, the fabled Waldorf-Astoria in New York, he formed the Hilton Hotels Corporation in 1946, Hilton International Company in 1948. During the 1950s and 1960s, Hilton Hotels' worldwide expansion facilitated both American tourism and overseas business by American corporations, it was the world's first international hotel chain, at the same time establishing a certain worldwide standard for hotel accommodations. In all, Hilton owned 188 hotels in 38 cities in the U. S. including the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, DC, the Palmer House in Chicago, the Plaza Hotel and Waldorf-Astoria in New York City, along with fifty-four hotels abroad.
He purchased the Carte Blanche Credit Company and an interest in the American Crystal Sugar Company, as well as other enterprises. Hilton received honorary degrees from the University of Detroit, DePaul University, Barat College, Adelphi College, Sophia University and the University of Albuquerque. Hilton's autobiography, Be My Guest, was published in 1958 by Prentice Hall. In 1966, Hilton was elected chairman of the board. In 1925, Hilton married Mary Adelaide Barron, they had three children: Conrad Nicholson "Nicky" Hilton Jr. William Barron Hilton, Eric Michael Hilton, before divorcing in 1934. In 1941, Hilton married actress Zsa Zsa Gabor, they had one child: Constance Francesca Hilton, before divorcing in 1947. Gabor wrote in her 1991 autobiography One Lifetime is Not Enough that she only became pregnant by Hilton after he raped her during their marriage, their daughter Constance died on January 5, 2015, from a stroke. In 1976, Hilton married Mary Frances Kelly, their marriage lasted until his death in 1979.
Mary Hilton died in 2006, at the age of 90. On January 3, 1979, Hilton died of natural causes at the age of 91, he is interred at a Catholic cemetery in Dallas, Texas. He left $500,000 to his two surviving siblings, $100,000 to his daughter Francesca, $10,000 to each of his nieces and nephews; the bulk of his estate was left to the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, which he established in 1944, his son, Barron Hilton, who spent much of his career helping build the Hilton Hotels Corporation, contested the will, despite being left the company as acting President, Chief Executive Officer, Chairman of the Board of Directors. A settlement was reached and, as a result, Barron Hilton received 4 million shares of the hotel enterprise, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation received 3.5 million shares, the remaining 6 million shares were placed in the W. Barron Hilton Charitable Remainder Unitrust. Upon Barron Hilton's death, Unitrust assets will be transferred to
U.S. Route 77 in Texas
U. S. Route 77 is a major highway, part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from the Veterans International Bridge in Brownsville to Sioux City, Iowa. In Texas, the road runs south-north for 471.3 miles from the International border with Mexico to the Oklahoma state line north of Gainesville. The highway is being upgraded to a freeway near Corpus Christi to connect to the freeway part of the highway in Raymondville as part of future I-69. A freeway in Robstown is signed as part of I-69. From Waco to the Oklahoma state line, US 77 overlaps or runs parallel to I-35/I-35E. US 77 crosses the Rio Grande with US 83 on the Veterans International Bridge; the two highways run together concurrent with I-69E until Harlingen. US 83 runs west along I-2 to McAllen; the highway is the only one to pass through Kenedy County. In Raymondville, I-69E temporarily ends. In Robstown, US 77 again picks up the I-69E designation until the interchange with I-37 in north Corpus Christi. US 77 shares a short overlap with I-37 before leaving the highway.
US 77 runs through many small to mid-size communities before arriving in Waco. Here, US 77 begins its overlap with I-35 that lasts until Hillsboro, where the highway parallels I-35E until Red Oak. →U. S. Route 77 Business US 77 has an unsigned overlap with I-35E until US 77 leaves the interstate in Corinth to serve Denton; the highway returns to I-35 in north Denton until the two highways cross into Oklahoma together north of Gainesville
The Wichita people or Kitikiti'sh are a confederation of Southern Plains Native American tribes. They spoke the Wichita language and Kichai language, both Caddoan languages, they are indigenous to Oklahoma and Kansas. Today, Wichita tribes, which include the Kichai people, Waco, Taovaya and the Wichita proper, are federally recognized as the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes; the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes are headquartered in Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area is in Oklahoma; the Wichitas are a self-governance tribe, who operate their own housing authority and issue tribal vehicle tags. The current tribal administration is. President: Terri Parton Vice-President: Jesse E. Jones Secretary: Myles Stephenson Jr. Treasurer: Vanessa Vance The tribe owns the Sugar Creek Casino, several restaurants, the Sugar Creek Event Center, Hinton Travel Inn in Hinton, it owns a smoke shop, travel plaza, historical center in Anadarko. Their annual economic impact in 2010 was $4.5 million. The Wichita language is one of the Caddoan languages.
They are related by language and culture with whom they enjoy close relations. The Wichita lived in fixed villages notable for their large, domed-shaped, grass-covered dwellings, sometimes up to 30 feet in diameter; the Wichita were skilled traders and negotiators. Their historical homelands stretched from San Antonio, Texas in the south to as far north as Great Bend, Kansas. A semi-sedentary people, they occupied northern Texas in the early 18th century, they traded with other Southern Plains Indians on both sides of the Red River and as far south as Waco. For much of the year, the Wichita lived in huts made of forked cedar poles covered by dry grasses. In the winter, they lived in hunting camps. Wichita hunters used all parts of the bison—for clothing and cooking fat, winter shelter, leather supplies and medicine; each spring, Wichita families to their villages for another season of cultivating crops. Wichita people wore clothing from tanned hides, which the women sewed, they decorated their dresses with elk canine teeth.
Both men and women tattooed their bodies with solid and dotted lines and circles. The Wichita tribes call themselves Kitikiti'sh / Kirikirish, because of the historical practice of tattooing marks around their eyes; the kindred Pawnee called them Kírikuuruks / Kírikuruks and the Arikara referred to them as Čirikuúnux. The Kiowa knew them as Thoe-Khoot. Wichita people have been a loose confederation of related peoples on the Southern Plains, including such bands or sub-tribes as Taovayas, Tawakonis and Guichitas or Wichita Proper; the Taovaya were the most important in the 18th century. The French called the Wichita peoples Panis Piqués or Panis Noirs. One Pawnee splinter grouping known as Panismahas moved from what is now Nebraska to the Texas-Arkansas border regions where they lived with the Taovayas. In 2018, the Wichita Tribes opened the Wichita Tribal History Center in Anadarko, which shares Wichita history, visual arts, culture with the public; the Wichita Annual Dance, a powwow, is held at the Wichita Tribal Park on US-281, north of Anadarko, every August.
After the man and woman were made they dreamed that things were made for them, when they woke they had the things of which they had dreamed... The woman was given an ear of corn... It was to be the food of the people that should exist in the future, to be used generation after generation. —Tawakoni Jim in The Mythology of the Wichita, 1904 The Ancestral Wichita people lived in the eastern Great Plains from the Red River in Arkansas north to Nebraska for at least 2,000 years. Early Wichita people were hunters and gatherers who adopted agriculture. Farming villages were developed about 900 CE on terraces above the Washita and South Canadian Rivers in present-day Oklahoma; the women of these 10th-century communities cultivated varieties of maize and squash, marsh elder, tobacco, important for religious purposes. The men hunted deer, rabbits and bison, caught fish and harvested mussels from the rivers; these villagers lived in thatched-roof houses. Archaeologists describe the Washita River Phase from 1250 to 1450, when local populations grew and villages of up to 20 houses were spaced every two or so miles along the rivers.
These farmers may have had contact with the Panhandle culture villages in the Oklahoma and Texas Panhandles, farming villages along the Canadian River. The Panhandle villagers showed signs of adopting cultural characteristics of the Pueblo peoples of the Rio Grande Valley, with whom they interacted. In the late 15th century, most of these Washita River villages were abandoned for reasons that not known today. Numerous archaeological sites in central Kansas near the Great Bend of the Arkansas River share common traits and are collectively known as the "