The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic
Easton is a city in and the county seat of Northampton County, United States. The city's population was 26,800 as of the 2010 census. Easton is located at the confluence of the Delaware River and the Lehigh River 55 miles north of Philadelphia and 70 miles west of New York City. Easton is the easternmost city in the Lehigh Valley, a region of 731 square miles, home to more than 800,000 people. Together with Allentown and Bethlehem, the Valley embraces the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton metropolitan area, including Lehigh and Carbon counties within Pennsylvania, Warren County in the adjacent state of New Jersey. Easton is the smallest of the three Lehigh Valley cities, with one-fourth of the population of the largest Lehigh Valley city, Allentown. In turn, this metropolitan area comprises Pennsylvania's third-largest metropolitan area and the state's largest and most populous contribution to the greater New York City metropolitan area; the city is split up into four sections: Historic Downtown, which lies directly to the north of the Lehigh River, to the west of the Delaware River, continuing west to Sixth Street.
The boroughs of Wilson, West Easton, Glendon are directly adjacent to the city. The greater Easton area consists of the city, three townships, three boroughs. Centre Square, the town square of the city's Downtown neighborhood, is home to the Soldiers' & Sailors' Monument, a memorial for Easton area veterans killed during the American Civil War; the Peace Candle, a candle-like structure, is assembled and disassembled every year atop the Civil War monument for the Christmas season. The Norfolk Southern Railway's Lehigh Line, runs through Easton on its way to Bethlehem and Allentown heading west and to Phillipsburg, New Jersey just across the Delaware River; the Lenape Native Americans referred to the area as "Lechauwitank", or "The Place at the Forks". The site of the future city was part of the land obtained from the Delawares by the Walking Purchase. Thomas Penn set aside a 1,000 acres tract of land at the confluence of the Lehigh and Delaware rivers for a town. Easton was settled by Europeans in 1739 and founded in 1752, was so named at the request of Penn.
As Northampton County was being formed at this time, Easton was selected as its county seat. During the French and Indian War, the Treaty of Easton was signed here by the British colonial government of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Native American tribes in the Ohio Country, including the Shawnee and Lenape. Easton was an important military center during the American Revolutionary War. During the Revolutionary War, Easton had a military hospital. On 18 June 1779, General John Sullivan led 2,500 Continentals from Easton to engage British Indian allies on the frontier. Easton was one of the first three places, it is claimed that the Easton flag was flown during that reading, making it one of the first "Stars and Stripes" to fly over the colonies. This flag was used by a militia company during the War of 1812, serves as Easton's municipal flag. Sited at the confluence of the flowing Lehigh River's waters with the more stately waters of the deeper wider Delaware, Easton became a major commercial center during the canal and railroad periods of the 19th century, when it would become a transportation hub for the eastern steel industry.
The Delaware Canal, was built soon after the lower Lehigh Canal became effective in and reliably delivering much needed anthracite coal, into more settled lands along the rivers. And the Morris would serve to connect the developing Coal Regions to the north and west, to the fuel starved iron works to the west, the commercial port of Philadelphia to the south, to the many home owners seeking fuel for heat within Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York. Seeing other ways of exploiting the new fuel source, other entrepreneurs moved to connect across the Delaware River reaching into the New York City area to the east via a connection with the Morris Canal in Phillipsburg, New Jersey, so the town became a canal nexus or hub from which the Coal from Mauch Chunk reached the world; the early railroads were built to parallel and speed shipping along transportation corridors, by the late 1860s the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad and Lehigh Valley Railroad were built to augment the bulk traffic through the canals and provide lucrative passenger travel services.
The LVRR, known as'the Black Diamond Line' would boast the twice daily "Black Diamond Express" daily passenger trains to and from New York City and Buffalo, New York via Easton. The Central Railroad of New Jersey, would lease and operate the LH&S tracks from the 1870s until the Conrail consolidations absorbed both the Central Railroad of New Jersey and Lehigh Valley Railroad in 1966. Today, the Lehigh Valley Railroad's main line is the only major rail line that goes through Easton and is now known as the Lehigh Line.
The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority is a regional public transportation authority that operates bus, rapid transit, commuter rail, light rail, electric trolleybus services for nearly 4 million people in five counties in and around Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It manages projects that maintain and expand its infrastructure and vehicles. SEPTA is the major transit provider for Philadelphia and the counties of Delaware, Montgomery and Chester, it is a state-created authority, with the majority of its board appointed by the five Pennsylvania counties it serves. While several SEPTA commuter rail lines terminate in the nearby states of Delaware and New Jersey, additional service to Philadelphia from those states is provided by other agencies: the PATCO Speedline from Camden County, New Jersey is run by the Delaware River Port Authority, a bi-state agency. SEPTA has the 6th-largest U. S. rapid transit system by ridership, the 5th largest overall transit system, with about 306.9 million annual unlinked trips.
It controls 290 active stations, over 450 miles of track, 2,295 revenue vehicles, 196 routes. It oversees shared-ride services in Philadelphia and ADA services across the region, which are operated by third-party contractors. SEPTA is one of only two U. S. transit authorities that operates all of the five major types of terrestrial transit vehicles: regional rail trains, "heavy" rapid transit trains, light rail vehicles and motorbuses. SEPTA's headquarters are at 1234 Market Street in Philadelphia. SEPTA was created by the Pennsylvania legislature on August 17, 1963, to coordinate government subsidies to various transit and railroad companies in southeastern Pennsylvania, it commenced on February 18, 1964. On November 1, 1965, SEPTA absorbed two predecessor agencies: The Passenger Service Improvement Corporation, created January 20, 1960 to work with the Reading Company and Pennsylvania Railroad to improve commuter rail service and help the railroads maintain otherwise unprofitable passenger rail service.
The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Compact, created September 8, 1961 by the City of Philadelphia and the Counties of Montgomery and Chester to coordinate regional transport issues. By 1966, the Reading Company and Pennsylvania Railroad commuter railroad lines were operated under contract to SEPTA. On February 1, 1968, the Pennsylvania Railroad merged with the New York Central railroad to become Penn Central, only to file for bankruptcy on June 21, 1970. Penn Central continued to operate in bankruptcy until 1976, when Conrail took over its assets along with those of several other bankrupt railroads, including the Reading Company. Conrail operated commuter services under contract to SEPTA until January 1, 1983, when SEPTA took over operations and acquired track, rolling stock, other assets to form the Railroad Division. Like New York's Second Avenue Subway, the original proposal for the Roosevelt Boulevard Subway dates to 1913, but construction has remained elusive. Instead, after completing the Frankford Elevated, transit service in and around the city stagnated until the early 2000s.
On September 30, 1968, SEPTA acquired the Philadelphia Transportation Company, which operated a citywide system of bus and trackless trolley routes, the Market–Frankford Line, the Broad Street Line and the Delaware River Bridge Line which became SEPTA's City Transit Division. The PTC had been created in 1940 with the merger of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company and a group of smaller independent transit companies operating within the city and its environs. On January 30, 1970, SEPTA acquired the Philadelphia Suburban Transportation Company known as the Red Arrow Lines, which included the Philadelphia and Western Railroad route now called the Norristown High Speed Line, the Media and Sharon Hill Lines and several suburban bus routes in Delaware County. Today, this is the Victory Division. On March 1, 1976, SEPTA acquired the transit operations of Schuylkill Valley Lines, today the Frontier Division. Meanwhile, SEPTA began to take over the Pennsylvania Railroad and Reading Company commuter trains.
SEPTA sought to consolidate the formerly-competing services, leading to severe cutbacks in the mid-1980s. Subsequent proposals have been made to restore service to Allentown, West Chester and Newtown, with support from commuters, local officials and pro-train advocates. SEPTA's planning department focused on the Schuylkill Valley Metro, a "cross-county metro" that would re-establish service to Phoenixville and Reading without requiring the rider to go into Philadelphia. However, ridership projections were dubious, the FRA refused to fund the project. Many derelict lines under SEPTA ownership have been converted to rail trails, postponing any restoration proposals for the foreseeable future. Proposals have been made for increased service on existing lines, including evenings and Sundays to Wilmington and Newark in Delaware. Maryland's MARC commuter rail system is considering extending its service as far as Newark, which would allow passengers to connect directly between SEPTA and MARC. Other recent proposals have focused on extending and enhancing SEPTA's other tra
A nor'easter is a macro-scale extratropical cyclone in the western North Atlantic ocean. The name derives from the direction of the strongest winds that will be hitting an eastern seaboard of the northern hemisphere: as a cyclonic air mass rotates counterclockwise, winds tend to blow northeast-to-southwest over the region covered by the northwest quadrant of the cyclone. Use of the term in North America is associated with storms that impact the north Atlantic areas of the United States, in the Atlantic Provinces of Canada; such storms originate as a low-pressure area that forms within 100 miles of the shore between North Carolina and Massachusetts. The precipitation pattern is similar to that of other extratropical storms. Nor'easters are accompanied by heavy rain or snow, can cause severe coastal flooding, coastal erosion, hurricane-force winds, or blizzard conditions. Nor'easters are most intense during winter in New England and Atlantic Canada, they thrive on converging air masses—the cold polar air mass and the warmer air over the water—and are more severe in winter when the difference in temperature between these air masses is greater.
Nor'easters tend to develop most and most powerfully between the months of November and March, although they can develop during other parts of the year as well. The susceptible regions are impacted by nor'easters a few times each winter; the term nor'easter came to American English by way of British English. The earliest recorded uses of the contraction nor in combinations such as nor'-east and nor-nor-west, as reported by the Oxford English Dictionary, date to the late 16th century, as in John Davis's 1594 The Seaman's Secrets: "Noreast by North raiseth a degree in sayling 24 leagues." The spelling appears, for instance, on a compass card published in 1607. Thus, the manner of pronouncing from memory the 32 points of the compass, known in maritime training as "boxing the compass", is described by Ansted with pronunciations "Nor'east," "Nor' Nor'-east," "Nor'east b' east," and so forth. According to the OED, the first recorded use of the term "nor'easter" occurs in 1836 in a translation of Aristophanes.
The term "nor'easter" developed from the historical spellings and pronunciations of the compass points and the direction of wind or sailing. As noted in a January 2006 editorial by William Sisson, editor of Soundings magazine, use of "nor'easter" to describe the storm system is common along the U. S. East Coast, yet it has been asserted by linguist Mark Liberman that "nor'easter" as a contraction for "northeaster" has no basis in regional New England dialect. He describes nor'easter as a "fake" word. However, this view neglects the little-known etymology and the historical maritime usage described above. 19th-century Downeast mariners pronounced the compass point "north northeast" as "no'nuth-east", so on. For decades, Edgar Comee, of Brunswick, waged a determined battle against use of the term "nor'easter" by the press, which usage he considered "a pretentious and altogether lamentable affectation" and "the odious loathsome, practice of landlubbers who would be seen as salty as the sea itself".
His efforts, which included mailing hundreds of postcards, were profiled, just before his death at the age of 88, in The New Yorker. Despite the efforts of Comee and others, use of the term continues by the press. According to Boston Globe writer Jan Freeman, "from 1975 to 1980, journalists used the nor’easter spelling only once in five mentions of such storms. University of Pennsylvania linguistics professor Mark Liberman has pointed out that while the Oxford English Dictionary cites examples dating back to 1837, these examples represent the contributions of a handful of non-New England poets and writers. Liberman posits that "nor'easter" may have been a literary affectation, akin to "e'en" for "even" and "th'only" for "the only", an indication in spelling that two syllables count for only one position in metered verse, with no implications for actual pronunciation. However, despite these assertions, the term can be found in the writings of New Englanders, was used by the press in the 19th century.
The Hartford Times reported on a storm striking New York in December 1839, observed, "We Yankees had a share of this same "noreaster," but it was quite moderate in comparison to the one of the 15h inst." Thomas Bailey Aldrich, in his semi-autobiographical work The Story of a Bad Boy, wrote "We had had several slight flurries of hail and snow before, but this was a regular nor'easter". In her story "In the Gray Goth" Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward wrote "...and there was snow in the sky now, setting in for a regular nor'easter". John H. Tice, in A new system of meteorology, designed for schools and private students, wrote "During this battle, the dreaded and destructive Northeaster rages over the New England, the Middle States, southward. No nor'easter occurs except when there is a high barometer headed off and driven down upon Nova Scotia and Lower Canada."Usage existed into the 20th century in the form of: Current event description, as the Publication Committee of the New York Charity Organization Society wrote in Charities and the commons: a weekly journal of philanthropy and social advance, Volume 19: "In spite of a heavy "nor'easter," the worst that has visited the New England coast in years, the hall was crowded."
Historical reference, as used by Mary Rogers Bangs in Old Cape Cod: "In December of 1778, the Federal brig General Arnold, Magee
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Middletown Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania
Middletown Township is a township in Bucks County, United States. The population was 45,436 at the 2010 census. Many sections of Levittown, are located in the southern end of the township; the municipality surrounds the boroughs of Langhorne, Langhorne Manor and Hulmeville. Located within the township is Core Creek Park; the township has many acres of protected woods, the largest being the woods behind Neshaminy High School. The Neshaminy Creek flows through these woods. There are a few protected farms that of Styer's Orchards, saved from turning into the site of 632 homes in the late 1990s. Sesame Place is located in Middletown Township. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 19.4 square miles, of which, 19.1 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. Place names in Middletown Township include Bucktoe, Chicken Foot, Glenlake, Maple Point, Oxford Valley, Pickpocket and Woodbourne. Natural features include Core Creek, Lake Luxembourg in Core Creek Park, Edge Hill, Langhorne Water Works Run, Neshaminy Creek, Newtown Creek.
Middletown Township began as a farming community, with close proximity to trading towns such as Langhorne and Newtown. There are not many significant historical places located in the township apart from homes and farms constructed in the late 18th century. Middletown Township was sparsely populated before 1950: there were only a little more than 2,000 people in 1930, compared to about 46,000 in 2010. William Levitt began his second Levittown, which included land of four municipalities, including that of Middletown. Twelve developments were constructed in the township, with the majority of them containing hundreds of homes; this marked the first planned residential development in the township. Meanwhile, Langhorne Terrace was being constructed out of the Neshaminy Woods. During this decade, the township grow by more than 20,000 new residents; as the decades worn on, hundreds and hundreds of acres of pristine woods, rolling countryside, productive farms continued to be swallowed into homes and businesses.
In the 1970s, the Oxford Valley Mall was constructed, at the time was named the country's largest mall for a short time. Growth continues to this day; the township preserved hundreds of acres now known as Core Creek Park, which includes the sprawling Lake Luxembourg. Many woodlands and a few farms have been saved; the township has transformed from a bucolic, rural area to a desirable and well-planned community, with low crime and an award-winning school district. This is why the township is still seeing a growing population, attracting many out-of-state residents and international migrants. Middletown benefits from its convenient location. Located in the near center of the county, Middletown is close to any other municipality nearby, including the cities of Philadelphia and Princeton. Both I-295 and U. S. 1 pass through the township, offering its residents an easy commute, with the exception of rush hour traffic, which too has been reduced and continues to be in ongoing road projects. Edgemont and Harewood and Beechwood are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
In a 2014 estimate, the township was 84.1% Non-Hispanic White, 5.5% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 5.0% Asian, 0.2% Some other race, 1.4% were two or more races. 4.9% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the 2010 census, the township was 88.3% Non-Hispanic White, 3.2% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.0% Asian, 1.6% were two or more races. 3.1% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 44,141 people, 15,321 households, 11,659 families residing in the township; the population density was 2,309.5 people per square mile. There were 15,713 housing units at an average density of 822.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 93.86% White, 2.10% African American, 0.15% Native American, 2.40% Asian, 0.55% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.71% of the population. The Asian population is a fast-growing segment of the township. There were 15,321 households, out of which 38.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.3% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.9% were non-families.
19.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.25. In the township the population was spread out, with 26.2% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.4 males. The median income for a household in the township was $63,964, the median income for a family was $71,271. Males had a median income of $47,244 versus $32,154 for females; the per capita income for the township was $25,213. About 2.1% of families and 3.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.8% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over. Like much of the Delaware Valley, Middletown's immigrant population is skyrocketing. With many new, upscale housing developments, many of the households were bought by foreign-born residents.
Wind-chill or windchill is the lowering of body temperature due to the passing-flow of lower-temperature air. Wind chill numbers are always lower than the air temperature for values; when the apparent temperature is higher than the air temperature, the heat index is used instead. A surface loses heat through conduction, evaporation and radiation; the rate of convection depends on both the difference in temperature between the surface and the fluid surrounding it and the velocity of that fluid with respect to the surface. As convection from a warm surface heats the air around it, an insulating boundary layer of warm air forms against the surface. Moving air disrupts this boundary layer, or epiclimate, allowing for cooler air to replace the warm air against the surface; the faster the wind speed, the more the surface cools. Many formulas exist for wind chill because, unlike temperature, wind chill has no universally agreed upon standard definition or measurement. All the formulas attempt to qualitatively predict the effect of wind on the temperature humans perceive.
Weather services in different countries use standards unique to their region. S. and Canadian weather services use. That model has evolved over time; the first wind chill formulas and tables were developed by Paul Allman Siple and Charles F. Passel working in the Antarctic before the Second World War, were made available by the National Weather Service by the 1970s, they were based on the cooling rate of a small plastic bottle as its contents turned to ice while suspended in the wind on the expedition hut roof, at the same level as the anemometer. The so-called Windchill Index provided a pretty good indication of the severity of the weather. In the 1960s, wind chill began to be reported as a wind chill equivalent temperature, theoretically less useful; the author of this change is unknown, but it was not Siple or Passel as is believed. At first, it was defined as the temperature at which the windchill index would be the same in the complete absence of wind; this led to equivalent temperatures. Charles Eagan realized that people are still and that when it was calm, there was some air movement.
He redefined the absence of wind to be an air speed of 1.8 metres per second, about as low a wind speed as a cup anemometer could measure. This led to more realistic values of equivalent temperature. Equivalent temperature was not universally used in North America until the 21st century; until the 1970s, the coldest parts of Canada reported the original Wind Chill Index, a three or four digit number with units of kilocalories/hour per square metre. Each individual calibrated the scale of numbers through experience; the chart provided general guidance to comfort and hazard through threshold values of the index, such as 1400, the threshold for frostbite. The original formula for the index was: W C I = ⋅ where: WCI = wind chill index, kcal/m2/h v = wind velocity, m/s Ta = air temperature, °C In November 2001, the United States, the United Kingdom implemented a new wind chill index developed by scientists and medical experts on the Joint Action Group for Temperature Indices, it is determined by iterating a model of skin temperature under various wind speeds and temperatures using standard engineering correlations of wind speed and heat transfer rate.
Heat transfer was calculated for a bare face in wind, facing the wind, while walking into it at 1.4 metres per second. The model corrects the measured wind speed to the wind speed at face height, assuming the person is in an open field; the results of this model may be approximated, to within one degree, from the following formula: The standard wind chill formula for Environment Canada is: T w c = 13.12 + 0.6215 T a − 11.37 v + 0.16 + 0.3965 T a v + 0.16 where Twc is the wind chill index, based on the Celsius temperature scale. When the temperature is −20 °C and the wind speed is 5 km/h, the wind chill index is −24. If the temperature remains at −20 °C and the wind speed increases to 30 km/h, the wind chill index falls to −33; the equivalent formula in US customary units is: T w c = 35.74 + 0.6215 T a − 35.75 v + 0.16 + 0.4275 T a v + 0.16 where Twc is the wind chill index, based on the Fahrenheit scale. Windchill temperature is defined only for temperatures at or below 1